When did the first welding machine appear?

Who invented carbon electrode welding?

The historical development of welding can be traced back to ancient times. The earliest artifacts date back to the Bronze Age. The small gold boxes housed in the Irish National Museum were actually produced by pressure welding, which is known to require no heat and is produced by plastic deformation at room temperature. It is assumed that these boxes were made more than 2 thousand years ago.

During the Iron Age, the Egyptians and the eastern Mediterranean learned to weld pieces of iron together. Many of the tools that have been found were made during the period around 1000 BC.

In the Middle Ages, the art of blacksmithing reached its dawn and many products that appeared at that time were welded by forging, until welding as we know it today was invented in the 19th century.

1800 g

It is believed that acetylene was discovered by the Englishman Edmund Davis. But the first to obtain an arc discharge was another English chemist, one of the founders of electrochemistry, an honorary member of many scientific organizations, including the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Sir Humphry Davy. He received an arc electric discharge between two graphite rods, which were connected to the poles of an electric battery composed of 2 thousand galvanic cells.

Since the mid-19th century, the electric generator has been invented, and lighting using an arc discharge has been gaining popularity. And by the end of the 19th century, gas welding and cutting, arc welding with carbon and steel rods, and electrical resistance welding appeared.

1880

Auguste de Meritan, conducting research in the Cabot laboratory in France in 1881, used the heat of an electric arc to fuse the lead plates of rechargeable batteries. At that time, his student was the young Russian scientist Nikolai Nikolaevich Benardos, who worked with de Meritan in a laboratory in France and became, in fact, the father of welding.

The patent for the “Electrohephaestus” electric arc welding method was awarded to Nikolai Benardos and Stanislav Olshevsky. The British patent was issued in 1885 and the American patent in 1887. Bernados also developed the first electrode holder and so on. And although welding with a graphite rod was limited in its capabilities, already in those days it was possible to weld iron and lead.

The method began to be widely introduced at the end of 1890 - beginning of 1900.

1890

N.G. Slavyanov presented his version of the idea of ​​metal transfer through an arc (through a steel rod), and also adapted this method for casting into a mold and received a Russian patent for the method of electric steel casting.

At the same time, in 1890, the founder of General Electric, C.A. Coffin of Detroit patented in the United States exactly the same process of electric arc welding with a steel rod that was melted by the force of the arc, followed by metal transfer into the weld pool and crystallization of the weld.

1900 g

Around 1900 A.P. Strohmenger, whose name is unknown in the post-Soviet space, introduced in the UK the first steel electrode with a thin coating of clay or lime, which stabilized the arc.

But the electrode with flux coating was invented by the Swede Oscar Kjellberg, who was at the origins of the ESAB company. Work on the creation of coating was carried out from 1907-1914. Piece electrodes were made by drawing and cutting solid metal wire into rods, followed by immersion in solutions of carbonates and silicates. After drying, they were ready for sale.

At the same time, British engineer Elihu Thomson invented resistance welding.

In 1903, the German Goldschmidt (literally “goldsmith”) invented thermite welding, which was used to connect railway rails.

Gas welding and cutting also developed during this time. The production of oxygen, and later the liquefaction of air, along with the invention of the gas burner, contributed to this. Before 1900, attempts were made to weld in an oxygen-hydrogen flame, with the mixture contained in one cylinder.

The blowback could lead to a powerful explosion, so the chemist Sainte-Clair Devilleme decided to separate the gases and mix them in a burner. The process became safer, but at the exit St. Clair received a low-temperature torch of 2200 degrees. And only in 1901

The French Edmond Fouché and Charles Picard invented an oxygen-acetylene burner, the drawings and characteristics of which have not changed significantly to this day.

The First World War triggered the militarization of factories and a “golden age” began for welding. Welding machines and electrodes for them began to be mass produced.

1920 - present

In the 20s, different types of welding electrodes were developed, recipes for new fluxing coatings were compiled, and discussions were ongoing on the methodology for their production. The introduction of metal marking required the creation of a classification of coatings and the steel electrode rods used. It was necessary to create more reliable welding seams.

In the 20s, the influence of shielding gases on the welding process was thoroughly studied, since O2 and N2 of air in contact with the liquid metal of the weld caused porosity and hot brittleness. Various gases were supplied to the welding zone, then everything was carefully analyzed.

American chemist Irving Langmuir conducted experimental work with hydrogen as a protective welding atmosphere. He placed two electrodes next to each other, first made of graphite, later made of tungsten. A voltaic arc was ignited between them in a hydrogen atmosphere and active splitting of hydrogen molecules into atoms was observed.

The temperature of the dissociated flame was ~ 3700 ° C, which is sufficient for welding, and the high activity of hydrogen provided excellent protection of the weld metal from damage caused by O2 and N2 air.

The process is called atomic-hydrogen welding, but is not widely used and is used primarily for tool steels.

Similar work was also carried out by the Americans HM Hobart and PK Devers, only they worked with argon and helium. The result of the empirical research of these gentlemen was a patent for electric arc welding in a gas environment, which can be considered the first step in the creation of a modern inverter argon arc welding machine, which appeared, however, much later.

The patented process was ideal for welding Mg, Al, and Cr alloyed steel and was perfected in 1941. The technology was called inert gas tungsten arc welding. Today it is used both in production and at home. ArDS devices are most often used.

Among other things, equipment was developed for working in an environment of inert/active gases with a consumable electrode, which is a welding wire passing through a feeder to the burner nozzle along a flexible hose.

1928

In 1928 in the Soviet Union D.A. Dulchevsky invented automatic submerged arc welding. The development of the process began in the late 30s thanks to the efforts of scientists at the Institute of Electric Welding of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR under the leadership of Academician E.O. Paton, which played a big role in tank building, the production of guns and aircraft bombs during the Second World War. Submerged arc welding has found wide application in all sectors of the national economy. This is an effective way to obtain strong seams with good efficiency.

In the USA, the automatic welding process is called “powder submerged arc welding”. It was patented in 1930 by a certain Robinoff, and then sold it to Linde Air Products Company. In 1938, submerged arc welding was actively used in shipyards and ordnance factories.

In 1930, the curious Stud welding process was developed for the New York Navy Yard. Stud was used to secure wooden decking over a metal surface. Stud welding has become in demand in the shipbuilding and construction industries.

