What to do if the soldering iron does not work

Why doesn't solder stick to the wire?

Beginner radio amateurs often encounter difficulties when the solder does not stick to the soldering iron. He doesn’t want to, and that’s all. In such conditions, soldering becomes not just torture, but a real torture of the nerves.

How much effort and patience it takes to catch this nimble ball of molten solder with a sting. But then it needs to be conveyed to the details. What if the tool tip is not flat? What to do then? All you need to do is carefully prepare it for work.

Main reasons

Tin-lead (the most common) solder melts at a temperature of 250-300 ℃, and this temperature is quite sufficient for work.

If at some point the tip gets hotter, then the solder and flux on it can simply burn out, leaving unsightly traces of their presence.

In addition, the copper from which the tip is made will begin to oxidize due to overheating and a thin film of copper oxide will appear on the surface. Because of it, the solder does not stick, and the “slag” remaining on the tip does not add “stickiness” at all.

So, there are two main reasons why solder does not stick or hold. The first is contamination of the tip, the second is oxidation. If you eliminate them, the work will go like clockwork.

Proper preparation for work

Direct preparation of the tool for soldering involves tinning. After all, it is to untinned metal that the soldering material does not stick.

Tinning is the process of covering a surface with a thin layer of tin.

By the way, parts are prepared for soldering in the same way. How to tin the soldering iron? Yes, very simple. Only it is not the entire instrument that needs to be tinned, but only its tip.

First you need to clean it mechanically. A file or sandpaper is suitable for this. You need to clean thoroughly, without leaving grooves or scratches in which an oxide film could remain. Of course, the soldering iron must be cold.

After thorough cleaning, you need to cover the working surface with a layer of flux. If a liquid composition is used, then immediately after cleaning it is applied with a brush; if solid rosin is used, then the soldering iron must be immersed in it as the tip heats up.

There is no need to wait for the soldering iron to heat up, because an oxide film will inevitably form in the air, which will again prevent the solder from sticking. Overheating is the reason that the copper tip does not tin.

After the soldering iron has warmed up to the desired temperature, touch the solder with the tip and rub it. You can grind the solder using a sliver of hard wood - birch or oak. In this case, do not allow the soldering iron to overheat.

The solder sticks perfectly to a properly tinned soldering iron and does not lie on it in lumps or drops. It evenly coats the copper tip and leaves it quietly when needed.

In case of nickel plating

Soldering irons with a so-called “eternal tip” coated with a thin layer of nickel are often used for soldering. For some reason it is believed that it does not tin. In fact, who would think of sanding off a nickel coating?

However, the time comes and it becomes noticeable that the solder does not hold! At best, it sticks in small drops. So what should we do? The answer is the same - cheat!

The reason is often that the sting is dirty. First, you should still make sure that the nickel plating is not damaged.

After this you need to remove the deposits. This can be done on a slightly heated soldering iron with a damp cloth folded in several layers.

Next steps are:

  • immediately after removing carbon deposits, the tip must be lowered into a jar of rosin, in which a piece of solder was previously placed;
  • with a soldering iron you need to melt the rosin around the solder so that it sinks;
  • under a layer of liquid hot rosin, touch the solder. It will immediately cover the entire working surface of the tip.

The best way to avoid solder not sticking is to avoid overheating the tip.

Prevention has always been the most effective remedy. If it is not possible to purchase a tool with temperature control, you can purchase a dimmable voltage regulator or make one yourself. If you monitor the heating temperature, you will have to tin the soldering iron much less often.

SergeyE (Moscow) May 2, 200518:04:31 Hi all !

How to tin stranded wires?

Source: https://morflot.su/pochemu-pripoj-ne-prilipaet-k-provodu/

How to tin a soldering iron quickly and correctly

The need to tin a soldering iron arises when a molten drop of solder stops spreading over the heated surface and sticking to it; there is no way to supply a sufficient portion to the soldering point, which interferes with high-quality work.

The tip, receiving heat from the heater, oxidizes in air. In addition to reducing the adhesion of solder to copper, a layer of thermally insulating carbon deposits impairs heat distribution.

 There are a number of ways to tin a soldering iron for the purpose of periodic maintenance of the working tool; such a procedure is also required for a new tip and one that has oxidized during storage.

How to properly tin a copper tip on a soldering iron

Tools with nichrome heating elements have a copper round rod, which is given a shape convenient for soldering. Mechanical processing of the rod is carried out with a file, followed by finishing on sandpaper or a finely notched needle file. Then it is useful to lightly beat off the sting using a cold method on an anvil.

This will compact the top layer of copper, increase mechanical strength and reduce the rate at which the molten solder dissolves the material. It would be a good idea to polish it to reduce the rate of oxidation. All work is performed on the tip removed from the socket, including the part that is hidden inside the heating element.

Tinning a soldering iron tip means covering the working area of ​​the rod with a thin layer of alloy.

The boiling flux dissolves the oxide layer on the copper core, and the melt coats the surface.

Since it is not difficult to tin a soldering iron with a copper tip, you can do it yourself as follows:

  1. Insert the cleaned rod into the soldering iron and turn on the power.
  2. When it warms up to the melting temperature of rosin, completely dip the tip into rosin.

There is no need to overheat the soldering iron, since immersing the rod in the flux causes the release of clouds of smoke with splashing and the formation of slag from burnt rosin. When heated normally, the resin melts and produces a small amount of smoke.

  1. Using a solder rod, rub the work surface covered with a layer of molten flux, which must be renewed periodically.
  2. The process is complete when a uniform thin layer of poluda is formed.

    Excess should be removed with a wet cotton cloth.

The rod must be tinned with a composition with a high melting point, shown in the table.

Brand Compound, % Melting point, ˚С
POS-61 Tin 59-61 Lead 39-41 190
POS-40 Tin 39-41 Lead 59-61 238
POSK-50/18 Tin 50 Lead 32 Cadmium 18 145
POSu-95/5 Tin 95 Antimony 5 240

POS-40 or POSu-95/5 form a high-quality coating that must be renewed as it fades.

