How to tie wires

Connecting electrical wires - reliable methods

First, let's define what a distribution box is? This is a hollow device made of polymer, round, rectangular and square in shape with a lid and special cable entries. Used to connect conductors together.

Today, a variety of conductor connections are made. This diversity depends on various factors:

  • wire section;
  • core material (CU, AL);
  • number of conductors;
  • operating conditions (temperature, climate).

Knowing all these factors, connections are selected in such a way as to comply with certain electrical and fire safety requirements. In addition, you need to consider in which places such boxes with conductor connections will be used:

  • dry rooms;
  • wet areas;
  • especially raw.

Connecting electrical wires in a junction box

To determine which connection method to choose under certain conditions, you need to refer to the PUE (Electrical Installation Rules). According to paragraph 2.1.21, from PUE -7 of the main document on electrical installation, all end connections of wires and cables must be carried out by means of:

  • crimping with sleeves;
  • clamps (using a bolt, screw);
  • welding;
  • adhesions.

Connecting wires using crimping sleeves

Connecting wires using a sleeve followed by crimping is the most reliable method and has good electrical contact.

How to connect wires:

  • strip the insulation from electrical wires of a certain length;
  • take a sleeve of the appropriate length and diameter;
  • insert bare wires into the sleeve;
  • crimp (press) the sleeve in two or three places with a special power tool (press pliers);
  • Apply insulating material (heat-shrink tubing) to the sleeve.

If you don't have heat shrink tubing, you can use insulating tape.

You must take into account that the sleeves are selected in such a way that the diameter of the twisted wires matches the inner diameter of the sleeve. You should not use a sleeve that is not the right size.

How to connect wires using clamps - nut or bolt type

The most common way to connect wires is with a Walnut clamp. This clamp received this name because of its external resemblance to a nut. They are produced in different sizes for connecting both thin and thick wires.

The inside of the “Nut” consists of two main and one intermediate metal plates. There are 4 screws along the edges of the plates. The plates themselves are placed in an insulated carbolite housing, consisting of two parts.

The design feature of Oreshok is that aluminum and copper wires can be connected into one circuit using an intermediate plate.

A bolted connection is also used to connect wires. For a certain cross-section of wires, the size of the bolt is selected. For example, for a wire cross-section of 1.5 - 4 mm², a bolt with a diameter of 6 mm is suitable, for a cross-section of 6 - 10 mm², a bolt diameter of 8 mm, 16 - 35 mm², a diameter of 10 mm.

To connect aluminum to copper using a bolt, a washer is also used - a gasket.

After carefully compressing the wires using a nut, this connection is isolated.


  • low cost;
  • good insulation for "Nut"
  • It is possible to connect aluminum conductors with copper conductors.


  • loosening of the threaded connection in the “Oreshok”;
  • plenty of insulation for bolted connections;
  • The connection dimensions are suitable for large junction boxes.

Connecting wires using welding

One of the best ways to connect wires in a box is welding. How is this all done?

To begin with, the insulation is removed from the ends of the wires. Then the wires are twisted together. The ends are ready for welding.

Welding of wires is carried out with a special welding machine with a voltage of 12 - 36 V. The welding current is regulated depending on the cross-section and number of wires, from 70 to 120 A and the power of the device is sufficiently 500 - 600 W. The work can also be carried out using an inverter welding machine.

For welding I use special graphite electrodes for aluminum and graphite-copper electrodes for copper. The work is carried out in special glasses to protect the eyes from the electric arc.

One cable of the welding machine with a clamp or pliers is connected to the twist, and the second to the electrode holder (holders). The electrode is brought to the tip of the twist and when touched, contact occurs and an arc appears, with the help of which copper or aluminum wires are melted so that a droplet appears. This is enough to make the most reliable contact.

The only drawback of this connection is that when disconnecting the wires, if necessary, you will have to bite off the tip of the twist (welding site).

Soldering wires with solder

An equally wonderful option for connecting wires and ensuring good contact is using ordinary soldering. To use this method, you will need a little soldering skill using an electric soldering iron.

It is best to take a soldering iron with a power of 80 W or 100 W - this is what you need. With this soldering iron you can quickly heat the place (twist) where you will apply the molten solder.

For soldering, POS-30, POS-40 solder is best suited. For such solder you will need rosin or SKF flux (alcohol-rosin flux), which is applied to the soldering area before heating.

In addition to the material listed above, specialists use a so-called solder tube for soldering, which contains rosin inside. This tube is sold in almost every electrical goods store.

It is highly recommended not to use soldering acid. After soldering, its trace remains on the twist and over time the acid will only corrode the twist, which will lead to dire consequences.

And so, to solder wires you will need inexpensive material and an electric soldering iron. This connection by soldering is a more affordable and simpler method.

Connecting wires with terminals

One way or another, connecting wires using twists will eventually disappear into summer. And their place will be taken by those materials and devices that will meet the requirements of modernity and a more professional approach.

Today, terminals are increasingly being used to connect wires. One of the nice features of the terminals is the quick connection of wires of different metals, which avoids direct contact between metals.

Existing terminal requirements:

  • information about permissible voltage;
  • information about the cross-section of the core;
  • increased heat resistance;
  • reliable fixation of the wire core;
  • corrosion resistance.

The terminals are: knife, spring and screw.

Knife terminals are mainly used for grounding or grounding. They are convenient because you don’t need a power tool, you can quickly connect and disconnect the contact, which saves time.

Spring terminals have become very popular. Such terminals include products from WAGO. Using WAGO terminals you will receive: simple and quick installation, reliable connection of conductors.

Screw terminals (terminal blocks) are housing cells, each of which contains a metal tube with screws.

Installation work with this type of terminal is not difficult; you just need a screwdriver to tighten or unscrew the screw that presses the exposed wire core inside the tube.

Connecting electrical wires outdoors

What to do if there is such a need to connect wires on the street, in the open air?

Street connections are made in different ways: using a “nut”, bolted connection, twisting. For some time, such connections perform well, but then oxidation of the wire cores, weakening of the bolted connection, and rust occur. The problem begins.

You need to understand that such a connection will be negatively affected by precipitation, summer heat, and frost. To minimize this impact and make a good connection, you first need to prepare a set of materials:

  • IP65 junction box;
  • sleeves for crimping;
  • conductive paste;
  • Heat-shrinkable adhesive tube.