In 1949, electroslag welding was born at the Paton Institute in Kyiv, which removed restrictions on the welding of large-sized products. Now you can cook any thickness! The process was presented to the world public at the Brussels World Exhibition in Belgium in 1958

In 1953, K.V. Lyubavsky and N.M. Novozhilov invented a very economical method of welding with a consumable electrode in a CO2 environment. The new method gained worldwide recognition, as it made it possible to work on conventional inert gas welding equipment.

In 1957, the electron beam welding process was discovered by the French Atomic Energy Commissariat and found application in the automotive and aviation industries.

In 1957, Robert F. Gage invented the plasma arc welding process. The temperature in plasma is about 30,000°C, in contrast to an electric arc, the temperature of which is no more than 5000–7000°C.

1960

The use of gas mixtures begins, which consists of adding a small amount of oxygen to an inert gas. In general, the use of mixtures for various steels gives positive results. Pulsed current welding is being introduced.

  Electrodes for alternating current

Soon after the invention of the popular method of semi-automatic welding in carbon dioxide (CO2) by Soviet scientists, it was invented to use a consumable wire electrode with a flux core. When melted, the fluxing powder provided additional gas protection from the inside; carbon dioxide protection was used from the outside.

In 1959, a wire electrode was invented that did not require external gas protection. Now it is known as “self-protecting flux-cored wire”; it is most often purchased for cases when it is impossible to use gas. With this wire there is no need to carry a gas cylinder back and forth.

And for a snack

Friction welding was invented in the Soviet Union. The principle at work here is the conversion of mechanical energy into thermal energy due to the frictional forces that arise when connecting two parts with a certain compression force.

Laser welding is an innovative welding process. The laser was originally developed at Bell Telephone Laboratories as a communications device. But thanks to its ability to concentrate huge amounts of energy in a small volume, it also turned out to be a powerful source of heat, which is used today for highly efficient welding and cutting of metal.

Source: https://rem-serv.com/kto-izobrel-svarku-ugolnym-elektrodom/

Welding history

The historical development of welding can be traced back to ancient times. The earliest artifacts date back to the Bronze Age. The small gold boxes housed in the Irish National Museum were actually produced by pressure welding, which is known to require no heat and is produced by plastic deformation at room temperature. It is assumed that these boxes were made more than 2 thousand years ago.

During the Iron Age, the Egyptians and the eastern Mediterranean learned to weld pieces of iron together. Many of the tools that have been found were made during the period around 1000 BC.

In the Middle Ages, the art of blacksmithing reached its dawn and many products that appeared at that time were welded by forging, until welding as we know it today was invented in the 19th century.

Semi-automatic welding machine: history of creation, features of use

A real find has appeared in the world of welding machines. The new device cannot even be closely compared with the previous ones. After all, it has become much easier to use. If we consider a semi-automatic welding machine, then it is essentially just a power supply. It is he who supplies the necessary current and voltage. Typically, any power supplies are made using a transformer. Its dimensions directly depend on the characteristics that are required of it.

History of creation

When devices based on semiconductors appeared, it immediately became possible to switch to a new method in the manufacture of power supplies. The result is the birth of an inverter-type semi-automatic machine. Why is it good to use? Previously, the welding machine was a clumsy, bulky box that was very inconvenient to transport. Now it’s a small box that holds all kinds of electronics.

This is how the semi-automatic inverter-type welding machine appeared. Its characteristics are simply unique, but in terms of positive functional features it is not inferior to older models. Its versatility is the main advantage of this device. Although this is not the only advantage.

Advantages of semi-automatic machines

Now you can weld not only standard grades of carbon steel. Can weld cast iron and stainless steel. As well as non-ferrous metals, such as aluminum. If you are purchasing a welding machine for the first time, the amazing variety of welding machines on the market can be confusing. After all, their capabilities and characteristics are very different. At the same time, when choosing a productive semi-automatic welding machine, the price has a significant impact. You need to select the most optimal option.

How to choose

When purchasing, you first need to decide what kind of work will need to be done. This will affect the amount of current. This parameter is perhaps the main one by which the choice is made. Next you need to find out which network will have to be used to power this device. If single-phase voltage is supplied to the work site, then you need a welding machine that is designed for a single-phase network.

It should be taken into account that surge voltage fluctuations occur in the network. When an inverter semiautomatic device is used frequently, you need to select a welding device that can be used for a long time and continuously. Amateur devices, for example, can operate for no more than five minutes at a time.

The next criterion is versatility.

Some require electrode-type wire, while others require piece electrodes (MMA welding). The latter are more expensive. The devices also differ in the degree of automation. Some models have a manual wire feed speed. Others have automatic settings for this feature. It depends on the parameters under which each specific job is performed.

If the welding machine circuit is more automated, this will increase its price. You also need to pay attention to the weight of the device. How much easier the work will progress depends on this.

The configuration of such devices can be very different. You need to look at ease of use, the location of control knobs, a portable handle, voltage hoses and other features. Factors such as the manufacturer also play a role.

Western devices, especially those made in Italy, have gained particular popularity. Chinese ones can also work with long-term reliability, although buying them is risky. Chinese products do not always meet the requirements.

You need to use all the listed tips and recommendations, then it’s hard to make a mistake when choosing an inverter semi-automatic welding machine.

Which welding machine to choose: trans or inverter

Source: https://kamzmk.ru/svarochnyj-apparat-poluavtomat-istoriya-sozdaniya-osobennosti-ispolzovaniya.shtml

Arc welding, its variety and application

The history of creation, method of operation and principle of working with various metals using a welding arc were known back in the 19th century.

Russian physicist Vasily Petrov created the conditions for the functioning of a stable electric discharge (1802). Later, his welding ideas were used in practice by another of our compatriots, Nikolai Benardos. He managed to connect metal parts with an electric arc, which was created between a non-consumable carbon electrode and a product being welded by fusion (1882).

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Arc welding is the basis of metal joining

Already the first welding unit provided gas supply for an efficient process where two electrodes or one electrode and the part being processed with it interacted.

Development of arc welding

The next stage in the historical development of arc welding was the experiments of the Russian engineer Nikolai Slavyanov. The non-consumable carbon electrode was replaced by a metal one, which melted and eliminated the need for a separate filler metal (1888).