How to tin the tip of a modern soldering iron?

Core manufacturers claim that their products do not need to be tinned. This is partially true for those rods that are used by feeding solder with wire or paste into the working area. The tip heats the connection with flux applied to it, melts a drop of alloy from the wire, which, spreading over the hot one, forms a strong connection.

Nickel also oxidizes in air, although at a slower rate than copper. The oxide layer impairs heat transfer, reducing the efficiency of soldering heating, so it is better to tin the working side. This must be done without damaging the coating. To do this, use a wet cotton rag, a jar of solid rosin and POS.

Rules for how to tin a new soldering iron:

  1. The working surface is degreased.
  2. The power is turned on.
  3. The heated core is cleaned with a wet rag and immediately stuck into rosin.
  4. A piece of solder added to the jar is ground without removing the rod from the flux.
  5. After a short time, the tip will be covered with an even layer of tin.

Most often, a conical shape is used for the sting. It is enough to tin the tip of the cone 3-5 mm.

Features of tinning a modern soldering iron tip

Nowadays the rods are made of copper coated with a thin layer of nickel, which protects them from burning or ceramics. Mechanical processing is not allowed, it cannot even be scratched. To remove excess POS or flux burnout products, you can wipe it with a piece of wet, non-synthetic cloth, if you do not have a special sponge or cleaner made from brass shavings.

How to tin a soldering iron tip while working

When soldering, due to heating, the surface of the tip oxidizes, the solder stops sticking, and burnt flux slag accumulates, deteriorating the quality of soldering.
We have to restore the tinned coating. It is best to use a dry cleaning device consisting of a metal coil in a container.

By modifying the device by adding a thick acid-free flux, such as stearin or soldering lard, to the bottom, you can solve two problems:

  • clean the surface of the rod from carbon deposits by rubbing it on the chips;
  • By grabbing a drop of POS on the tip of the hot tip and drowning it in the flux, we get cleaning and tinning at the same time.

The procedure is suitable for thin copper, nickel-plated and ceramic cores. It is carried out when the oxide begins to interfere with work.

How to tin a non-burnable tip?

The tip is easily tinned if it is hot and thoroughly wiped with a damp cloth without synthetics and immediately dipped into the flux. Then use an alloy stick to rub the work surface until half-painted, wipe the rod with a rag and start working.

How to tin a soldering iron tip with a wooden block?

If there is a significant layer of oxide on the surface, and it cannot be removed mechanically with abrasives or files, a block or plank of coniferous wood helps well when tinning.

  1. Place the beam so that the wood fibers are oriented perpendicular to the movement when rubbing.
  2. The power is turned on, small pieces of rosin and POS are laid out on the board.
  3. The heated rod is placed in a piece of rosin, which forms a melted puddle.
  4. The tip covers the tin.

    After melting, the tip begins to move across the fibers without leaving the rosin.

The oxide layer is dissolved by hot rosin, and the alloy is rubbed into the surface.

How to tin a sting in rosin?

A slightly oxidized surface can easily be tinned in a jar of rosin with a piece of POS placed there. Using a wiped tip, melt the alloy in a container with rosin. Such work is accompanied by the release of large amounts of resinous smoke and should be performed in fresh air or in a well-ventilated area.

The durability of the coating or half-tip is determined by the temperature regime. It is harmful to use a soldering iron at maximum power unless necessary. Where it is impossible to regularly change the heating temperature, use adapted power regulators and homemade voltage limiters during soldering pauses.

Source: https://pauk.top/kak-zaludit-payalnik.html

How to tin a soldering iron tip

During operation and storage, an oxide layer forms on the soldering iron tip. It interferes with high quality soldering. To remove this layer and prevent its re-formation, tinning is performed, or coating the copper surface with a protective layer of tin alloy. There are many different tinning methods. Before surgery, the sting must be thoroughly cleaned.

How to tin a soldering iron tip

Basic information about the tinning process

Tinning is divided into initial, carried out on a new or long-stored soldering iron, and working, performed immediately before soldering.

How to tin a soldering iron tip? First, the tip is mechanically cleaned of scale, oxide film, slag and other contaminants, then a thin layer of molten solder, most often tin-based, is applied to the prepared surface.

For mechanical cleaning the following are used:

  • abrasive stone;
  • sandpaper;
  • another soldering iron.

Cleaning a soldering iron with a non-burn tip

For inexperienced soldering workers, craftsmen recommend starting with a file. As the solder strengthens his skills, he selects the most convenient stripping methods for himself.

Preparation and Maintenance

The more intense the work, the sooner the soldering iron tip burns out and becomes overgrown with scale scales.

During prolonged heating to high temperatures, the copper from which the tip is made partially transforms into molten tin, and partially abrades on the soldered surfaces and contacts. Physical and chemical erosion of the substance occurs. In addition, under the influence of heat, an oxidative reaction of copper with atmospheric oxygen occurs. On models that allow you to regulate the temperature, it is recommended to reduce it when there are breaks in soldering, or simply turn off the soldering iron during this time.

Sequence of operations to remove scale:

  • Carefully remove the sting.
  • Clean off the scale layer with fine-grained abrasive paper.
  • Apply a graphite protective layer to the tip by rubbing it with a pencil lead. This will slow down the reappearance of the scale layer.
  • Lightly tap the body of the electric heater and turn it to remove scale from the recess for the copper rod.
  • Insert the tip back into the mount.

To ensure electrical safety, each time before starting work, you should inspect the insulation of the network cable for the absence of mechanical damage and melting.

From time to time it is also useful to measure the insulation resistance value. The measurement is taken between the plug contacts and the tip. The value must be greater than 10 mOhm.