Lead the cable or wire into the junction box. Place the sleeves on the bare wires using conductive paste and crimp them.

If you have one aluminum wire and the other copper, then use copper-aluminum sleeves.

Next, take adhesive heat-shrinkable tubes prepared in advance and cut to the required size and put them on the sleeves.

By exposing the tubes to high temperature, we casing the sleeves. To apply high temperature to the tubes, use a gas burner, a blowtorch or a professional electric hair dryer.

After the thermopipes have cooled, carefully place the finished connections in the box and close the box tightly with the lid.

This connection will provide you with high reliability for many, many years.


In this article you looked at all types of correct connection of wires that do not exist today. Choose the type of connection that is suitable for your operating conditions.

You may not be able to perform some types of installation work due to lack of skills, tools, or you doubt the correctness of your actions. Then resort to hiring a specialist who, due to his experience, will do everything right.

Don’t forget that proper installation of electrical wiring is the key to your electrical and fire safety.


How to connect wires correctly in an apartment

The greatest desire of every installer is to connect wires to the connection points without soldering or fastening together. Unfortunately, this dream will never come true. No one would agree to have so many cables used in their apartment. And this pleasure will cost a tidy sum, because a lot of wiring will be required.

This is the main reason that the network has many contacts. Each average apartment can have up to hundreds of such associations. It should be noted that wiring problems most often occur in the places where the ends of the wires touch.

In order to connect contacts correctly and safely, it is necessary to carefully study all the methods and options that are practiced by electricians.

Any living space today has wiring

So, if the question arises of how to connect wires at home, it is best to turn to the bible of every self-respecting electrician - the Electrical Installation Rules (ELR). Paragraph 2.1.21 of this reference book states that it is best to use the following methods:

  • soldering;
  • welding;
  • crimping;
  • bolted connection.

But other methods are also practiced that are not listed here. Twisting remains illegal, but connections with screws, insulating clamps such as PPE, and WAGO terminals are, one way or another, permitted. Let's look at each of them in more detail.


Be that as it may, the method that uses twisting is now the most popular among electricians and those users who are trying to create a connection of wires in their apartment. The danger of this technique is the high risk of fire. It can happen due to overheating of the cable, which is under the influence of high resistance caused by the weakening of the twist itself.

But it also needs to be said that with proper operations, the twisting will last for decades. If it is not possible for you to use other methods, then twisting is exactly what you will need. The only condition is to be careful and do everything right.

You should not use twisting in cases where you can create a wire connection using another method. If technical support of electrical circuits is your job responsibilities or you simply do it for money, then the use of twisting may entail liability under the Criminal Code. You also have the right not to pay for the work of the craftsmen who used such technology.

You cannot use methods for connecting wires where different types of metal are used. Also pay attention to the number of cores at each end - you cannot twist a single-core cable with a multi-core one. To connect the ends correctly and efficiently using this method, first remove the insulation from the end by 6–8 cm.

Then fold the wires perpendicular to each other and twist. It is best to do this with pliers, this way you will achieve maximum twist density. But if you are dealing with small cross-section wires, then this can be done by hand.

The length of the twist should ultimately be greater than 10 diameters of the wires you connected.

The final stage of twisting will be insulation. You will need caps, PVC or heat shrink tubing, or simple electrical tape. Be sure to ensure that your insulation overlaps the original insulation. This way you will protect the system from moisture.

The soldering method requires a significant amount of theoretical and practical skills in working with equipment and wires. Experienced electricians know that a good twist is better than a bad solder. First you need to rid the wires of oxidation, tin them, and then twist them. Moreover, you don’t need to twist as much as in the previous case.

Flux and solder also need to be carefully selected, since different metals require different materials. In terms of time, connecting wires in this way is the longest, but the result is better than using other methods. After the wires have cooled, they must be insulated using any available method.


This method is the most common and popular today. As for practical skills, this method can be considered the fastest and most reliable. You can use both AC and DC voltages from 15 to 30 V. If you are dealing with two wires with a diameter of up to 1.5 sq. mm, use a current of 70 A. If you need to connect three wires, then use 90 A. Three wires with a diameter of up to 2.5 square meters. mm require a current of 100 A, and four - 120 A.

First you need to strip the wires of insulation at a distance of 6 cm from the edge. Then twist them as if twisting, but leave 6mm at the ends. Straighten them and place them parallel.

Remember that when working with a welding machine, you must adhere to all fire safety rules and regulations, and also use all types of protective equipment (gloves, clothing, goggles or mask).

Place the ends of the wires into the clamp and begin welding. You need to achieve a melt ball. It should extend to the twist itself. Welding should be carried out no longer than 3 seconds, otherwise you risk breaking the insulation. After you have connected the wires and they have cooled completely, insulate them.

PPE is made in the form of a cap. Inside the connecting wire there is a steel wire bent in the shape of a cone. Modern manufacturers also fill the cavity of the cap with a special mixture, which protects the connection from moisture getting inside. The first condition for high-quality use of PPE is the correctly selected clamp size. You can read the parameters on the product packaging in more detail.

To make a connection of wires in this way, you need to strip them of their original insulation at a distance that is equal to the length of the cap. Next, insert the ends of the wires into the clamp and fix them there according to the mechanism. Most installers and electricians use the twisting technique for reliability, and place such clamps on top.

The advantage of this method over others is that this way you can simultaneously connect the wires and isolate the twisted points. But there is also a minus - it is unreliable, since the clamp constantly unwinds.

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Screw terminals

Screw clamps are very popular when carrying out small work in the apartment. The advantage of this method is the speed and accuracy of the connection. You don't have to insulate the wires. Also, using the clamping technique, you can connect wires of different metals.

The disadvantages of the technology include, first of all, the fact that you cannot connect wires that are made of different metals. They must first be soldered or combined with a tip. Also, such clamps are not entirely reliable - they need to be tightened periodically. So they are best used in places where there is easy, constant access.

WAGO terminals

The terminal block is a relatively new method of connecting wires. It is based on the use of special clamps developed by the German company WAGO. You can now find many analogues on the market, but they are inferior in quality and reliability. If you decide to use this method, then it is best to buy terminals in specialized certified supermarkets. You are offered many options to choose from for a variety of sizes, number of cores, and so on.