These discoveries of Russian testers became the basis on which the modern production of arc welding units throughout the world is built. Everything that happened next went along the following paths:

  • finding protective equipment and methods for processing metal being melted for welding;
  • automation of various methods of the welding process.

Several methods of protection are currently known:

  • gas,
  • gas-slag,
  • slag.

Welding automation, in one form or another, allows us to classify it into three main groups:

  • fully automatic,
  • mechanized,
  • manual.

The electrical discharge used must be of the required duration. For this, a special arc power source is used (for brevity, the abbreviation IPD is used). Therefore, in the AC format, a welding transformer is used, and if the current is DC, a generator or rectifier is used.

Varieties of arc welding

Welding using coated electrodes

The entire welding process is carried out manually, by melting the surface being treated. It is assumed that consumable and non-consumable electrodes will be used. From the first group, preference is given to:

  • aluminum,
  • copper,
  • steel

electrodes and some others, depending on the specific welding parameters. The second group is characterized by the use of:

  • tungsten,
  • graphite,
  • coal

electrodes of various diameters.

Most often, steel electrodes are used. In this case the following is carried out:

  • supplying the electrode to the area of ​​the proposed process,
  • the process of moving the welding arc along the entire length of the processed surface of the part on which a seam is formed by melting.

This method of connecting parts with an electric arc is one of the most common. It compares favorably with the others in that it is extremely simple and versatile when the welding machine is used for the manufacture of structures of various profiles. This method has proven itself to be excellent in cases where it is necessary to work:

  • in a horizontal, vertical position or carry out welding work at an angle;
  • in places where it can be difficult to provide normal access.

Disadvantages include:

  • low productivity of this type of arc welding,
  • direct dependence of labor results on the professionalism of the specialist performing this work.

Arc welding with a non-consumable electrode in argon

Welding using stick electrodes

In modern terminology, this arc welding process is called MMA. This is the English name (from Manual Metal Arc), in our tutorials and instructions the abbreviation RDS is sometimes used. With this method, electric current in a constant or alternating format is supplied to the electrode and the part to be welded.

The arc naturally melts the electrode and the surface of the part. In this case, the electrode forms separate drops of material for mixing with the melted surface of the part. The depth of penetration is adjusted by the welder and depends on what are:

  • the strength of the supplied electric current,
  • diameter of the electrode used,
  • position (vertical, angular or horizontal) of welding,
  • the speed of movement of the welding arc over the processed area of ​​the intended seam,
  • type of connection (single, double, etc.),
  • shape and dimensions of the processed edge of the part

and other factors affecting the welding process.

Separately, we can consider the process of igniting and maintaining the arc, setting the necessary welding current parameters. However, in most cases, when welding, a device in the form of an inverter is used, where these functions are prescribed separately, in the attached instructions, in relation to each model and the diameter of the electrode used.

Submerged Arc Welding

This method is most often used in industrial sectors, when there is a need to weld products containing:

  • various alloys,
  • steel,
  • non-ferrous metals,

because this way:

  • highly productive
  • is distinguished by excellent quality of work and stable connection of welded surfaces,
  • significantly improves working conditions,
  • Consumes significantly less electrical energy and materials for welding.

Submerged Arc Welding

Carbon dioxide is supposed to contain mixtures with inert/active gases to create maximum arc combustion efficiency. Experts believe that the disadvantage (and a very significant one) of this method is the limited provisions for conducting work. Since a deviation from the horizontal even by 10 degrees leads to flow of flux and metal, the welding process can only be carried out in a position from below.

This method is used in single-arc welding mode, which uses one electrode. In this case, a welding arc burns between the supplied wire (playing the role of an electrode) and the part (the surface to be welded), which is located under the flux layer. By gradual melting of the flux, a cavity is formed in the gas formed during this process (the so-called gas bubble), where the combustion of arc welding is ensured.

This type of welding is possible both in alternating current and direct current modes. Sometimes double-arc or multi-arc welding is used, and there can be one or more power supply apparatus.

Manual TIG arc welding method

This method is possible when using a non-consumable electrode in a protective inert and carbon dioxide, forming an effective mixture. The modern TIG welding method is included as one of the functions in almost all new inverter products.

Any device of the 21st century has it, in combination with other auxiliary functions. This abbreviation stands for Tungsten Inert Gas, and since the best non-melting material is tungsten, you can often find the abbreviation WIG. It stands for Wolfram Inert Gas. There is also the designation GTA, that is, Gas Tungsten Arc.

With this method, a wire is fed manually or automatically, playing the role of an electrode. In any case, one of the inert gases, most often argon, is mixed in carbon dioxide. Therefore, such welding is also called argon-arc welding (ARA). In addition to argon, the following are also used:

  • all kinds of gas mixtures,
  • nitrogen,
  • helium,

and sometimes atomic hydrogen welding, similar to TIG welding, is used. Since the discovery of the advantages of welding in carbon dioxide and its mixtures with inert gases, this method has become widely used in industrial sectors.

In this case, arc welding by fusion of the treated surface with a non-consumable electrode can be carried out in all three of the above modes, ranging from manual mode to automatic mode.

The welding machine used allows the use of all types of electrodes, from the thinnest to the thickest.

Arc welding in MIG/MAG mode. This is welding using a consumable electrode. It is also produced in carbon dioxide with all sorts of inert/active gases:

  • nitrogen,
  • helium,
  • oxygen,
  • argon

and others.

At the same time, combining in carbon dioxide, these additional components form the most effective mixture for fully maintaining arc welding, which occurs by melting the electrode and the workpiece. This modern method also supports any welding inverter available on the Russian market. The use of various mixtures with carbon dioxide must be correlated with the specific parameters of the proposed technical specifications.

Source: https://zavarimne.ru/texnologiya/dugovaya-svarka-ee-raznoobrazie-i-primenenie/

The history of the welding inverter - CUGP Construction portal

27.2.2017

Today, welding devices are the most popular and convenient devices for welding; many craftsmen do not want to hear about anything else. They compare favorably with their competitors, transformer devices, in size, weight and versatility. With their help, you can work with seams of any complexity, for almost any thickness, using a wide variety of principles, including the so-called “plasma welding”.

