What is lighting fixture

Electrical engineering

Ballasts are the very heart of the lamp

Why does the lamp need ballasts?
As you know, all light sources used are divided into two groups: thermal and gas-discharge.

Heat lamps are the well-known incandescent lamps. The principle of their operation is based on heating a metal spiral when an electric current passes through it. They connect directly to the network and do not require the use of special devices to run. Incandescent lamps are simply screwed into a socket through which a current of 220 V flows.

Gas-discharge light sources, on the contrary, cannot be connected directly to the network, but require the use of special devices for their operation. This is due to the physics of gas discharge. Thus, in gas-discharge light sources, as the current increases, the voltage across it does not increase, but decreases, unlike other receivers of electrical energy, where as the voltage supplied to them increases, the current flowing through them also increases.

This means that if the discharge current is not limited in gas-discharge lamps, it will grow exponentially until one of the three links in the electrical circuit fails: the energy source, the receiver, or the wires connecting the energy source and receiver.

From all of the above it follows that turning on gas-discharge light sources is possible only in conjunction with such devices that, on the one hand, provide a voltage supply sufficient to cause a discharge (i.e., to ignite the lamp), and, on the other hand, limit the current to level required for normal lamp operation. Such devices are called ballasts (ballasts).

What to choose: electromagnetic or electronic ballasts?

Electromagnetic ballasts (EMG) consist of at least an inductive ballast and a pulsed ignition device (IZD). If the kit includes a compensating capacitor, the efficiency of the EMCG increases.

When purchasing a ready-made lamp with a built-in electrical component, no special skills are required to connect it. But when combining a lamp and an electrical component, special electrical knowledge is required.

DRL, DNAT lamps

The amount of luminous flux and power consumption in luminaires with electromagnetic ballasts depend on the supply voltage. During operation of the EMGR, background noise may occur, which can negatively affect the stability of lighting. Another disadvantage of EMPR operation is that the real life of the lamp is approximately 2-2.5 times less than the rated one. And finally, lamps with EMPR are quite massive.

For example, if the average weight of a general industrial lamp for a 70 W lamp is about 2 kg, then for a general industrial lamp with a power of 400 W it is already about 9 kg. As a rule, when installing such a lamp, the EMPR is not suspended together with the lamp, but is installed at a considerable distance, for example through a pipe.

This design is used by budget Chinese explosion-proof lamps VAD with external electromagnetic ballasts, supplied to the Russian Federation from China and sold as an “innovative” Russian development by a certain company.

EMPRAs are good because they are traditional; they are produced using technology that has been proven over many decades, ensuring decent reliability. The most unreliable element of the EMPRA is the IZU. If you come to terms with the features listed above, then a lamp with EMCG will be relatively inexpensive.

EW, EWA, EWE, EWAT, EWN lamps are equipped with special control gear for DRL and DNAT lamps, which can significantly improve the electrical, lighting and operational characteristics of these products.

The main advantages of the special control gear of CORTEM-GORELTECH LLC for DRL and DNA lamps:

  • reduction in electricity costs by up to 40%, as the starting current is reduced by 2 times, the operating current by 30% and energy losses are reduced;
  • reduction in maintenance costs by up to 80% (purchase and replacement of lamps, etc.), since due to the soft operating mode of the lamps, their service life increases 10 times (compared to conventional explosion-proof lamps made in the Russian Federation or China);
  • improving the quality and level of lighting, as the pulsation and decline of the luminous flux are reduced;
  • ability to control luminous flux and energy consumption;
  • the ability to protect lighting lines in emergency situations (high or low voltage, phase-to-phase and short circuits in the luminaire);
  • unloading lighting networks by fully compensating inductive reactive power.

Luminaires with special ballasts from KORTEM-GORELTEX LLC reduce the following losses in the lighting line:

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1. heat loss

   a) in a lamp, energy consumption for heating the lamp bulb, lamp fittings and air;

   b) in inductive ballast, energy consumption for heating the magnetic core and winding, lamp fittings and air;

   c) in wires, energy consumption for heating the conductor and air.