The sting is the main (and only) working part of the device. It is heated by an electric heater and heats the solder, rosin (or other flux) and the parts to be soldered. During operation, an invisible oxide film forms on it, reducing the wettability of the material. Visually it looks like this: tin or rosin does not spread evenly over the entire area, but collects in a drop and flows down.

The size and geometry of the working body are chosen so that they correspond to the operations performed. So, when soldering parts of large sizes and thickness, choose a powerful soldering iron with a thick tip. To install microcircuit legs, on the contrary, a particularly low-power device is required, with a thin tip and good grounding, so as not to damage sensitive components due to static charge or overheating.

Soldering microcircuits

A universal soldering iron is sharpened with a spatula. Thin parts are soldered with the narrow side, and more massive ones with the plane of the blade.

Tin the soldering iron tip

Before each soldering, the soldering iron must be re-tinned. The device must be turned on and wait until it warms up completely. In this case, the copper of the working body will acquire a red-orange hue. There is no need to overheat either, to avoid burning. The heated soldering iron should be pressed against a piece of rosin. The rosin will begin to melt and give off strong-smelling smoke. The melt should be evenly coated on the tip. Then you need to melt a small piece of tin and let it spread over the surface in an even layer.

How to tin a soldering iron with a copper tip

Tinning a soldering iron is a simple job and usually does not cause any difficulties. If the surface of the rod is well prepared and cleaned, then both tin-lead and silver solders fit well on it.

Soldering iron with copper tip

It is necessary to clean the surface of the rod to the condition of a new part. First you need to work with coarse sandpaper, level the surface and give it the required shape. If it is technically possible, it is a good idea to polish the surface - this way it will oxidize more slowly.

There is another technique - binding. To do this, the tip should be pulled out of the heater and, like a blacksmith, forged with a hammer on an anvil (or a massive vice). A surface compacted in this way will also oxidize much more slowly.

After machining, it’s time to actually tin the tip. Experienced shareholders recommend various methods:

  • Place a few pieces of solder in the rosin can. Heat the soldering iron and dip the stripped tip into it. Rosin melt will act as a flux additive and will prevent the metal from becoming coated with an oxide layer. Instead, it will be coated with a layer of tin. Next, you need to take a square of coarse natural cloth and wipe the freshly tinned tip. In this case, the tin will rub over the surface and stick to it perfectly. The disadvantage of this method is a lot of smoke and a strong smell.
  • The next method of tinning the tip produces less smoke, but requires more labor. A piece of coarse natural cloth should be laid out on a smooth board, sprinkled with crushed rosin or a whole piece should be placed on it. Dip the stripped tip into rosin and rub the surface with a solder rod. This operation will have to be repeated several times, and then rub the working surface on rosin cloth.

A soldering iron with a copper tip must be tinned each time before soldering and always after storage without use.

Using a wooden block

A rough wooden block (spruce or pine, they contain natural resin, similar in composition to rosin). Pour a small amount of flux composition onto the block and put a small piece of solder. If you notice dross, you can strip and tin the tip again with little interruption.

In a metal sponge

This quick tin tip method will require some preparation. Place a household wire dish sponge in a metal cup. The lower part of the sponge should be coated with a thick flux, such as soldering lard. By slightly immersing the tip in the sponge, it can be cleaned of slag and scale. And if you pick up a drop of tin and immerse it deeper into the sponge, it will turn out to be tinned.

Tinning the tip with a metal sponge

This method can be used to clean and tin both a classic copper tip and modern ones made of nickel or ceramic.

In rosin

This traditional method of tinning requires a certain amount of dexterity and speed of movement. Copper oxidizes very quickly, and you may not have time to bring the tip from the point of mechanical cleaning to the container with flux. Therefore, they clean directly under flux, placing a file under the tip. You need to rub the tip over the file until the flux melts, after which you can tin it by holding a tin rod.

Tin the classic way

Another traditional method of tinning involves the use of refractory solder. The refractoriness of the solder allows it to evaporate more slowly from the surface of a tinned soldering iron and will remain on the copper longer. It will require:

  • file with frequent notches;
  • rough board made of coniferous wood;
  • rosin;
  • a piece of refractory solder.

The sequence of actions is as follows:

  • put solder on the board;
  • clean one side;
  • dip deeply into rosin;
  • quickly clean it on a board, running it over the solder;
  • repeat for the second side.

Next, you should tin the round surface between the edges.

How to tin a modern soldering iron tip

According to manufacturers' declarations, tips made of ceramic or nickel do not require tin-plating. In real life, they are also susceptible to the formation of soot and scale. It will not be possible to tin such a soldering iron in the usual way. You will need:

  • cotton rags;
  • jar of rosin;
  • solder rod.

Soldering iron with ceramic tip

You should wipe the tip on a rag and immediately immerse it in rosin. Along the tip you need to immerse a solder rod in boiling rosin. It will melt and stick to work surfaces.

Tinning methods

There are several ways to clean work surfaces before tinning:

  • Using abrasive materials. Needle file, file, whetstone, sandpaper.
  • Using forging. It is recommended to remove the tip before processing it.
  • Using another soldering iron. The tips rub against each other.

After stripping, you should immediately, without waiting for the oxide layer to recover, immerse the tip in a container with rosin. A rod of solder is also immersed there, melting it and allowing it to spread over the surface of the rod. This operation should be repeated several times to ensure that the working surfaces are completely covered with solder.

Next, rub the tip on a pine or spruce board to ensure even distribution of the solder.

Tinning with rosin

The tip must be carefully inspected. If there are areas not covered with solder, the operation should be repeated until a dewy continuous layer is obtained.

You won't be able to tin it once and for all. Tinning needs to be repeated periodically.

How to tin a fireproof tip

The traditional tip, made of red copper, has a tendency to constantly burn out and form scale. Quite often it needs to be cleaned and tinned. On the other hand, work on desoldering highly sensitive to overheating microcircuits and other electronic components requires minimal presence of solder on the working part. Even the minimal heat that is stored in a drop of solder may be enough to damage them.