Even 60-80 years ago, such efficiency in one device would have been truly fabulous; many states would have given a lot to own such a unit, but now it can be bought in most hardware stores and supermarkets, in the Alcest online store chain.

First welding equipment

            Here it is important to remember that the principle of electric heating of metal and forging was tried by the famous scientist E. Thompson in 1905. And although it was more like blacksmithing, the main practice of working with metal at that time, Thompson's experiments became the “first sign” for the development of an entire category of tools.

            In 1907, Lincoln Electronic and CC Elektrick released the first variable voltage generators and motor generators. However, it was not until 1927 that truly applicable results emerged. Thanks to V.P. Nikitin, who achieved high-quality regulation of current for welding, patented a single-case transformer for arc welding.

First inverters

            In the early 60s of the 20th century, semiconductor electrical devices became widely used. It was at that time that the first pulse converter for welding was invented, essentially the first welding inverter.

The real breakthrough that made such devices applicable occurred closer to the 90s, with the introduction of ferromagnetic alloys and the ability to operate at ultra-high frequencies. Already in the 21st century, thanks to the widespread use of IGBT transistors, inverters have become even smaller and also significantly cheaper.

Of course, even now you can find expensive “smart” machines that use a microprocessor to control parameters and fully automatic operation. But this is, as they say, out of necessity.

Source: https://cugp.com.ua/istoriya-vozniknoveniya-svarochnogo-invertora/

History of development, types and scope of application of welding equipment

Welding of refractory materials is one of the foundations of the development of human civilization. With its emergence and use in construction, it became possible to erect high-rise buildings, build bridges over rivers, and conduct utility lines. Technologies for combining metals have even penetrated into the field of human health – medicine. We will introduce you to the history of welding, types of equipment and its scope of application.

The history of welding methods

Welding joints began to be used in ancient times by fusing gold items that were found in the Egyptian pyramids using tin soldering. In Pompeii, during excavations, lead water pipes with a soldered seam (transverse) were discovered.

We also know that ancient craftsmen, during forging, connected parts of the product by heating the metal to a plastic state. This is how blades and swords appeared, consisting of several strips of metal. In the Middle Ages, large artillery cannons were made in a similar way, reinforcing a forged pipe with outer rings that were connected to it using forge welding. Ancient buildings built during the Renaissance contain steel connections to support load-bearing structures.

The progress of the 19th and 20th centuries gave a new impetus to the use of welding technologies. The study of direct current contributed to the emergence of new approaches, one of which was electric welding. The first to use such a method was Petrov, a professor at the St. Petersburg Medical and Surgical Academy, who discovered the arc discharge in 1802.

And he later used the electric arc method to melt metals. At first, non-consumable carbon electrodes were used in such welding, and then, in 1988, metal electrodes were used for the first time. Unfortunately, the arc temperature was uneven, so the seam itself was uneven and porous.

Only with the use of fluxes has the welding process become more stable and of higher quality.

The twentieth century was marked by the emergence of many devices that improved and simplified the work process. Welding machines were one of these units. Although the technological level of the devices differs from the earliest ones, the operating principle remains the same.

The first welding machine with an oxy-acetylene welding torch was designed in 1903, and in 1906 acetylene generators for industry appeared. In 1940, the first use of a tungsten electrode using helium was made, and since 1946, a safer and cleaner gas, argon, began to be used.

Since the early 60s of the 20th century, several new welding technologies have appeared: using multiple electrodes, using a powder electrode, gas laser cutting.

Types of equipment

The welding arc occurs under the influence of power sources that allow maintaining a stable discharge. For constant and uniform operation, special equipment was created, which has different purposes, sizes and applications. This includes:

  • Electrodes and wire are the type of devices without which welding is basically impossible. They may differ in polarity, type of current used (direct or alternating), coating and material of manufacture.
  • Semi-automatic machines for welding in an inert/active gas environment. Complex and expensive devices, but with good performance; convenient to use. They can work with iron, steel, aluminum. Welding is carried out with wire made of various metals with a thickness of 0.6 - 1.2 mm in a protective gas environment. A multi-stage current regulator allows you to make the process smoother. Sometimes the wire speed changes. These two parameters determine the operating mode.
  • Devices with an alternating current transformer or transformers are used for welding with a consumable metal electrode with a coating. They are distinguished by their simplicity of design, reliability, low cost and are the most common. They work using consumable electrodes with a rutile or basic (calcium fluoride) coating, designed to protect the weld pool or impart various physicochemical properties to the finished joint, for example, alloy it. The welding method for such a device is butt and overlap.
  • Devices with a DC transformer or rectifiers for working with consumable electrodes. The design of the device includes a diode or thyristor rectifier, which makes the alternating current unidirectional, while losing some of its power. The unit is more complex, heavier and more expensive. But, nevertheless, working on it is more comfortable, since the arc is more stable. Can weld ferrous metals, stainless steel, non-ferrous metals using appropriate electrodes.
  • Inverters, also called pulse inverters. One of the most modern and advanced welding machines. They have various modifications, are famous for their low weight and improved quality of work due to the installed supply voltage stabilization circuits. The inverter is a direct current device and has a voltage rectification transformer at the input and output. The cost of such a device is quite high, but its advantages prevail, and it enjoys well-deserved success.
  • TIG machines with argon-arc welding, allowing for high-quality fusion. This is necessary to connect particularly critical areas. When working, graphite and tungsten non-consumable electrodes are used.
  • Spot welders or spotters for the local connection of two workpieces or parts.
  • Plasma cutting is used in the process of cutting metal. The principle is to cut the product with a plasma jet followed by evaporation (washing out) by an ionized stream of material particles.

Scope of application

Welding equipment is as in demand today as it was at the beginning of its use. These devices have different areas of application, and now we will look at for which areas it is logical to choose a specific welding unit or connection method.

Transformers are the oldest technology, rather bulky and heavy devices that require a large amount of electricity to operate. In addition, they are sensitive to voltage fluctuations.

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Therefore, their use is possible in cases of connecting rough seams of the most popular grades of steel and certain types of cast iron. Although, experienced welders can make excellent seams even with such equipment.

It all depends on the skill of the master, so transformers are quite common in industry.

Rectifiers that operate with alternating current can weld not only ferrous metals, but also any non-ferrous metals - aluminum, copper, titanium, nickel, and alloys of these metals. Therefore, the scope of application of such devices is very wide - from industry to domestic needs.