2. light loss

   a) the current decline in the luminous flux of lamps, occurring due to overheating of lamps operating in luminaires;

   b) temporary or operational decline in luminous flux occurring due to operational wear of lamps and their elements.

3. electromagnetic

   a) in inductive ballast, energy consumption for the formation of an electromagnetic field of variable frequency;

   b) sources that create an inductive current shift reduce the effective value of the voltage in the network and, accordingly, the power factor (cos).

Currently, electronic ballasts (ECGs), whose performance characteristics and operating efficiency are much higher than the former, have become a real alternative to electronic ballasts for fluorescent lamps.

Fluorescent lamps

Electronic ballasts for fluorescent lamps are more expensive devices compared to electromagnetic ballasts for fluorescent lamps, but the initial costs are compensated by their high efficiency, which is characterized by:

  • energy consumption reduced by 30% (while maintaining luminous flux) due to increased light output of the lamp at an increased frequency and higher efficiency;
  • increased lamp life by 50% due to gentle operation and start-up modes;
  • reduction in operating costs due to a reduction in the number of replaced lamps and no need to replace starters;
  • additional energy savings of up to 80% when working in light control systems;
  • the ability to create light control systems.

Source: https://exd.by/product/index/672

Lighting fixtures and lighting devices

  • Lamps "Technolux"
  • Lamps "Voskhod"
  • Lamps "Gamma"
  • Luch lamps
  • Lamps “Pramen-6”
  • Lamps "Crystal"
  • Spotlights
  • Rechargeable lamps
  • Designer lamps

Street, industrial lamps and spotlights

  • Street lights. KETZ
  • Street lights. LSZI
  • Street lights. "Lighting Solutions"
  • Spotlights
  • Accessories for lamps
  • Industrial lamps LSP 006, TLWP
  • Industrial lamps. RSP, NSP, GSP, VZG
  • Street and park lamps. "Lena Ligting"
  • Street and park lamps. "Elkamet"
  • Street and park lamps. "Camelion"
  • Street and park lamps RTU, NTU
  • Gigalight lamps

Household lamps

  • Household lamps. "Camelion"
  • Household portable lamps. "Camelion"
  • Household lamps. "Eleteh"
  • Household lamps. "Lena Lighting"
  • Household lamps. Waterproof

Buy lighting fixtures - come to us!

Solving the problem of lighting industrial facilities is especially important for optimizing their operation. For example, night shipments at warehouse terminals are absolutely impossible without a powerful floodlight. Downtime here will certainly bring losses. Any security tower, such as construction sites or parking lots, must have high-quality lighting fixtures. Without it, monitoring the territory is almost impossible.

To resolve such issues, there is no better partner than the electrical warehouse ResursKomplekt. Here is the widest selection of light sources for any purpose. The product range covers not only industrial needs, but also the needs of retail facilities, private homes, and advertising. The ResursKomplekt company has a very reasonable price for any lamps. This aspect also explains the demand for the warehouse among consumers of various statuses: from entrepreneurs to summer residents.

Halogen floodlights, which are presented by the ResursKomplekt warehouse with many options, deserve special attention. These include products for illuminating shop windows, information boards, and advertising banners. These are smart cars equipped with the latest generation electronics.

The built-in photocell of the halogen lamp automatically turns it on and off, based on the level of natural street light. These spotlights are indispensable for security posts.

Since some models are equipped with a motion sensor and light up immediately when a foreign non-static object is detected.

ResursKomplekt is a real find for owners of country houses. It is clear that it would not hurt to buy a floodlight here, since it is a good help in protecting your personal plot. However, you can also buy garden lamps from the company.

Their use is an extremely effective and popular garden design solution. At the ResursKomplekt warehouse you will find high-quality lamps for gazebos, baths and saunas, and outbuildings.

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The company's products are duly certified, their quality is almost undeniable.

The aspect of energy costs is important for both business and private consumers.

ResursKomplekt offers both high-voltage products with enhanced power and low-voltage light sources, which, by the way, also have an enviable productivity resource with minimal electricity consumption.