The advantage of this method is ease of use, no need to use additional equipment or possess certain skills. You can quickly and efficiently connect wires and insulate them using one clamp. WAGO products have passed all the necessary tests and are the world leader in the production of wire clamps.


The crimping method involves using a sleeve or lug to connect the wires. This technology stands out among others for its reliability. All that is required of you is to choose the right sleeves and be able to use special equipment - pliers (hydraulic or electric) or a press.

Bolted connections

This method is best used when working with networks with high current. The idea is simple - wires are laid between two washers on a bolt, and then tightly fixed with a nut of a suitable size. Moreover, you can connect aluminum and copper wire if you use steel nuts. However, within an apartment, this method is not particularly popular, since it does not look aesthetically pleasing.

Finally, we need to remind you that all wire connections, no matter how you do it, must be accessible for correction and inspection. If you've ever connected two or more wires yourself, please share your comments below.


Connection of stranded wires: with single-core wires, with each other, soft and hard

A high-quality electrical connection is the most important requirement for home safety. Unreliable contact can lead to a short circuit and fire, so it is important to be able to efficiently and reliably connect two conductors in a junction box. There are different methods of creating a contact, and they all have their own characteristics.

The need for a reliable connection

Poor connections become the main cause of fires

First of all, you need to understand why it is so important to pay attention to the reliability of the conductor connections. Even the PUE give recommendations on the choice of connection method and strictly prohibit twisting of wires.

Consequences of incorrectly connected conductors:

  • Fire. A poor-quality contact has a high contact resistance. This leads to heating, which can later lead to a fire.
  • Damage to wiring. Due to high resistance, the conductor heats up faster. As a result, the insulation may melt and the contact itself may collapse. Damage to the insulating layer may result in electric shock.
  • Short circuit. It also depends on the value of the contact resistance.

High contact resistance leads to negative consequences. Therefore, it is important to reduce it, for which permitted methods of connecting multi-core conductors are used.

Connection methods

Various types of wire connections

Of the permitted methods, the PUE allows you to create a contact in the following ways:

  • clamps;
  • terminals;
  • crimping;
  • soldering, welding.

Twisted connections are prohibited. This is due to the fact that the contact will be exposed to temperature. As the temperature rises, the material expands; when cooled, it contracts. Since the contact is not secured by anything, it will quickly fail and collapse. Twisting can only be used in conjunction with another joining method, such as welding or soldering.

Squeeze method

WAGO connection terminals

This method includes screw and bolt connections, as well as contact using Wago clamps. Such mechanisms allow you to connect single-core and stranded copper wires. At the moment, this method is the most common and convenient. The advantages include low cost, reliability, simplicity of the process and no need to purchase additional equipment.

It is better to connect wires with a cross-section of up to 25 sq. mm in this way. Conductors with a large cross-section require a different connection or it will be necessary to take into account the nuances of contact using the compression method.

Screw connection is used for cables of small cross-section. Its essence is to install two conductors into a brass tube and clamp each section with its own screw. When connecting solid and multi-core cables, there is a risk of damaging the thin wire.

For this reason, it is recommended to protect them with a special tip. There are special terminals with clamping pads that do not require the use of lugs.

They provide high-quality clamping without damaging the wire over the entire cross-section of the brass tube.

Wago terminals are a variation of the squeeze method. They are reliable, but experts debate the durability of such products. Advantages: speed of work, quality of contact, simplicity.

Pressing method

Wire crimping options

Crimping of wires is carried out using a special tool - pliers. It can be manual or hydraulic. For conductors with a small cross-section, hand pliers are suitable.

You will also need special sleeves made of copper, aluminum or brass. Selected for the appropriate material of the cable cores. If you need to connect several stranded wires in front of the terminal block, lugs are used.

Pressing is used for all types of cables - multi-core, single-core, or combinations thereof. It is only important to choose the right type of sleeve and pressure force.

Welding method

When welding wires, tin solder is used

Welding wires is the most reliable and durable connection method. Its only drawback is that it is difficult to implement with your own hands, since the work will require a professional welding machine. There are also requirements for the experience of the master - if you do not have the necessary skills, you should choose another connection method or entrust the work to a professional.

Using a welding machine, the ends of the wires are melted. When they harden, a single whole is formed between the two segments and high-quality contact is ensured. Using this method, you can connect an unlimited number of conductors at one point. But you need to understand that difficulties will arise when contacting a single-core and multi-core cable. The technician will need to perform a few additional steps before welding. Connecting a four-core wire to a single-core wire:

  • Melting the end of a stranded wire.
  • Connection of a molten conductor with a single-core segment.

If the welding technique is violated, individual wires may burn out and contact will not be ensured for all wires.


To solder two sections of cable, you will also need additional tools - a soldering iron, rosin, solder, solder fat. The master must be able to solder, otherwise reliable contact will not be possible.

How to twist a stranded wire together with a solid one:

  1. Stripping of insulation.
  2. Treatment of the surface of both conductors with rosin.
  3. Winding a multi-core cable onto a single-core cable.
  4. Bending a single-core cable, crimping with pliers.
  5. Treating the area with solder grease and solder.

There is also a connection option when the treatment with fat and rosin is carried out separately for each part of the wire. Then the conductors are connected in parallel and the contact area is treated with solder.

Single-core conductors are easier to connect. To do this, it is enough to strip them of insulation and treat them with rosin. Then the cables need to be soldered. If a tinned single-core conductor is used for connection, rosin treatment is not required.

Stranded wires are also stripped of insulation. This can be more difficult since each core has its own insulating layer. Next, the conductors are connected with a pigtail or twist and processed with solder.

Connection of flexible and rigid wires

Connection of flexible and rigid wires

Typically, conductors of the same type are connected. But sometimes a connection between a flexible and a rigid wire is required, which is carried out in compliance with some nuances.

First, cut the cable so that its end is tapered. The rigid wire needs to be melted and a loop made at its end. A thin wire is passed through the loop made and wrapped around the rigid cable. The resulting connection must be treated with solder and reliably insulated. A similar method is suitable for aluminum conductors.