Semi-automatic devices are designed to operate in a gas environment. The electrode wire is fed automatically, which is why the devices got their name. This device makes it possible to obtain a seam of the required thickness and quality. Semi-automatic machines work with metals and alloys with any sheet sizes. The only drawback is the splashing of hot material and the creation of burns.

Inverters . Their device facilitates precise adjustment of the process and, as a result, obtaining high-quality seams. Even thin-walled metal can be welded with an inverter machine.

TIG machines , although they have low productivity, are popular due to the excellent quality of the seam with low metal loss during operation. They can connect all types of metals and their alloys.

Spot welding is widely used in the automotive industry, large service stations, and car repair shops. The work of a spotter allows you to connect small parts or body parts, so such devices are in deserved demand. By adding special welding pliers to the device, you will successfully use the spot welding method.

Plasma cutting machines can be bulky, large or small household devices. They are used both in industry for cutting metal on a large scale and for domestic purposes.

Despite the large amount of equipment for welding metals, the most popular are small devices for working with a conventional electrode. Simplicity of design and ease of operation allows the use of such units by any person who has little knowledge of welding structures and servicing such equipment.

Source: https://oborudovo.ru/art/svarka_istoria/

Who invented welding

The history of the development of welding goes back to our era. Ever since people learned how to mine metal, they have strived to create something useful from it. The most reliable connection method is the hot method. Now it is difficult to imagine that two centuries ago Russian scientists stood at the origins of modern welding machines.

Since then, a new page in the life of humanity began. Now there are several types of welding technologies used in production and at home. The modern history of welding is the invention of new units, methods of joining metals, and personal protective equipment of a new generation. But the traditional arc method using molten and refractory electrodes remains popular. Welders create huge metal structures and miniature works of art.

The role of welding in the modern world

Laser welding methods are currently being developed. A technology for high-precision metal joining has been developed. New composite materials are appearing; the use of aluminum, stainless steels, and non-ferrous metals is widespread. The following types of high-temperature metal compounds are widely used:

  • argon-arc technology makes it possible to obtain all types of connections: butt, corner, T-joint, overlap;
  • gas, with its help, main pipelines are created that run far from power sources;
  • semi-automatic allows you to speed up the process of joining elements, has high accuracy, and reduces the risk of a poor-quality seam;
  • Traditional manual electric arc always remains in demand.

Power sources are changing, holders are being improved, but the principle of hot joining of metals does not change. The welding method is preferable to other types of connections due to a number of advantages:

  • due to saving metal;
  • wear-resistant equipment has a large margin of safety and is used in any conditions;
  • compounds are formed at the molecular level with high strength.

First mentions of welding

Long before the advent of welding units, there were other ways to join metal. Samples of compounds created in the 8th – 7th centuries BC have been found. Native gold, pieces of copper and meteorite alloys were used for household purposes and weapons. They were held together by heating using a method comparable to forging.

Source: https://svarkaprosto.ru/tehnologii/kto-izobrel-svarku

What is a welding inverter, what does it consist of and how does it work?

  • What is a welding inverter
    • What does a welding inverter consist of?

What is a welding inverter?

Today, MMA welding has become more accessible than ever, because light, convenient, and functional welding inverters are available for sale.

Previously, when transformer welders were used for manual arc welding, there were more than enough problems. The biggest of them is the high power, due to which the plugs on the electrical panel were often knocked out.

Plus, if the electrode stuck, the power grid would go down so much that the neighbors were simply shocked.

With the advent of welding inverters, things got better. Today, every self-respecting craftsman has an inverter for welding, which weighs about five kilograms and does not drain the power grid at all. How does a welding inverter work? What is it and what does it consist of? Be sure to read this article on the website about welding mmasvarka.ru and you will find out exactly what the advantage of inverters is.

What is a welding inverter

A welding inverter is a household, professional or semi-professional welding machine, which has a fundamental difference in operation from transformer welding machines. To be more precise, a welding inverter is an alternating current to direct current converter, with its values ​​​​reduced to 90 V.

The operating principle of the welding inverter is based on the following:

  • AC voltage rectification;
  • Reducing high frequency current;
  • Maintaining the required current value to the required parameters, those needed for manual arc welding.

What does a welding inverter consist of?

For all of the above, rectification of alternating current and maintaining its required values, the following elements are responsible in the welding inverter:

Mains rectifier - it includes powerful capacitors and a diode bridge. It is this component of the welding inverter that converts alternating current in a 220 Volt network into its constant values.

High-frequency transformer - this part is also present in the inverter. Did you really think that welding inverters do not have transformers? Of course not! There is still a small but much needed transformer, and its main function is to reduce the voltage.

Inverter - consists of powerful transistors, most often attached to cooling radiators in the form of aluminum plates. The switching transistors that make up the inverter are needed, like a mains rectifier, to convert the incoming voltage.

Output rectifier - this element of the welding inverter makes it possible to rectify high values ​​of alternating current. The inverter output rectifier consists of high-speed and very powerful diodes, their response speed is incredibly high, more than 50 nanoseconds !

Inverter starting circuit - it includes various components of the power unit.

Despite the apparent complexity of the design, the welding inverter has a number of undeniable advantages. Firstly, it does not drain the electrical network so much. Secondly, the current adjustment on the inverter is smooth, which makes it possible to increase the quality of welding work.

Well, it’s not worth talking about such advantages of welding inverters as light weight and compact dimensions. If you compare the weight of an old welding transformer and an inverter, then these figures will be tens of times different.

Source: https://mmasvarka.ru/chto-takoe-svarochnyj-invertor.html

History of welding: major discoveries, past and modern methods, future of the industry

Every social process or emerging technology is not a sudden idea. Every event is natural. Everything happens at the moment when the conditions are right for it.

It is not for nothing that many historical periods are named after discoveries, tools and the level of human development of that time. All red processes are connected by a red thread to the past and the future.

Our present depends on what happened yesterday and what to expect tomorrow. And the welding process is no exception.

A little background

Welding begins its history back in the distant 8-7 centuries BC. This is now the technology of our era - modern and convenient for everyone. Things were different in those days. Metal that existed in nature had to be processed for domestic purposes.