The company's products are modern and meet any consumer request. Once you become a client of ResursKomplekt, you will not be disappointed. We provide an individual approach, resolving situations of any complexity.

Source: https://rk-t.ru/osvet_armat/

Lighting fixtures

Lamps are a combination of a light source and lighting fixtures.

According to the distribution of light flux, luminaires are distinguished:

-direct light – more than 80% of the light flux is emitted into the lower hemisphere;

- diffused light - 40 - 60% of the light flux is emitted into each hemisphere;

- reflected light - 80% of the light flux is emitted into the upper hemisphere.

There are different types of lamps:

- waterproof;

— dustproof;

- explosion-proof (explosion-proof design and increased reliability against explosion in rooms A and B due to explosion and fire hazard).

Lighting design

When designing lighting, choose the type of lighting system (natural: top-side or combined; artificial: general or combined; combined).

Calculate the area of ​​windows, the number of lamps or their power to ensure the quality of the light environment that meets hygienic requirements.

For natural and combined lighting, calculate the area of ​​light openings (windows for side lighting or aeration lanterns for overhead lighting), providing the standard value of KEO at workplaces.

Artificial lighting

  1. Choose the type of lighting system: general or combined. When performing work that requires a high level of visual stress (I-III visual categories), combined lighting should be provided (a combination of general and local lighting).

  2. Select the type of lamps (incandescent, halogen, fluorescent), lamp power, and type of lamp.

  3. Calculate the number of lamps that provide the standard value of illumination.

  4. Determine the height of the suspension of the lamps and the option for their placement.

Methods for calculating the number of lamps

1.Specific power method

Used for approximate calculations. Specific power (Wsp) is the ratio of the total power (Рsum) of all lighting devices to the illuminated surface (S):

Wud=Psum/S= PN/S,

where P is the power of one lamp;

N – number of lamps.

N is calculated from this formula.

The values ​​of specific powers are indicated in reference books on lighting engineering, depending on the type of lighting device, the height of its suspension, floor area and required illumination.

2.Luminous flux utilization factor method

The most accurate method. Designed to calculate the overall uniform illumination of horizontal surfaces in the presence of obscuring objects. The luminous flux of light sources, the reflected luminous flux from walls, ceilings, equipment elements, the size of the room and the type of lamps are taken into account.

3.Point method

The point method calculates the general localized and general uniform illumination in significant darkness, as well as local illumination.


I – luminous intensity, cd;

h-height of suspension of the lighting device

Luminous intensity values ​​can be determined graphically from the light distribution characteristics of the lamps.

Topic 6

Explosion and fire safety and fire prevention

Theoretical basis of the combustion process

Combustion is a chemical reaction of oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the release of large amounts of heat and light and progressive self-acceleration.

The combustion process requires the presence of a combustible substance, an oxidizer (oxygen, air, etc.) and an ignition source.

Types of combustion:

  1. Depending on the state of aggregation of the starting substances, a distinction is made between homogeneous (combustion of gases) and heterogeneous (combustion of liquid and solid bodies).

  2. Depending on the speed of flame spread there are:

deflagration (subsonic speeds) and detonation (supersonic speeds) combustion.

An explosion is a combustion with the rapid release of a large amount of energy and the transformation of an explosive mixture into a highly heated gas with high pressure.

Source: https://studfile.net/preview/2010469/page:20/

Non-insulated air duct Ballu Machine BFA 254 mm x 10 m

Reason for markdown: packaging defect

Application area

Air ducts are designed for use in general air exchange and local air conditioning and ventilation networks. Recommended for use in residential premises and public buildings.

It is advisable to use air ducts as connecting elements of main air ducts or end air ducts with air distribution elements in rooms.

Product Description

The air ducts are made of combined tapes (polypropylene, metallized polypropylene, lavsan, aluminum foil), a spiral frame made of high-carbon steel wire with a diameter of 0.97 mm. Up to 1.6 mm. With a heavy-duty protective case.