For the installation of such heat-sensitive parts, non-burning tips with a thin nickel layer are used. This coating is easy to scratch, and traditional sanding with a file or sandpaper for copper tips will quickly damage it. You should also not remove excess solder by tapping it on the stand.

Such working bodies can be tinned in the following way:

  • prepare a piece of cotton fabric, rosin and solder;
  • moisten it with cold water, squeeze lightly;
  • place a piece of solder in a jar of rosin;
  • rub the heated soldering iron firmly on the fabric, erasing the oxide layer;
  • quickly dip the tip into rosin and melt the tin in it, allowing it to spread evenly;
  • rub on cotton cloth.

Manufacturers recommend using special cellulose sponges. They are moistened with water or glycerin and the tip is periodically wiped with it to remove oxides and excess tin.

It is permissible to use a wire sponge made of copper alloys for this. Steel wire will not work - it will damage and tear off the nickel coating layer.

For non-burning soldering irons, compliance with the temperature regime is especially important - if it is exceeded, the tip may fail. You need to carefully monitor the temperature, and during breaks in soldering, reduce the power if the device is equipped with a regulator.

If there is no regulator, the soldering iron should be turned off during breaks. Advanced models have an automatic power control function. It uses information from the temperature sensor and reduces power if the device is in danger of overheating.

In addition to overheating, it is also harmful for non-burnt tips to be left without solder for a long time.

Fireproof tips have the added benefit of being easy to remove and replace. Whole sets of replaceable working parts are available, designed for different types of soldering.

Source: https://stankiexpert.ru/spravochnik/svarka/kak-zaludit-zhalo-payalnika.html

How to tin a soldering iron tip so that it solders correctly?

Many domestic soldering irons are made with a copper tip. For example, soldering irons like EPSN. The copper tip must be properly treated before this soldering iron can be used. The tip must be given a shape convenient for soldering.

Some people process it with a simple file, and especially creative individuals prefer to forge it. As a result, the soldering iron tip becomes more durable and dissolves much less in the solder during the soldering process. But sooner or later everyone wonders how to tin a soldering iron with a copper tip.

Features of soldering irons

It is best to buy soldering irons whose tip is secured with a special screw. Such a sting can always be easily removed and processed again. Of course, if it gets stuck during use, then this process will not be so easy. Therefore, when using soldering irons with removable tips, it is necessary to remove them from time to time and clean the attachment point so that it does not stick.

After the tip is given the desired shape, it must be tinned. The phrase “how to tin a soldering iron tip” should mean that you will have to cover the working area of ​​the tip with a thin layer of solder. It's not too difficult to do this. It is enough to plug in the soldering iron, wait until it heats up to the temperature at which the rosin begins to melt, and then dip the tip into it.

After the soldering iron has been heated to its operating temperature, you need to cover the part of it that is used for soldering on all sides with solder. It is better to take small pieces or solder made in the form of wire for this. A soldering iron with a power of 25 watts will not be able to melt a large piece of solder.

Soldering iron tip shape

The shape of the sting may vary. The choice depends on the habits of the person who uses the soldering iron, and, of course, on the type of work performed with it. Some people prefer a cone-shaped soldering iron tip, while others prefer a soldering iron tip cut at 45 degrees.

The fact is that with a sharply sharpened soldering iron tip it will be possible to solder even transistors hidden in SOT-23 cases, SMD parts or capacitors with resistors of size 1206. To solder such parts from boards in large quantities, a construction or soldering hair dryer is usually used. If it is not available, a regular soldering iron with a power of about 25 Watts, whose tip is processed in the shape of the letter P, will be useful. It is necessary to remember that this is done before tinning the soldering iron tip.

This is done in order to avoid overheating the leads of the part, which happens when soldering with a soldering iron with a regular tip. And with the help of such a U-shaped tip, the leads are soldered together immediately, and the part is easily released from the soldering site.

When performing work on mass desoldering of radio components, it is better to use a more powerful soldering iron, using a power regulator. It's not that difficult to make it yourself. In this case, a soldering iron with a power of up to 65 watts is suitable.

There are quite frequent cases when, during soldering, rosin suddenly begins to smoke. This means the soldering iron is overheated. You have to unplug it and wait until it cools down. At the same time, if the soldering iron cools down below normal, it begins to solder poorly. Using a power regulator, such problems can be easily avoided, and the work becomes much easier, and from the necessary preliminary work there will be nothing left except tinning the soldering iron tip.

Soldering iron sharpening

  • The soldering iron tip is sharpened with a file at an angle of 30-40 degrees.
  • The edge is left 1 mm wide and slightly blunt.
  • On a new soldering iron, you only need to sand the tip with fine sandpaper to remove the patina. Patina is a greenish copper oxide.
  • If store-bought sharpening is not satisfactory, then you need to remove the tip and forge it yourself, giving it the shape of a concave blade. This method has one more advantage - the metal will become less susceptible to corrosion.
  • To give the sting a finished look, all that remains is to process it with a finely cut file.

How to tin the soldering iron tip of a soldering station?

Tinning a tip means covering it with a thin layer of solder. To do this you need:

  • Turn on the soldering iron and wait until the copper rod turns a reddish-orange hue. You shouldn't wait any longer, as the rod may get burned.
  • Immerse the entire tip in rosin and melt a small piece of solder.
  • Cover the entire surface of the tip with solder. It will coat better if you first rub it on a wooden surface.

How to tin a soldering iron?

Radio electronics for beginners

If this page is visited by those who already know how to solder correctly, then the information is unlikely to be useful to you; this is a manual for beginners.

Radio electronics for beginners begins with soldering. This is an axiom. Learning to solder is quite simple, as in any business, you need practice. If the soldering kit is ready, then it’s time to start preparing the tool.

Before soldering, you need to prepare a new soldering iron for use, or rather, sharpen the tip to a certain shape and cover it with a thin layer of solder.