Connection of wires. Twisting, soldering, welding, crimping, Wago terminal blocks

When installing electrical wiring in a house or apartment, connecting the wires is the most important point . For trouble-free and safe power supply, you will need a reliable and high-quality connection of wires.

A careless attitude towards connecting wires and cables can lead to very bad consequences. It would seem that there is nothing complicated in connecting the wires, twist them, wrap them with electrical tape and everything is ready, but everything is not as simple as the popular wisdom says “Electrics is the science of contacts” , and the connection of wires and cables must be done with all the care responsibility, because

The percentage of accidents and damage in power supply systems due to poor-quality wire connections is very high. No matter how high-quality the electrical contact between the wires is, the junctions of the wires have greater resistance , which means they heat up more.

And the worse the contact, the more it heats up, which will ultimately lead to melting of the insulation, a short circuit, and then a fire.

In practice, several methods of connecting wires are used, I will tell you about the most common ones.

Connecting wires by twisting

Connecting wires by twisting is common everywhere, but if we turn to the main book of electricians PUE, then according to:

“Connection, branching and termination of cables and wire cores must be done by soldering, welding, crimping or clamping (screw, bolt, etc.)”

As we can see, there is no twisted connection of wires at this point, which means twisting of wires is prohibited. But twists have always been, are and will be used to connect wires when installing electrical wiring. Yes, and well-made twisting can last for decades, but the connection of wires by twisting must be done efficiently. The technology for connecting wires and cables by twisting is quite simple:

  • the length of the twist must be at least 4-5 cm;
  • The connected wires, stripped of insulation, must be cleaned of the oxidized film, for example, with an ordinary knife or sandpaper;
  • It is necessary that the connected wires wrap around each other evenly and tightly, ensuring sufficiently reliable contact.

One “but”, problems may arise when handing over the electrical installation to the fire inspectorate, because... Connecting wires by twisting according to the PUE is prohibited. However, this applies mainly to industrial consumers, retail premises, etc.; a fire inspector will not come to your apartment or private house to inspect it.

Connecting wires by twisting is a necessary measure when there is nothing else left, and it is better to use connection of wires using the methods described below.

Connecting wires by soldering

If the twisted wires are soldered , we get a connection of wires by soldering , which guarantees reliable and high-quality contact, which has a fairly low contact resistance, high conductivity and mechanical strength. But it is important to solder the wire connection correctly; for this you need:

  • tin the connected wires with rosin (flux);
  • the solder should flow into the twist;
  • After the solder has cooled, you can sand it with sandpaper, because sharp edges of the solder can pierce the insulation;
  • insulate the wire connection.

But such connection of wires by soldering is very labor-intensive and requires certain skills. The negative aspects of soldering wire connections, I would include:

  • need for isolation;
  • complexity (not everyone knows how to solder well), and even for those who are good at soldering, doing this, for example, while standing on a stepladder or ladder, to put it mildly, is not very convenient;
  • if a mistake was made when connecting the wires, it will not be easy to separate them after soldering, so it is better to leave a larger supply of wires and cables;
  • high time consumption.

Connecting wires by welding

Connecting wires by welding provides even better electrical contact between the wires. But here everything is even more confusing than with soldering wires, since you need to have:

  • welding transformer;
  • welding skills;
  • masks (goggles) for welding, special gloves, electrodes;
  • construction hair dryer for heat shrink tube.

Wire connections by welding can only be made from homogeneous metals . Such a connection of wires can be found infrequently, our people do not really like difficulties, and many electricians do not like this method of connecting wires due to the large investment of time, but it is worth noting that connecting wires by welding is faster than soldering.

Connecting wires by crimping

Connecting wires by crimping consists of compressing the connecting sleeve (aluminum or copper tube) into which the wires are inserted with special press pliers.

The wires are first stripped of insulation to the length of the sleeve, then we place the wires inside the sleeve and crimp it in two or three places for reliability. If the sleeve is much larger than the wires that need to be crimped, then you can stuff the sleeve with additional wires.

  We insulate the resulting wire connection using crimping tape, or better yet, heat-shrink tubing + hair dryer.

Sleeves for connecting wires by crimping are copper, aluminum and copper-aluminum , i.e. Crimping can be used to connect copper and aluminum wires.

Connecting wires using crimping is quite reliable if done correctly. The skills in connecting wires by crimping will also be useful to you when assembling an electrical panel for crimping NShVI bushings.

The disadvantages include the cost of pressing pliers for connecting wires by crimping and sleeves, the inseparability of connecting wires by crimping, i.e. they crimped the wire in the sleeve and “forgot” about it.

Bolted connection of wires and cables

Bolted connections of wires are usually used when connecting wires made of different metals, that is, if we have one wire made of copper and the other of aluminum, a steel washer must be placed between them.

This connection of wires turns out to be very cumbersome, it is inconvenient to place it in junction boxes and insulate it. Periodic broaching is required.

Connecting wires with screw terminals

Connecting wires with screw terminals , as well as bolted ones, can be used to connect wires made of different metals. This connection of wires satisfies the requirements of the PUE, but requires periodic tightening of the screws in the terminals, which weaken over time, which means the contact itself weakens, which can close over time.

Periodic pulling of screw connections of wires implies that access to the connection in the box must always be open , which will not look very nice in an apartment or private house. Also, when tightening the screw, you can damage the wire itself, especially the softer aluminum one. And if you need to connect a stranded wire, then you need to either solder the stripped ends of the wire or crimp it with tubular lugs.

Connecting wires with PPE caps

Connecting wires with PPE caps (Connection Insulating Clamps). PPE are plastic caps with a conical spring inside, which, when twisted, compresses and fixes the wires, and the plastic PPE cap itself insulates the connection of the wires and is fire and mechanical protection.

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 This wire connection is quick and simple; to perform it correctly you need:

  • strip the insulation from wires and cables to a length slightly shorter than the length of the PPE cap itself;
  • fold them into a bundle, precisely into a bundle, and not twist them;
  • use your hands to twist the PPE clockwise onto the bundle of wires;
  • tighten the PPE using pliers.

The advantages of such a connection of wires and cables are obvious (no special tools required, no need for additional insulation, speed and simplicity), but there are also disadvantages:

  • Do not connect multi-wire wires;
  • the quality of such a connection will be worse than those listed above, so I would recommend using these clamps for small loads, for example, in lighting circuits.