The design of flexible air ducts allows the use of simple plumbing tools during installation - scissors and wire cutters (no cutting machine required).

If necessary, the air duct can be bent at large angles, deformed and shaped parts can be formed from the air duct directly during installation.


  • Operating temperature range from – 30°С to + 120°С
  • Environmentally friendly
  • Easy installation
  • Diameters from 102 mm to 506 mm
  • Air duct length 10 m
  • Low weight significantly simplifies and reduces installation time, as well as facilitates operating conditions, inspection and repair
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Flexible non-insulated air ducts are made of multi-layer metallized polymer film with a spiral frame of steel wire between the layers. Air ducts are used in air conditioning and ventilation systems with low and medium pressure. Easily connects to round and oval channels. At high temperatures or in the event of fire, no toxic gases are released.

Air ducts have increased strength due to the use of differently oriented and different strength films. This protects the air duct from possible damage during installation and operation.

Installation recommendations

Flexible air ducts are supplied with installation instructions, which provide recommendations on the installation procedure.

It is recommended to install flexible air ducts according to the following rules:

  • The duct must be installed in a fully stretched state to eliminate unnecessary pressure losses. Do not use longer duct lengths than necessary.
  • Measure the required length and mark it with a marker. Cut the air duct into two parts straight along the turn with a sharp knife. Cut the spiral part with wire cutters or side cutters. Excess air duct must be trimmed.
  • The air duct must be suspended on stationary holders, which are located every 1-1.5 meters. Above ceiling structures, the distance between supports should be 1 meter. The maximum sag of the air duct between two fastening points should not exceed 50 mm/m. In the case of vertical suspension of the air duct, the distance between the mounting clamps should be from 1 m to 1.5 m.
  • Connecting flexible air ducts to ducts should be done very carefully. If the duct is to be connected to a ventilation fitting, the connection should be as direct as possible. Too many bends near the fittings will increase pressure loss. Be careful when installing to avoid damaging the ductwork (for example, consider lighting fixtures and ceiling structures). When passing through wall structures, be sure to use metal sleeves or adapters. The air ducts are connected using a 50 mm coupling, self-adhesive aluminum tape and secured with a metal or nylon tie. A damaged air duct should be replaced with a new one. Also replace damaged outer coverings of thermally insulated air ducts (to avoid air leaks and loss of vapor density).
  • The angle of rotation of the air duct must be no less than the diameter of the air duct. The bending radius should be as large as possible. At a minimum bend radius, the pressure drop increases. To reduce the influence, the bend radius should be equal to twice the diameter of the duct.
  • Particular attention should be paid to securing air ducts when using clamps. Use clamps of the appropriate diameter and ensure that the clamp supports the duct at least half the diameter.
  • Install air ducts away from radiant heat sources to prevent aging of the material. Also, flexible ducts are not recommended for outdoor use unless the duct material is specifically protected from exposure to sunlight and weather conditions.
  • To remove static electricity, the reinforcing spiral of the air duct should be grounded.
  • Direct contact of water with the air duct is not allowed.

Typical errors

One of the most common mistakes is fixing the insulating coating with a clamp without sealing it with tape. This seal will not be airtight and moisture condensation may occur in these areas (if used in air conditioning systems).

Cannot be used in vertical risers more than two floors high.

Cannot be used in systems where the incoming air temperature exceeds 120°C. They cannot be used for ventilation of rooms for cooking, ironing and drying clothes, unless specifically specified by the manufacturer.

It is necessary to install air ducts in accordance with their classification and features.

At no time may connecting ducts pass through walls, partitions or parts of risers having a fire resistance rating of greater than 1 hour, nor must they pass through floors.

Cannot pass through walls where automatic fire dampers or smoke exhaust valves are required.

Cannot be installed in concrete structures, in locations below ground level or in contact with the ground. Used subject to the restrictions stated by the manufacturer when in direct contact with an aggressive environment or abrasive materials.

Source: https://rusklimat.ru/product-vozdukhovod_neizolir_bfa_254_mm_kh_10_m/rejected-7253035/

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