The tip must be sharpened with a file at an angle of 30-40 degrees, so as to form a wedge. The sharp edge of the sting should be blunted to create a flat edge about 1 mm wide. Usually, new soldering irons have a tip already sharpened with a wedge, but it is covered with a layer of patina - greenish oxide of copper and oxygen. This oxide must be removed with a metal file or fine-grained sandpaper.

In addition to the “classic” wedge-shaped tip, you can give it another shape, it all depends on what you will be soldering. For soldering small parts, you can make it shaped like an elongated cone with an edge width of 2 - 3 mm. Or make a cut in the edge so that you can solder SMD resistors with one touch.

Immediately after sharpening the tip, you need to install it in the soldering iron and tin it. If you do not do this, the copper surface of the tip will oxidize in the air and it will have to be sharpened again!

Soldering iron care

Like any other tool, a soldering iron requires care. From time to time, the tip of the soldering iron burns out, and potholes and irregularities appear on it. Burnout is eliminated by sharpening the tip and tinning it. You should also pay attention to the fact that with prolonged use, the rod becomes covered with scale, which prevents rapid heating.

Why does the soldering iron tip burn out? The fact is that when heated, copper partially dissolves in the solder, and the edge of the tip itself is subjected to, albeit a small, mechanical effect.

It is also worth understanding that when the soldering iron is not in use, the tip becomes very hot and this contributes to the oxidation of copper. Therefore, when idle, it is recommended to either turn off the soldering iron or reduce the temperature.

A conventional electric soldering iron of the EPSN type does not have temperature control, so it is better to turn it off when idle.

Scale is removed as follows.

Use pliers to remove the copper rod from the soldering iron. Remove scale from the rod using fine-grained sandpaper. You can coat the lead with a small layer of graphite by rubbing it on the lead of a regular pencil. This will prevent rapid scale formation in the future. By lightly tapping the heating element of the soldering iron, remove scale from the heating element where the copper rod was installed. Install the copper rod in its original place.

The insulation condition of the electric soldering iron should be checked from time to time. To do this, measure the resistance between the soldering iron's power plug and the soldering tip. I have already talked about how to measure resistance. The ohmmeter should be set to a megaohm measurement limit (1 - 10 MΩ).

Remember that you cannot touch the metal probes of the multimeter with your hands when measuring resistance. Otherwise, the device will show the total resistance of your body and the measured circuit. The device should show infinitely high resistance.

This will be evidence of good insulation between the soldering iron tip and the electrical network.

For those who have already acquired a soldering station, replaceable 900M copper tips are suitable. They also require preparation before operation.

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Why a soldering iron does not solder well: how to tin a soldering iron and prepare it for work

Category: Soldering, Articles 10/15/2018 · : 0 · Reading time: 3 min · Views:

Why doesn't solder stick to the soldering iron?

The main and main reason for this problem is very strong carbon deposits on the soldering iron tip. The fact is that if there is no solder or flux residue on the soldering iron for a long time when it is turned on, then a dense layer of soot forms on the surface of the tip due to oxidation, which can no longer be cleaned off with a desoldering sponge. This is why solder rolls off the soldering iron tip.

Causes of soot

Some beginners or those who are used to working with copper tips make a fatal mistake. They clean the soldering iron tip with sandpaper, files or blades from a stationery knife. This is only true for uncoated copper tips.

This method is unacceptable in principle for “eternal” stings.

There is a high risk of damaging the outer layer of the tip (a thin metal alloy), which can lead to cracks and further destruction. In addition, despite its appearance, the soot layer itself does not exceed some microns.

So how to clean a soldering iron from such deposits? There are several ways.

Easy sponge cleaning

The easiest way is to clean the tip with a metal sponge. Small metal shavings clean the tip from carbon deposits without damaging the coating. Such sponges are sold in any smartphone spare parts store, as well as in radio stores and online stores (AliExpress, etc.). A kitchen one can also work, but you need something dense and softer. In addition, it will be worse to clean.

An even more affordable recovery option

By soldering you can remove a layer of carbon deposits. We make a small bath of solder. You will need a solder rod and flux. Preferably activated (for example, LTI - 120). You can even use regular alcohol rosin. This is in the case of “light” soot, of small size.

Now we divide the solder bar into small pieces and pour a little rosin or flux (even if you have solder containing rosin, this is not enough for this case).

And we begin to bathe the tip in solder. If the solder does not melt, then you need to increase the temperature.

We coat the tip in solder from side to side, without pulling it out, so that the tip is completely enveloped. In a couple of minutes, a small amount of carbon deposits will evaporate, and it will be possible to take a little more fresh solder onto the tip after “bathing”. We leave the soldering iron heated with a drop of water for 10 - 15 minutes.

When doing this work, thoroughly ventilate the room! If the carbon deposits are still difficult to clean off after several attempts, then now you need to use soldering acid. The procedure is the same.

Sting activator to help

Even if it didn’t work out with solder, there is still one more way - this is an activator for the tips. Like the metal sponge, it is available in radio stores and can also be purchased on AliExpress. The principle of operation is simple - dip the tip of a working soldering iron into the activator for a couple of seconds and clean it with a sponge after that.

After removing the carbon deposits, you need to apply solder to the tip as soon as possible. even in a few seconds it can burn (if, of course, your soldering iron temperature is over 340 ℃)

Tips for caring for your soldering iron

  • Do not leave the soldering iron turned on for a long time without solder or flux on the tip;
  • Clean the tip only with a desoldering sponge or a metal sponge, which also removes carbon deposits;
  • Do not clean the sting with sandpaper , a knife, or a scalpel. There is a risk of damage to the coating;
  • If you solder with acid , be sure to clean the soldering iron after soldering; do not leave it to cool with acid!

Useful videos on the topic

Source: https://tyt-sxemi.ru/zhalo-pajalnika-ne-beret-pripoj/

What to do if solder does not stick to the tip

Beginner radio amateurs often encounter difficulties when the solder does not stick to the soldering iron. He doesn’t want to, and that’s all. In such conditions, soldering becomes not just torture, but a real torture of the nerves.