PPE caps are divided according to the total cross-section of the wires to be twisted and are designated by numbers from 1 to 5, which indicate the number of wires to be twisted and their cross-section.

Connecting wires with self-clamping (spring) terminals

Well, in conclusion, let’s consider the simplest, most effective, convenient, and most importantly quick connection of wires - self-clamping (spring) terminals . Spring terminals from Wago are widely used, which allow you to connect wires:

  • without having any special skills;
  • there is no need to purchase special tools (soldering iron, welding transformer, press pliers);
  • some Wago terminals have a special paste that allows you to connect copper and aluminum wires and prevents oxidation;
  • no additional insulation required;
  • quick disconnection of the connection (press the lever and pull out the desired wire).

Wago terminals are produced for connecting wires and cables from 0.75 to 4 sq. mm, the number of connected wires is from 2 to 8. Wago terminals

Wago terminal blocks were invented in Germany.

Perhaps the most significant disadvantage is their price, the average cost of a Wago terminal block for 3 wires will be approximately 11-12 rubles, so if there are a lot of distribution boxes, then the total cost of Wago terminal blocks will be considerable.

You should not use Wago terminals when installing wiring with loads of more than 16 A. In general, it is better to use them maximum on the lighting line for electrical wiring in a private house or apartment, and choose Wago terminal blocks with a margin of at least a step higher.

These are the main methods of connecting wires, each method has its own supporters and opponents who are ready to argue endlessly about the best way to connect wires. In my opinion, a lot depends on the situation, where and how it is necessary to connect the wires, the availability of time for electrical installation, and in some places you can get by with terminal blocks, and in others only with welding.

. Comparison of resistance of wire connections: twisted, welded and terminal blocks.

From the video we can draw the following conclusion that connecting wires by soldering and welding have the same resistance. That is, they are the same in physical properties , but connecting the wires by soldering or welding will slow down the chemical reaction of wire oxidation and preserve the integrity of the wire connection for many years. And if possible, then it is better, of course, to use soldering, welding or crimping to connect the wires.

It is important to remember that aluminum oxidizes faster than copper , and the oxide film on the surface of an aluminum wire has a higher contact resistance than that of copper wires. This impairs the conductivity of the connection (contact) and leads to its heating.

Thank you for your attention.


How to properly connect stranded wires to each other

In stranded wires, the cross-section is formed by several, sometimes intertwined, cores. Knowing how to connect stranded wires to each other, you can easily do this work yourself and get a strong contact that is absolutely safe during operation.

Where are stranded wires used?

Any stranded conductor contains at its base a large number of thin wires. The use of a multi-core cable is important in areas that require a large number of bends or, if necessary, to pull the conductor through holes that are too narrow and long enough.

The scope of application of stranded conductors is presented:

  • extended tees;
  • mobile lighting devices;
  • automotive wiring;
  • connecting lighting fixtures to the electrical network;
  • connecting switches or other types of levers to influence the electrical network.

Flexible stranded conductors can be twisted repeatedly and easily, which does not negatively affect the functionality of the system. Among other things, this particular type of electrical wiring is distinguished by plasticity, and greater flexibility and elasticity is imparted to the wire by weaving a special thread, which in strength and composition is a bit like nylon.

Methods for connecting stranded wires to each other

The methods used today for electrical connections of stranded conductors are distinguished by the ability to obtain not only strong, reliable and durable, but also completely safe contact of the conductors.

Stranding of stranded conductors

This option is the easiest to implement and intuitive, not requiring the use of special equipment or professional tools.

Twisting is the easiest way to connect stranded wires

  1. Strip the conductors at the ends of the conductors from the insulating layer and place them on top of each other. Twist the exposed strands overlapping each other.

    Before connecting the wires, the ends must be cleaned

  2. Strengthen the twist using pliers. Simple parallel twisting is quite reliable from the point of view of contact between the cores, but vibration and mechanical forces applied to break can easily destroy the strength of such a connection.

    Use pliers to twist the wires together

The second method consists of the following steps:

  1. Strip the conductor cores from the insulating layer and place them on top of each other crosswise.

    Peel the insulating layer of the wires and stack the wires on top of each other

  2. Wrap one bare wire around the other over the entire surface.

    Wrap one wire around another

    Wrap the wires

  3. Visually verify the strength of the winding. Using simple or traditional twisting, the electrical connection of additional conductors to the main, leading electrical wiring line is carried out.

Twisting wires using the third method:

  1. Remove insulation from the ends of the conductors. Place the bare ends on top of each other and wind the first core.

    Place the wires on top of each other

  2. Wind the second core, then visually verify the reliability of the connection. The sequential twisting method involves “winding” each connected conductor onto another, which ensures optimal contact of the cores.

    Wind one of the cores

    In this method, one wire is “wound” around another

There is also a fourth method, which is as follows:

  1. Using a sharp knife, strip the ends of the conductors from insulation and align them along the length.

    Align the wires in length

  2. Bend the connected stripped ends and wrap them with a piece of another core.

    Twist the folded strands with a piece of conductor

  3. Perform a visual inspection of the connection and make sure it is secure. Band twisting consists of parallel application of the connected cores to each other and subsequent fixation of the resulting connection using a tightly laid soft conductor.

    Bandage twisting ensures a reliable connection of cores

Soldering method

Soldering the conductors using a household soldering iron ensures high-strength contact and good electrical conductivity. Tinning of stranded conductors is carried out using rosin (flux) and standard solder using standard technology.

  1. Strip the wires of insulation and remove any resulting oxidation if necessary.

    Remove all oxidation from the wires

  2. Heat the wires with a soldering iron tip until the flux melts and immerse the heated wire in a container with rosin.

    Heat the wire with a soldering iron and immerse it in rosin.

  3. Apply molten solder to the soldering iron tip and carefully transfer it to the exposed parts of the core. After tinning, the wires should be connected to each other by twisting, which must be “tightened” with pliers.

    Tighten the twist with pliers

Terminal type connections

The use of terminals of different types is the most accessible way to connect multi-core wires in everyday life. In most cases, the terminal blocks used are divided into a couple of main types.