Its shape changed due to two things - the physical strength of man and the action of the stone. Gold and copper were most often used - these were the most common metals 2-3 thousand years ago.

They had to be processed to create other tools, as well as jewelry and utensils. This process is considered the beginning of the history of cold welding.

Over time, humanity has improved its skills, including labor ones. Independent mining of lead, bronze and copper took place.

For the manufacture of large-sized products, heat treatment technology was used. Individual elements were heated and deformed. When it was necessary to create a perfect product, they turned to the casting method.

Almost 3000 years ago there was an era of the Iron Age. It’s easy to guess from the name that people learned to mine iron at this time.

And if now this process looks simple and logical, then in ancient times people’s skills were meager, and no one knew about modern technologies.

Today, iron is obtained from natural iron ores by separating the iron from them through smelting. At that time, no one knew about this method, and there were no tools.

A certain mixture was obtained from the raw materials, which contained iron particles. Of course, it was not a pure product, and it was many times different from what we have now. It contained an admixture of non-metals - slag and coal.

After a thousand years, it was possible to obtain pure iron without any additives. This was achieved using heated metal forging technology. Forge welding made it possible to obtain very beautiful and practical products, such as weapons and tools for work.

Before the Great Industrial Revolution, craftsmen were only able to work with soldering and forge welding - more advanced processing methods were unknown. Jewelry production developed thanks to soldering.

Major discoveries

The Industrial Revolution is a real breakthrough in the field of welding. It was truly a revolution in welding and its stages. Discoveries in the field of electricity played a major role in the whole process.

1802 Russian theoretical and practical physicist Vasily Petrov made a phenomenal discovery. He proved that an electric arc can be used in metal work. This idea was not immediately perceived by scientists as something unusual.

Although decades later his merits were appreciated. Petrov created a basic prototype of a modern welding machine. He wrote about this in “News on Galvani-Volt Experiments.” The book was published in 1803.

The next stage of history is the discovery of electromagnetic induction. It is a joint effort between Sir Humphry Davy and Michael Faraday, which was born in the 1830s. Faraday drew scientific conclusions about the success of the arch by studying magnetism and electricity.

20 years later, the electric arc appears in household lighting fixtures, which proved the importance of the scientist’s discoveries for the entire society.

1881 meant the appearance of the Electrohephaestus device, which was considered the first electric arc welding. After 6 years, Nikolai Benardos, a Russian engineer-inventor, patented his device after conducting a series of experiments.

Within 5 years, the whole world knew about this device - from America to Asia.

The opening of a partnership of the same name in 1885 by the same scientist meant the appearance of the first welding workshop.

Nikolai managed to obtain a patent for his device. To fulfill his plans, the scientist spent all his savings. The merchant Olshevsky helped the discoverer pay the missing funds.

After electric arc welding was recognized in dozens of countries, Benardos began developing welding with metal and coal electrodes. He is the founder of such discoveries:

  • electric arc process with a metal electrode at alternating current;
  • technicalization of the process and its stages;
  • welding using the inclined electrode method.

The scientists we have already talked about are considered the founders of modern welding processes. They made a huge contribution to ensuring that today's craftsmen work quickly enough.

These were key events related to welding and its development. But for the next 50 years there was a serious shortage of electricity, so electric welding was not so popular.

And although we had to temporarily forget about the new discoveries, everyone remembered that it was necessary to use electricity in welding work. It's only a matter of time. There have been some transformations in welding equipment and devices in general.

1904 Cutters appear that can be used skillfully.

1908-1909 – the time of the emergence of underwater metalworking technology. It was actively used in German and French production.

For the next 20 years, gas welding was the technology leader. It was actively used during the First World War.

Welders of that time resorted to its mechanisms when they were engaged in the construction of famous structures. The main pipelines “Grozny-Tuapse” and from Baku to Batumi are the merit of gas welding and all its processes.

At this time, electric arc welding was not popular. Everything was explained by the fact that the technology needed to be improved, because the arch burned with interference.

Andrus, Stresau, Stromengenr and others worked on this issue during 1914-1917. They came to a discovery in the form of a welding electrode. The latter did an excellent job of uniformly burning the arc.

Our years

At the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries, the development of welding did not stop.

Today, there are dozens of metalworking methods, each of which boasts its own advantages. Let's talk about each of them.

Arc welding

It is so common that it is used in 8 cases out of 10. This is a real leader who stands out noticeably among the rest.

Electroslag technology

A new way of processing large structures such as rolled metal, boilers and others. The basic principle of welding is this: an electrical impulse passes through the slag.

The latter appears during the melting of flux, which is considered a conductor of electricity. As a result, after current passes through the residue, heat is released.

There are the following types of welding using slag:

  • operation of electrodes operating with a large cross-section;
  • three mesh wires.

Tie and press welding

William Thompson invented the cohesive welding method, which today is considered a fairly old method. Initially it was popular in the States, then it became part of Russian technology.

In this regard, a large number of historically famous scientific centers and factories were opened, such as Elektrik, the Paton Institute and dozens of others.

If we touch on the basics, then there is such a division of the connected process:

  • butt - occurs due to the combination of structures on the surface of their contact. The method of cheating parts was used;
  • point - carried out by connecting parts simultaneously at a single or pair of points;
  • suture – several elements are connected using sutures.
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Press welding is also called pressure welding. It is characterized by fastening structures without melting it.

There needs to be a distortion in the use of force. This process at the initial stage arose even before our era, when welding without heating developed.

Gas cutting machine

This process occurs by melting metal through burners. Their task is to burn flammable gases.

For the first time in history, a gas burner was used in one of the French cities in the last decade of the 19th century. Its work is based on the fusion of hydrogen with oxygen.

When a metal is cut, it seems to burn in a stream of nitrogen.

Beam welding

The work of ion and photon flows gave impetus to the development of new types of welding. They were studied by scientists specializing in quantum mechanics and optics.

There are the following types of beam metalworking:

Source: https://prosvarku.info/tehnika-svarki/ob-istorii-razvitiya-svarki

Welding equipment - what it is, types of welding equipment, where it is used, various issues of use

If you are interested in various models of welding machines, then go to the “Welding machines” section.
Here, find out what kind of welding equipment there is, and also find some technical characteristics by which it is selected.