How much effort and patience it takes to catch this nimble ball of molten solder with a sting. But then it needs to be conveyed to the details. What if the tool tip is not flat? What to do then? All you need to do is carefully prepare it for work.

Instructions on how to tin a soldering iron tip: features of preparation for soldering and tip care

In a modern home filled with appliances, there are often simple breakdowns that, with the right skills, can be easily fixed on your own. The most common failure is disconnection of contacts and rupture of wires. At home, this problem can be dealt with using an ordinary soldering iron.

Many sites have instructions on how to choose the right soldering iron and solder yourself, and how to choose solder and flux. But for the most part, the instructions omit such an important question as how to properly tin a soldering iron.

If you incorrectly prepare the tool for work, the results of your efforts will be completely poor quality, and the contacts in the device will be unreliable.

Types of soldering irons

It is important to know that different types of soldering irons require different pre-treatment methods.

The tinning method is mainly influenced by the material from which the soldering iron tip is made.


The most popular and affordable are tips made from copper and its alloys. This metal has good thermal conductivity, but has a large minus - the copper tip is very soft and for this reason wears out very quickly. Also, copper tips are not suitable for working on small radio components.

Non-burn tips

Unburnt tips have much better characteristics. They are also made of copper alloys, but have a special protective coating of nickel or silver.

You won’t be able to find instructions on how to tin the tip of such a soldering iron - this process is performed at the tip manufacturing stage, and thanks to the special coating, this operation will no longer have to be repeated.


In rare cases, you can find soldering irons with a tip made of steel. This material is much more durable and strong compared to copper, but has very poor thermal conductivity. This causes the very low popularity of soldering irons with steel tips.


Recently, soldering irons with tips made of ceramics have become increasingly popular. They have enviable thermal conductivity, are not covered with oxides and, as a result, do not require tinning.

Also, due to its density, the ceramic tip can be very thin, which is ideal for working with small radio components and creating designer jewelry.

Composite tips

On sale you can find tips made from several metals at once. When creating such parts, all the pros and cons of each of the metals used are taken into account in order to fully reflect its advantages and neutralize its disadvantages.

The most popular combination of metals is a combination of steel, copper and nickel. Hard steel serves as an axis of rigidity, soft copper serves as a good conductor, and the nickel coating protects the copper tip from oxidation.

Beginning of work

Getting started with a new tool versus a previously used tool is completely different.

How to tin a new soldering iron?

It is worth remembering that only copper and steel tips need tinning. For others this procedure is not required.

You should start working with a new soldering iron by removing patina from its surface - a greenish coating created by oxidation products. The patina is removed using fine-grained sandpaper. Then you can proceed directly to tinning.

To know how to tin a copper soldering iron, you need to know what tinning is. This term refers to covering the surface of the tip with a thin layer of heated solder. This operation will help prevent metal oxidation during operation, which will have a beneficial effect on the quality of the seam.

After removing the oxides from the new soldering iron and giving the old tip the desired shape, you can begin tinning. To do this, the soldering iron is heated to the melting temperature of rosin, after which the tip is processed.

Next, you should wait until the soldering iron warms up to its operating temperature and immerse the working surface of the tip in a small piece of solder so that the tip is evenly treated with solder.

To make this process easier, you can see a photo of how to tin a soldering iron. This will help you choose the optimal amount of solder and rosin to complete the job.

Photo instructions on how to tin a soldering iron tip

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How to learn to solder. I decided to prepare just such a small special lesson, not directly related to the main topic, for those who not only have to solder cords, sockets, plugs, but anything else in general. So, let's begin

What do we need for soldering?

Of course, a soldering iron (ideally a soldering station), tin solder, rosin, ideally solder wire, which is a long, thin tin tube wound on a reel, similar to a wire, in the cavity of which there is rosin. Those. when soldering, in this case, we do not need, as in the old fashioned way, to lower the tip of the soldering iron, now into the rosin, now into the solder, but all this happens simultaneously at one point. More on this below

You can purchase all the necessary components at your nearest radio store.

If you do not have a soldering station, which is initially ready for soldering immediately after switching on, but a regular soldering iron, then before work (especially if it is new) you need to prepare it in a special way - tin it, otherwise it will not solder. Now let’s look at what “tinning” means.

How to tin a soldering iron?

Take a file and apply it flat to the cut of the soldering iron tip. Now we sharpen in the same plane, periodically looking at the tip, until it becomes flat, smooth and shiny.

After this, we lower the heated tip into rosin and immediately into solder (into tin). There will be almost no solder sticking to the tip, so immediately after this procedure we apply the tip to a small board, preferably of natural origin (not chipboard), preferably spruce or cedar (resinous), but in principle, any will do, you’ll just have to mess around longer.

So, we repeat this procedure (rosin → solder → board) until the cut of the tip, prepared in advance with a file, made of yellow-gray heated copper, becomes silvery and shiny from the solder evenly covering it. This is what is called “tinning”, in this case a soldering iron.

This is what a tinned soldering iron tip should look like.

Now we will learn to solder wires (after tinning it) to a brass tin, also tinning it from the beginning.

We dip the soldering iron tip into rosin, then into solder, and immediately, with the plane of the tip parallel to the plane, we bring it close to our brass test subject, without allowing the rosin to evaporate, we press it, then we rub it in, we grind, in general, we tin. If the rosin has evaporated or spread, we repeat the process, and gradually, gradually our tin is covered with high-quality solder adhering to it. If the material is clean or without strong oxides, then such tinning occurs quickly.

If solder wire is used, then we lean the tip of the soldering iron against the tin, and bring the tip of the solder wire to the point of their contact, trying to touch more of the tinned part of the soldering iron, and rub it against this part so that the tin and rosin enrich the contact point.