The principle of operation of clamping terminals involves fixing the wire using a built-in spring mechanism.

Terminals are often used to connect wires

The screw-type terminal block involves reliable fixation of all connected stranded wires using a screw. To increase the area of ​​wire contact with a conductive surface, an additional bend of the core is required.

The wires in the terminal block are secured by tightening the screws

Stage-by-stage execution of work:

  1. Strip the ends of the conductor and align them in length according to the depth of the terminal block.

    Align the wires in length

  2. When connecting more than one conductor to the terminal block at the same time, you must first connect the wires by parallel twisting.

    First you need to twist the wires

  3. Check the reliability of the twisting and then fix the wires in the connector hole.

    Fix the wires

Crimping method

The crimping method involves connecting wires or cables using a copper or aluminum sleeve using special crimping pliers of a hydraulic or manual type.

In this case, the connection is made using a special sleeve

The pressing technology involves stripping the insulation according to the length of the sleeve, and conductors that are too thin should be connected by twisting. Then all the cables are folded together and placed inside the sleeve, after which double crimping is performed along the entire length. The method allows for a reliable and safe connection of multi-core wires made of different types of materials.

Bolted connection

The simplest, but not reliable enough way to connect stranded wires is twisting followed by bolting. This detachable connection option is most often used in open wiring conditions.

Bolted connection is the simplest, but not very reliable

To increase the level of reliability of the connection of stranded wires, it is recommended to strip the ends of insulation, then tin the cleaned areas and fasten them with a bolt.

Application of connecting insulating clamps

PPE elements are used when it is necessary to connect multi-core wires with a small cross-section (within 25 mm2). The design feature of this clamp is a plastic body with a built-in cone-shaped spring.

This method is suitable for connecting wires with a small cross-section

Stranded wires are first connected into one bundle using twisting, onto which the clamping part is then screwed. Among other things, the wire connection does not require additional insulation.

Security measures

In order to ensure safe operation of connected stranded wires, it is important to insulate all parts of the electrical wiring.

Proper insulation helps prevent dangerous contact of conductive parts with each other or with the human body.

When choosing an insulating material, it is necessary to take into account the operating conditions of the electrical circuit, but in most cases, insulating tape, as well as a special vinyl or heat-shrinkable tube, are used for this purpose.

If the connection area is exposed to the negative effects of high temperatures, it is recommended to use varnished cloth or fabric insulating tape as an insulating material.

Correct execution of all stages of electrical installation is of no small importance.

Only with reliable connection and proper connection of all elements of the electrical network is it possible to minimize the risk of areas with poor contact, and also prevent local overheating and electrical wiring breaks.

Multicore cables are a popular and widespread option, widely used for arranging electrical wiring for various purposes. The general rules for the separate connection of stranded and single-core conductors do not have any differences or features, therefore it is allowed to use twisting, screw clamps, PPE elements, welding and soldering for this purpose.


How to reliably connect any wires without soldering

Not only the trouble-free operation of electrical appliances, but also safety depends on the reliability of the connection of wires.

A poor connection may cause heat and fire. Often the connection points of the wires are not visible and therefore, in order to eliminate the break, you have to dismantle the floor, roof or even break down walls.

Today, the most effective way to connect wires is soldering. But there are times when you cannot use this proven method - there is no soldering iron or solder at hand, there is no electricity, or the person simply does not know how to solder.

There are several proven ways to connect any wires without soldering, which will ensure reliability and, most importantly, safety.

Reliable ways to connect wires without soldering

Today, time-tested methods of connecting wires without soldering have become:

  • Twisting is the most popular method. You don't need anything to twist, just pliers! The technology is simple and straightforward - bare wires are twisted with pliers and reliable contact is ensured. There are proven ways to twist two, three or more wires. But this method also has disadvantages; twisting cannot be used if wires made of different metals are connected - copper and aluminum.

No matter how tightly the wires are twisted, over time the contact will deteriorate and local heating will occur, which will lead to a fire.

  • Bolted connection - simple and reliable! The ends of the wires are bent in the shape of rings to match the diameter of the bolt and connected. Washers are placed on both sides. Ideally, the bolt, nut and washer should be made of non-ferrous metal (copper, brass or bronze), but if it is steel, that’s okay! Using a bolt, you can connect wires of different metals.
  • Terminal blocks are a great item and can be purchased at any electrical supply store. The stripped wires are inserted into the terminal socket and clamped with a screw. Terminal blocks are available for one, two, three or more wires. The product can be reused more than once.
  • Spring connection is the fastest method! An experienced installer spends only a couple of seconds connecting two stripped wires. An elastic spring tightly clamps the two conductors, ensuring reliable contact. The product is sold in an electrical goods store for different sections and is not expensive.
  • Crimping with sleeves is a reliable method, but to use it you need to have a press. The essence of the method is as follows: two wires are inserted into an aluminum or copper sleeve and it is crimped using a manual or hydraulic press. The method is not inferior in reliability to soldering and even welding. Before inserting the core into the sleeve, especially with large sections, the ohm must be lubricated with a special paste.

The type of connection should be selected based on the expected dimensions of the connection. For example, bulky bolt and terminal boxes are not suitable for electrical wiring.

In what cases is the use of such compounds justified?

If the electrical installation will operate under normal conditions, where there are no dangerous factors (explosive atmosphere, high humidity, high temperatures), then you can safely refuse soldering and use the above connection methods.

These methods not only simplify, but significantly speed up the process of repairing or installing equipment.

Our people are very inventive and can improve such things that sometimes you are surprised at what the ingenuity of a Russian person is capable of!

 If the reader has his own secrets or the author has made some inaccuracies, please share your secrets or comment on this article.


Connecting wires to each other using clamps and other methods

Any man strives to ensure that the electricity supply in his own home or apartment is of high quality, uninterrupted and reliable. Therefore, when carrying out electrical installation work during construction or repairs, it is necessary to correctly connect electrical wires.

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But in everyday life you still have to face problems when the wire of a lamp breaks or the socket stops working.

Of course, if you have basic knowledge of electrical engineering and the ability to carry out electrical installation work, it is easy to fix all these faults yourself.

The connection of conductors made of different metals must be made taking into account all the properties of the material from which they are made. Currently, copper, aluminum and steel are used to transmit electrical energy.