Welding equipment - what it is, types, features

Without the welding process, it is impossible to imagine a single construction site, industrial production or solution to any everyday issues, and therefore it is not surprising that welding equipment is in constant demand.

Today, welders have many welding methods and methods in their arsenal: using electrode or graphite rods with excellent conductive properties, using special welding wires, as well as based on gas, plasma, laser and other technologies.

Types of welding equipment

  • Arc welding. One of the ways to connect parts with an electric arc using a welding transformer or inverter. The arc temperature reaches values ​​of more than 5000 degrees - this is higher than the melting point of any known metal. (There are even inverter welding machines with a starter charger.)
  • Semi-automatic welding. A welding process in which an electrode in the form of a welding wire is fed continuously to the welding site at a selected speed, where active or inert gas is also supplied to protect the molten metal from the negative effects of the air. Read more about semi-automatic machines here.
  • Manual arc welding (mma). Carrying out the welding process using a coated metal electrode. Manual arc welding is one of the oldest and most versatile arc welding methods. Find out more about mma welding machines.
  • Submerged arc welding . Equipment using this technology works using the electric arc welding method. The arc formed between the part and the endless electrode is not visible, since it, together with the bath of molten metal, is under a layer of granular flux. Slag from the molten flux protects the welding zone from atmospheric influences.
  • Gas flame welding. Gas-flame welding equipment ensures melting of the base metal and filler material in the open flame of the torch. The constant operation of such a burner is ensured by the supply of one or a mixture of flammable gases (liquids) mixed with oxygen.
  • Electroslag welding. The operation of electroslag welding equipment is based on the principle of conductivity of molten slag, in the volume of which heat is released when the welding current passes. The electrode is electrically connected to the base metal through the molten slag. Due to the heat released in the slag bath, the temperature rises above the melting point of the metals. As a result, the edges of the base metal with the electrode melt and flow to the bottom of the melt to form a bath of molten metal.
  • Thermite welding. Thermite welding technology is provided by a powdered mixture of magnesium or aluminum when combined with iron scale. During the reaction, aluminum reduces iron from the scale, releasing enormous amounts of heat.
  • Argon arc welding (TIG). It is carried out in an environment of argon - an inert gas. It can be carried out using a consumable or non-consumable electrode (usually a tungsten electrode is used).
  • Plasma welding. Such equipment uses a high-temperature plasma arc flow to melt metal and additives. Plasma welding technology is in many ways similar to argon arc welding. (To learn more)
  • Electron beam welding. To carry out this type of welding, equipment is used that converts the kinetic energy of an electron beam directed into the processing zone into thermal energy.
  • Laser welding. The essence of laser equipment is to use the energy of a laser beam, which can be concentrated and focused using optical lenses in a small area.
  • Contact welding (resistance butt welding). Equipment that ensures the formation of permanent connections of metal products by heating them with passing electric current during plastic deformation by compression force of the connection zone. In resistance welding, the decisive role is played by the electrical resistance of the joint zone, which is the basis for the second name - electric resistance butt welding.
  • Spot welding. It is a type of resistance welding, a method of connecting parts along individual areas of contact, limited by the area of ​​​​the working ends of the electrodes, which transmit compression force and supply electric current. (To learn more)
  • Butt welding. Special butt welding equipment is used to connect parts made of PVC, polyethylene, polybutene along the contact plane. Parts (fittings, pipes) are easily welded together when heated.
  • Continuous flash butt welding . Resistance butt welding equipment provides an effective technology for connecting rods by connecting electrical voltage to them and, upon subsequent contact, forming an electrical closed circuit.
  • Diffusion welding. Diffusion welding equipment ensures the connection of parts by squeezing and heating the parts to be joined without melting the base metal. Welding occurs as a result of plastic deformation of existing microroughnesses on the surface of the welded products at temperatures below the melting point.
  • Welding with high frequency currents . A feature of high-frequency current welding equipment is to ensure a significant concentration of electromagnetic energy in the surface layers of the heated product and the release of thermal energy in the mass of the metal being processed due to the proximity effect and the surface effect.
  • Friction welding . The friction welding process is a type of pressure welding, in which heating is carried out by friction when moving (rotating) any part of the product being welded.

However, to perform a high-quality welding process, the basic equipment will not be enough, so it is very important to choose the right additional equipment, accessories and consumables for this. These include electrodes, slag brushes, welding helmets, grounding terminals, electrode holders, electrical cables, wire, draw rollers and torches and other necessary items. The quality of the welded joint and seam depends on the correctly selected equipment, both basic and additional.

Source: https://kovka-svarka.net/category/instrumenty-dlya-svarki/

Electric arc welding

Electric arc welding with coated electrode

Electric welding is one of the welding methods that uses an electric arc to heat and melt metal.

The temperature of the electric arc (up to 7000 °C) exceeds the melting point of all existing metals.

History of electric welding[ | ]

1802 - V.V. Petrov discovered the phenomenon of a voltaic electric arc and pointed out that the appearing “white light or flame, from which these coals ignite faster or more slowly, and from which the dark peace can be quite clearly illuminated.”

1803 - V.V. Petrov published the book “News about galvanic-voltage experiments,” where he described methods for making a voltaic column, the phenomenon of an electric arc and the possibility of its use for electric lighting, electric welding and electric soldering of metals.

1882 - N. N. Benardos invented electric welding using carbon electrodes, which he patented in Germany, France, Russia, Italy, England, the USA and other countries, calling his method “electrohephaestus”.

1888 - N. G. Slavyanov was the first in the world to put into practice arc welding with a metal (consumable) electrode under a layer of flux. In the presence of a state commission, he welded the crankshaft of a steam engine.

1893 - At the World Exhibition in Chicago, N. G. Slavyanov received a gold medal for the method of electric welding under a layer of crushed glass.

1905 - V.F. Mitkevich was the first in the world to propose the use of a three-phase arc for welding metals.

1932 - K.K. Khrenov implemented it for the first time in the world in the Soviet Union [2].

1939 - E. O. Paton developed the technology of automatic submerged arc welding, welding fluxes and heads for automatic welding, electric welded tank turrets, and an electric welded bridge.

Process description[ | ]

Electricity is supplied to the electrode and the welded product to form and maintain an electric arc from a welding transformer (or welding unit, welding converter, welding inverter). When the welding electrode and the workpiece come into contact, welding current flows.