How to tin a wire?

Now let's tinker with the wiring. Carefully remove the insulation just enough so that we have enough space for soldering, and for the location of the heat-shrink tube (or other insulator) so that later there are no short circuits (short circuits)

It is easier to tin the wire, because Usually, the metal under the insulation is clean, not oxidized. We dip it in rosin, placing the tip of a heated soldering iron on top of it and slowly pull the wire out from under the soldering iron after the rosin melts and starts smoking. This is done, as you probably understood, so that the molten rosin envelops the contact part of the wire. Now we enrich the soldering iron tip with solder, touching the tin, and bring the tip to the rosin adhering to the wiring.

If the wire is copper and clean, tinning will occur immediately.

If not, you may have to repeat the operation or use solder paste instead of rosin - a special chemical (like soldering acid, if anyone is familiar) that allows you to tin, for example, even iron.

This is what solder paste looks like.

How to solder a wire?

We have a tinned experimental brass tin and a tinned wire, which we now have to connect, seal with heated solder and then cool in order to forever maintain their electrical connection, which we do by bringing the tinned part of the wire to the tinned part of the tin.

We bring the soldering iron tip enriched with solder to the place of their contact so that the solder covers the tinned parts of the soldered parts well. This will be facilitated by the rosin involved in the process. If something doesn’t go well, dip into it. Once the parts are in the molten solder, try not to move them anymore. You can lightly blow on the solder area until the shine of the solder darkens slightly, indicating that the solder has hardened.

That's it, congratulations! You did it.

How to unsolder the wire?

You can unsolder wires and various soldered joints using the reverse method - by heating the soldering area (tinned and dipped in rosin, heated) with a soldering iron tip until the solder melts.

And probably the final touch - you can also dip a small paint brush into the solvent and wash off the remaining rosin in the soldering areas.

What can you solder?

More precisely, what metals are good to solder? In the first place, this is, of course, copper, brass, gold, silver, lead, and, of course, tin. It is worse to solder (tin) iron, steel, zinc. To tin the latter, you will have to use a special solder paste (see figure above). There are also metals that cannot be soldered at all, for example aluminum.

Source: https://auditionrich.com/umelye-ruchki/kak-nauchitsya-payat.html

Why doesn't solder stick to the soldering iron tip?

During soldering, both specialists and beginners may experience a situation where tin does not stick to the soldering iron tip. Such a problem prevents any further procedures for soldering parts and requires immediate elimination. The reason may lie in the solder itself, as well as in the tip, working conditions, insufficient preparation and many other things. In order to understand all this, you need experience.

Main reasons

The most common type of solder is tin-lead. The melting point of such an alloy is about 270 degrees Celsius. If the soldering iron heats up to 300 degrees, this should be enough for work, but if the tip overheats and its temperature significantly exceeds the melting point of the solder, then soot from consumables remains on the surface. It not only spoils the appearance of the tool, but also interferes with further work.

Contamination and oxidation prevent solder from sticking to the soldering iron tip.

Soldering iron tips are most often made of copper. When severely overheated, this metal is more susceptible to oxidation, which leads to the appearance of a film of oxides on its surface. A thin layer of copper oxide may be invisible to the eye, but it is precisely because of its presence that solder does not stick to the soldering iron tip. If we consider the immediate reasons that lead to the fact that the molten solder does not remain on the tip, but simply flows off it, then there are only three of them:

  • contamination of the surface of the tip, which occurs from soot and other reasons;
  • oxide formation, which even with a visually clean surface does not allow the molten material to adhere to it;
  • high temperature of the tip, which does not allow the solder to remain in the desired working condition.

How to properly prepare tools for work

If the tin does not stick to the soldering iron tip, it is quite possible that the preparatory operations were carried out incorrectly, or they were not carried out at all. First of all, when preparing the instrument, you need to tin it.

Without this procedure, even in the absence of oxide and contamination, solder will still not stick to the metal during soldering. Tinning involves coating the surface of the tip with tin. The same procedure should be carried out with the parts being soldered, this will improve the quality of the connection.

The process is extremely simple: you need to dip a hot tip into tin, which will cover its surface.

If there is carbon deposits or an oxidizing film on the tip, they must be removed before tinning. The same procedure is recommended for new instruments.

The surface is cleaned mechanically, for which sandpaper or a fine-grained file is suitable. The surface must be cleaned thoroughly, without leaving deep scratches and grooves on the metal surface.

If there are depressions and scratches, it is in them that an oxidizing film will form and dirt will accumulate, which will then be difficult to clean.

Important! The soldering iron should be cleaned only after it has cooled down. This process is best done before soldering rather than after it.

Cleaning the soldering iron tip from contamination

When the surface is cleared of all deposits, flux must be applied to it. If there is liquid rosin, it is also applied to a cold surface using a brush or other auxiliary objects. If there is flux in a solid state, the tip is immersed in it at the moment when it warms up and reaches the desired temperature.

Important! It is better to immediately lower the tip into the rosin so that as it warms up it sinks into its surface. This will reduce the chance of oxidation

Situations may arise when the tip does not tin. This is very similar to the problem when solder does not stick to the soldering iron tip.

If the temperature of the tip becomes significantly higher than the melting point of the solder, it simply does not stick to the surface of the metal, but flows off it, since it is in a liquid state. Nothing else except lowering the temperature will help here.

The cleanliness of the surface and the absence of an oxidizing film will not play a role if, under the influence of the high temperature of the tip, the material melts and drains. If the temperature continues to rise, it will simply begin to evaporate.

The best option is when the temperature of the tip is slightly higher than the melting point or equal to it. This makes it possible to maintain the transition state between solid and liquid, which is required for soldering. After overheating, the tip must be cleaned mechanically again.

If everything is done correctly, the solder will stick to the surface without any problems. The optimal temperature allows it to be in the desired state, avoiding lumps and liquid drops.