Each of these metals has different densities, conductivities, and resistances that are taken into account when making good electrical contact.

It is also necessary to take into account the magnitude of the electrochemical potential that arises when current is applied to the metal.

serious problems can arise , which are encountered by many specialists who repair wiring in apartments. Previously, copper wires , which were much superior to aluminum in terms of electrical performance. And now the use of copper conductors has faded into the background.

Aluminum, having a high level of oxidation, forms a specific film when combined, which has a fairly high electrical resistance . This property manifests itself especially in humid environments.

The same film is formed on copper, only its resistance is much lower. Therefore, due to this difference in resistance, direct connection of these metals results in difficult electrical conductivity.

And oxidative processes lead to sparking, heating and fire of wires .

Methods for safe contact

To create reliable contact between electrical wires, there are several methods, both using special equipment and using improvised means.

Types of wire connections:

  1. Twisting (twisting) is the most common method, the use of which is desirable for temporary connections.
  2. Welding is the most reliable method that ensures excellent contact of conductors. Requires welding equipment and certain skills to carry out the work.
  3. Soldering - has excellent connection performance, but requires compliance with the temperature regime (not higher than 65℃).
  4. Terminal blocks are a fairly simple and reliable connection.
  5. Connecting wires using clamps - subject to operating conditions, allows you to obtain excellent contact. Installs very quickly.
  6. Crimping with sleeves requires special pliers and knowledge of installation technology, but the method is very reliable.
  7. Bolted connection - used in difficult situations, easy to perform and does not require special devices.

When choosing the type of connection, it is necessary to take into account: the material of the conductive part; wire section; number of conductors; type of insulation; terms of Use. Most often, the selection of the type of connection is carried out at the work site.

This technological operation is common to all methods of connecting conductors. Before combining the wires into a common electrical unit, it is necessary to strip them of the insulation layer.

The easiest way to do this work is with a mechanic's knife, but in this case there is a possibility of damage to the conductive core. To avoid this, you need to:

  1. Place the wire on the table surface.
  2. Press it with the index finger of your left hand.
  3. Holding the knife in your right hand, cut the insulation. In this case, it is necessary to direct the blade at an angle to the cut so as not to damage the core. Otherwise, the conductor may break.
  4. Using the finger of your left hand, twist the conductor one turn to cut the insulation.
  5. Remove the cut piece of the insulating sheath.

Experienced electricians have a multifunctional tool in their arsenal - a stripper, which is designed for cutting cables and removing insulation. This device does not damage the core when removing insulation from a conductor of any cross-section, since it has a special calibrated recess for the required wire diameter.

The length of insulation stripping is selected in accordance with the method of connecting the conductors.

Twisting method

The simplest and most well-known method of connecting electrical wires is twisting them (twisting). Experienced electricians often call it the old-fashioned method.

Previously, this type of connection was used everywhere, but with increasing load in the electrical network of a modern apartment, twisting became prohibited . However, this connection method must be studied first, since it is the main step in soldering and welding wires.

The main advantage of twisting is the absence of any material costs, since you only need pliers and a knife to remove the insulation. And of course, the advantage of twisting is the ease of its execution. Anyone who has held pliers in their hands can do this job without any problems.

Over time, the twist weakens , which is its main disadvantage. This process is connected with the fact that in any veins there is residual elastic deformation. Therefore, at the point of twisting, the contact resistance increases, which leads to weakening of the contact and heating of the conductor. It’s good if this defect is discovered in time and the joint can be redone, but a fire may occur .

But if for some reason you do not have the opportunity to use more reliable methods, then you definitely need to familiarize yourself with how to properly connect the wires to each other using the twisting method. To do this, you first need to strip the cores of 70-80 mm of insulation.

Then, holding both conductors where the insulation ends, use pliers to grab the ends of the wires and rotate them clockwise.

The main condition for reliable twisting is the simultaneous rotation of the conductors , and not alternately winding them on each other.

If the diameter of the wires is small, then twisting can be done entirely by hand. With your left hand you need to hold the conductors along the cut of the insulation, and with your right hand you need to rotate the conductors by the bend (10-15 mm) clockwise. For tighter contact at the end of the rotation, you can use pliers.

The next step is to insulate the junction of the wires. Insulating tape is used for this. To ensure reliability and protect the contact from moisture, you need to wind the tape in several layers, with 2-3 cm of overlap between the wire insulation. A very good option for insulation is the use of thermal tubes; the main thing is not to forget to put it on one of the cores.

Professional electricians advise not to stop at the stage of twisting the wires, but to strengthen the joint by soldering or welding.

The type of connection in which electrical wires are joined using molten solder is called soldering. This method is best applicable to wires with copper conductors, but the use of special fluxes allows you to obtain high-quality joints of other metals.

Advantages of using soldering:

  • In terms of reliability, this type of connecting wires is second only to welding;
  • allows you to connect both single-core and stranded wires, as well as wires with different sections;
  • no maintenance of the contact point is required for the entire period of operation;
  • low cost of work (flux and solder are inexpensive).

The disadvantage of soldering is considered to be rather high labor intensity. The surfaces to be soldered must be previously cleaned of oxides and tinned before twisting the wires.

An electrician must have certain qualifications and be able to use a soldering iron, because during the work it is necessary to strictly observe the temperature regime. A weakly heated or overheated contact point loses its reliability and strength.

The technological process for performing soldering looks like this:

  1. The insulation is removed from the conductors by 40-50 mm.
  2. Areas of exposed veins are well cleaned with sandpaper.
  3. Tinning of wires is carried out. To do this, a heated soldering iron is dipped in rosin and the tip is passed several times over the cleaned surfaces.
  4. The wires are twisted.
  5. Place solder on the soldering iron tip and heat the twist. In this case, molten tin should fill all the gaps between the turns.
  6. After cooling, the soldering is wiped with alcohol and insulated.

Welding fastening

To create the most reliable connection of the conductors after twisting, they are additionally secured by welding. The technology for making such a contact is very similar to soldering, only here a welding machine is used instead of a soldering iron.

In terms of quality and reliability, the welding method fully meets all regulatory requirements for creating electrical contact.