Under the influence of the heat of the electric arc (up to 7000°C), the edges of the parts being welded and the electrode metal are melted, forming a weld pool, which remains in a molten state for some time. In the weld pool, the electrode metal is mixed with the molten metal of the product (base metal), and the molten slag floats to the surface, forming a protective film. When the metal hardens, a welded joint is formed.

The energy required to form and maintain an electric arc is obtained from special DC or AC power sources[3].

Consumable and non-consumable electrodes can be used in the electric welding process. In the first case, the formation of a weld occurs when the electrode itself melts; in the second case, when the filler wire (rods, etc.) melts, which is introduced directly into the weld pool.

To protect the weld metal from oxidation, shielding gases (argon, helium, carbon dioxide and their mixtures) supplied from the welding head during the electric welding process are used.

To increase the stability of the electric arc, easily ionized elements (potassium, sodium, calcium) can be introduced into the electrodes [4]..

There are alternating current electric welding and direct current electric welding. When welding with direct current, the weld is obtained with less metal spatter, since there is no zero crossing and no change in current polarity.

DC electric welding machines use rectifiers.

It is possible to control the position of the welding arc when welding with direct current. The arc is a conductor of current and, like an ordinary conductor, is deflected in a magnetic field in accordance with Ampere's law.

Classification[ | ]

Arc welding is classified depending on the degree of mechanization of the process, the type of current and polarity, the type of welding arc, the properties of the welding electrode, the type of protection of the welding zone from atmospheric air, etc.

According to the degree of mechanization, they are distinguished:

  • manual arc welding
  • mechanized (semi-automatic) arc welding
  • automatic arc welding

The assignment of processes to one or another method depends on how the ignition and maintenance of a certain length of the arc, manipulation of the electrode to give the seam the desired shape, movement of the electrode along the line of application of the seam and termination of the welding process are carried out.

In manual arc welding (MMA - Manual Metal Arc), the specified operations necessary to form a seam are performed by a person manually without the use of mechanisms.

With mechanized (semi-automatic) arc welding (MIG/MAG -Metal Inert/Active Gas) with a consumable electrode, the supply of electrode wire into the welding zone is automated, and the remaining operations of the welding process remain manual.

With automatic submerged arc welding, the operations of exciting the arc, maintaining a certain length of the arc, and moving the arc along the seam line are mechanized.

Automatic consumable electrode welding is carried out using welding wire with a diameter of 1-6 mm; in this case, the welding mode (current, voltage, arc speed, etc.)

) is more stable, which ensures uniform quality of the seam along its length; at the same time, greater precision is required in the preparation and assembly of parts for welding.

According to the type of current, they are distinguished:

  • electric arc powered by direct current of straight polarity (minus on the electrode);
  • electric arc fed by direct current of reverse polarity (plus on the electrode);
  • electric arc powered by alternating current.

According to the type of arc they distinguish:

  • direct action arc (dependent arc);
  • arc of indirect action (independent arc).

In the first case, the arc burns between the electrode and the base metal, which is also part of the welding circuit, and the heat generated in the arc column and at the electrodes is used for welding; in the second, the arc burns between two electrodes.

According to the properties of the welding electrode, they are distinguished:

  • consumable electrode welding methods;
  • methods of welding with non-consumable electrodes (carbon, graphite and tungsten).

Consumable electrode welding is the most common welding method; in this case, the arc burns between the base metal and the metal rod fed into the welding zone as it melts. This type of welding can be performed with one or more electrodes.

If two electrodes are connected to one pole of the arc power source, then this method is called two-electrode welding, and if more - multi-electrode beam welding. If each of the electrodes receives independent power, the welding is called double-arc (multi-arc) welding.

In fusion arc welding, the arc efficiency reaches 0.7-0.9.

According to the conditions for monitoring the arc combustion process, are distinguished:

  • open;
  • closed;
  • half-open arc.

When the arc is open, visual observation of the arc burning process is carried out through special protective glasses - light filters. An open arc is used in many welding methods: manual welding with metal and carbon electrodes and welding in shielding gases.

The closed arc is located entirely in the molten flux - slag, base metal and granular flux, and is invisible. A half-open arc is characterized by the fact that one part of it is in the base metal and molten flux, and the other is above it. The process is observed through light filters.

Used for automatic flux welding of aluminum.

Based on the type of protection of the welding zone from ambient air, there are:

  • arc welding without protection (bare electrode, electrode with a stabilizing coating);
  • arc welding with slag protection (thickly coated electrodes, submerged arc);
  • arc welding with slag-gas protection (thickly coated electrodes);
  • arc welding with gas protection (in a protective gas environment) (MIG-MAG);
  • arc welding with combined protection (gas environment and coating or flux).

Stabilizing coatings are materials containing elements that easily ionize the welding arc. They are applied in a thin layer to electrode rods (thin-coated electrodes) intended for manual arc welding.

Protective coatings are a mechanical mixture of various materials designed to protect the molten metal from exposure to air, stabilize the arc, alloy and refine the weld metal.

The most widely used are medium- and thick-coated welding electrodes intended for manual arc welding and surfacing, manufactured in special workshops or factories.

Recently, plasma welding has become widespread, where an arc between inert non-consumable electrodes is used to heat an intermediate carrier, for example, water steam, at high temperatures. Welding with atomic hydrogen is also known, produced in an arc between and releasing heat when recombining into molecules on the parts being welded.

Notes[ | ]

  1. Chekanov A. A. Nikolai Nikolaevich Benardos. - M.: Nauka, 1983.
  2. “Handbook for a young electric welder on manual welding”, G. G. Chernyshov, V. B. Mordynsky, Moscow, “Machine Building”, 1987; page 66
  3. “Welding: Welding and cutting of metals: a textbook for beginners. prof. education/G. G. Chernyshov. - M.: Publishing Center "Academy", 2008 - p. 496
  4. Documentary film "Arc Welding"

Literature[ | ]

Nikolaev G. A. Welding in mechanical engineering: A reference book in 4 volumes - M.: Mechanical Engineering, 1978 (1-4 volumes).

Links[ | ]

Source: https://encyclopaedia.bid/%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%BF%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D1%8F/%D0% A1%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%87%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D0%B0%D0%BF%D0%BF%D0%B0% D1%80%D0%B0%D1%82

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