When creating a connection by welding, the conductors are twisted and their tip is welded. The resulting metal ball provides a very reliable connection of the wires. At the same time, reliability is due not only to the creation of high electrical characteristics, but also mechanical ones.

The main disadvantage of this type of wire connection is the presence of a welding machine and devices for such work. In addition, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the rules of working at height and fire safety.

Sequence of welding wires:

  1. We strip the conductors from insulation by 60-70 mm.
  2. We clean the cores mechanically (sandpaper).
  3. We twist the wires, and its length must be at least 50 mm.
  4. We fix the welding grounding contact on top of the twist.
  5. Lightly touch the bottom of the twist with the electrode. Wire welding occurs very quickly.
  6. After the contact ball has cooled, we insulate it.

As a result of such actions, an almost solid conductor is obtained, and the contact node will have the lowest transition resistance.

Connecting wires by crimping

For such a connection of conductors, special copper or aluminum sleeves are required, which are selected in accordance with the size of the bundle diameter. It is advisable to use the same material for the sleeves as that of the conductor.

The wires are stripped to the length of the sleeve , twisted and placed in a tube. Then, using special pliers, the connection is pressed and insulated.

There are tube sleeves for extending conductors, that is, for attaching them longitudinally. The wires are inserted into such sleeves from different sides of the tube, then crimped individually.

Bolt method

This connection is used in electrical circuits with high voltage. Its use is suitable for switching almost any conductor.

First, the wire is stripped of insulation. Next, a loop is formed from the free part, the diameter of which is equal to the cross-section of the bolt. Afterwards we assemble the fastening unit:

  • put the washer on the bolt;
  • first conductor;
  • next washer;
  • second conductor;
  • puck again;
  • screw.

Then the assembled assembly is tightened by hand, and then pressed with a wrench or pliers.

Modern docking technologies

Modern industry has mastered the production of special wire connectors, which have made work much easier and have sped up switching work:

  1. Caps with built-in crimp spring . The stripped wires are inserted into such a cap and turned clockwise. With this action, the wires are securely compressed inside.
  2. Terminal blocks that have tubular brass sleeves inside. Bare wires are inserted into these sleeves and clamped with screws.
  3. Self-clamping terminals automatically fix the stripped wire with a special plate.
  4. Lever terminal blocks are considered reusable devices. Fixation of the conductor is ensured by raising and lowering the lever.

Remember that the connection of wires must always be made on de-energized electrical networks. Without knowledge of electrical engineering, it is better to entrust work involving dangerous voltage to specialists.


Wiring in the apartment. Wire connection methods

  Installation of electrical wiring requires high-quality and safe connection of all conductors.

When carrying out electrical installation work, it is important to know that the connection points in the circuit are the most vulnerable elements, because the reliability of the wiring largely depends on the quality of all electrical connections.

The fact is that 80% of errors when installing electrical wiring occur in this area. Problems with wiring arise due to poor contact in junction boxes, machine terminals or fittings - sockets, switches, lamps.

In the sixties of the last century, all electrical wiring was done with aluminum wire. At the same time, ordinary twists were a standard connection of wires.

Of course, there were not as many household electrical appliances as there are now. The power consumption of all electrical appliances was an order of magnitude lower than the current innovations of civilization.

Therefore, the installation performed with aluminum wiring met the needs, and it was allowed to connect the wires with simple twists.

 Requirements for modern wiring

Today, wiring is carried out only with copper cables and wires, which makes it possible to connect any powerful modern electrical appliances. International standards indicate that aluminum wires are considered the most fire hazardous. Wires can be connected in various ways, specified in the rules for electrical installations - PUE 7.

From this point we see - SIMPLY Twisting is PROHIBITED!!! Twists are only possible as temporary connections before their final installation.

   Here's the thing. Over time, the properties of the contact connection may deteriorate due to various reasons. When twisted, a gap appears between the connected wires and the transition resistance increases. Which threatens to heat up the twist and destroy the insulation of the wires.

Copper conductor oxidizes in air already at room temperature. Accordingly, the contact resistance of the contact increases, the twist begins to heat up and oxidize, which can ultimately lead to an accident. The higher the temperature of the contact connection itself, the faster the contact oxidizes.

The formation of an oxide film leads to an even greater increase in the transient twist resistance.


When installing electrics, we use welding to reliably connect wire strands in the junction box. Due to the electric arc, the cable cores are heated until a characteristic ball is formed at the end of the twist.

The metal is fused into a single drop, resulting in virtually a monolithic wire.

The resistance of such a connection is very low (it does not heat up under load) and then the current no longer flows through the twist itself, but through the place of least resistance - the resulting drop! This connection will serve you for many years, maintaining its properties.

Screw connections

 To connect wire outlets to sconces or chandeliers, we use screw connections - terminal blocks. Reliable contact is achieved by screws that clamp the wire inserted into the sleeve. A big advantage of connections on terminal blocks is the ability to connect wires made of different materials that do not come into direct contact here.

Bolted connections

  Bolted connection of cable cores is necessary in cases where it is necessary to connect cores made of different metals, for example, aluminum and copper. This connection is assembled from a bolt of a suitable diameter, a nut and several washers.

It is used very rarely. A properly executed bolted connection fully satisfies all PUE standards.

Therefore, when repairing old electrical wiring, when it is necessary to use cables made of different materials, it is better to choose this connection.

Connecting wires using connecting insulating clamps

 PPE caps, also known as connecting insulating clips, are made of a plastic casing containing a cone-shaped spring. PPE is twisted clockwise until it stops.

Thus, the metal spring located in the clamp moves apart and compresses the twist, forming a tight contact. As a rule, we use PPE when there is no other option. When using PPE, you need to ensure that the sizes of the cap and the connected conductors match.

With their help, you can connect several single wires with a total area of ​​up to 20 mm2.

Self-clamping connections type WAGO

   WAGO self-clamping terminals, based on a spring clamp, are ideal for installing spotlights or chandeliers. Inside these devices there is a metal plate, which provides the desired degree of contact.

The wires are connected simply, just place the stripped wires into the terminal connectors, where they will be firmly fixed and the connection between them will be ensured through the conductive material of the internal terminal mechanism. Its main advantage is simplicity, convenience and speed of installation.

If you need wiring installation in your apartment at an affordable price, contact us! We will answer all your questions!


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