After cleaning the soldering iron tip, it is recommended to tin


The best solution for situations where solder does not stick to the tip is to control the temperature. Do not allow the soldering iron to overheat. Timely cleaning and proper completion of all preliminary work will help you never wonder why solder does not stick to the soldering iron tip.

If the solder does not stick to the soldering iron How to tin a soldering iron

Source: https://svarkaipayka.ru/oborudovanie/payalniki/pochemu-k-zhalu-payalnika-ne-lipnet-pripoy.html

Why does the solder melt perfectly with my homemade soldering iron, but does not tin? — Website about

Simple type soldering irons traditionally have a copper tip. The material is still used since the invention of the tool due to its high heat-conducting properties. But there is a drawback - the ability to undergo high wear. The copper burns out or dissolves in the solder. The deficiency needed to be eliminated, and manufacturers began to apply additional nickel or silver coating.

Nickel is highly durable and does not wear out. Long service life is an advantage of nickel plating. Disadvantage: poor adhesion. This tip does not hold solder well. Soldering can only be done by applying solder directly to the work area. The working area is heated with a tip, then a small amount of solder or solder paste is placed. Setting occurs due to heat.

Silver has good adhesion, but conducts heat poorly. In addition, the material is expensive. Over time, the silver wears away and exposes the copper base. This occurs because the silver coating dissolves into the solder.

The characteristics of spraying complicate operation and maintenance. Therefore, radio amateurs, especially the older generation, prefer copper soldering irons. But the copper tip has a drawback - hot copper instantly oxidizes. Interaction with air occurs only on a thin layer, but this is enough for zero adhesion. Heat is also transferred worse. The way out of this situation is to always cover the tip with a thin layer of solder .

Tin cannot be applied before soldering, as the copper underneath will begin to burn out. At the site of burnout, slag appears, due to which there is no adhesion. The master begins to be distracted from work.

Abrasive materials wear down the coating. Nickel or ceramics are applied in a thin layer to the tip - that is why they cannot be ground off. The expensive tip will turn into a copper rod.

The process of preparing a copper tip

Slag, rosin and plastic residues, scale and other debris can be removed using a cold tool. The rod is pulled out before this operation so as not to damage the heater. The tip inside the heater also oxidizes, which impairs heat transfer. Electricity due to scale overcomes excess resistance and is wasted.

Before tinning a soldering iron with a copper tip, it must be cleaned of dirt. This is done with a file or sandpaper. The material should be sharpened to a clean finish to ensure it looks like new. It's easier to do this with sandpaper. The surface is polished to a smooth state - this way oxidation occurs more slowly.

The rate of oxidation can be reduced by shackling the tip. This is done with a hammer on an anvil. Using gentle blows, the surface is strengthened and the copper rod is shaped. Next they move on to the tinning process until it is covered with slag.

Methods for tinning a copper tip:

  1. Rosin. The method is smoky, so it is difficult and dangerous to health to carry out in a residential area. It's better to use the balcony. The cleaned base is immersed in a jar of rosin and a little solder is placed there. It will instantly cover the sting and prevent it from oxidizing. After the procedure, the tip of the sting is wiped with thick natural cloth, but carefully so as not to burn your fingers. The solder will rub into the copper. The procedure is performed after long-term storage of the soldering iron.
  2. A method of rubbing a surface with tin. The clean base is slightly warmed up and dipped in rosin. Then the surface is rubbed with tin. The procedure is repeated several times. The protective layer is secured by rubbing against cloth. The result can be obtained without smoke in any room.

Proper preparation will allow you not to be nervous at the initial stage of work. After a while, the process needs to be redone because the copper begins to oxidize.

Tinning of modern coating

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Cleaning is done with a wet cotton cloth. They take solid rosin, where they put a little solder. The tip should be rubbed with a cloth and immediately dipped in rosin. A piece of solder is pushed vertically down. The solder melts and envelops the tip cone.

Cleaning during operation

Properly tinning a soldering iron is important not only during preparation for work. After some time of soldering, it may happen that the material again does not stick to the base. This happens after about 15 minutes. The copper burns under the tinning layer. There are several ways to properly tin a soldering iron during operation.

A block of wood

A rough block of wood should always be at hand by the craftsman. Coniferous wood is used because such wood has natural rosin. I pour flux onto the wood and put a little solder on it. As soon as scale appears on the sting, rub it on wood. During this process, the base is cleaned and serviced.

Metal sponge

It is convenient for the master to use this method, but it can be improved. The bottom of the sponge is smeared with flux - soldering lard. When the tip is immersed shallowly, it will simply be cleaned. And if you apply solder to the base and dip it deeply, to the base of the sponge, then cleaning will be combined with tinning.

The method is optimal for modern tips with ceramic or nickel coating. Even soldering irons with a thin copper tip can be cleaned and tinned this way. It is difficult to damage the device even with strong pressure.

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Using rosin

A method for a traditional tool with a simple copper tip. The metal quickly oxidizes and after 10-15 minutes the solder can no longer be picked up. If you clean it separately from the flux, the technician will not have time to carry the soldering iron - oxidation occurs so quickly.

Because of this, they clean the instrument in rosin. Place a file under the soldering iron, or you can use steel wire. Then the sting is rubbed until the flux melts. There shouldn't be any solder.

Classic method and prevention

The previous methods were invented by masters relatively recently. Our ancestors, even our fathers, did tinning a little differently. This required a file with a fine notch , a workbench for work (can be replaced with a board), rosin and the most refractory solder.


  1. Clean one side of the base.
  2. Dip the instrument deeply into rosin and rub the edge against the wood.
  3. Contact with wood is carried out at the place where solder has been previously prepared. The procedure is repeated several times.
  4. They are engaged in the second side.
  5. Tin the round surface of the rod.

The procedure will take about 10 minutes, no less. The large amount of preparation time pays off in that you can work with the tool for several days without special preparation.

Working for a long time will cause overheating. An increase in temperature increases oxidation and the rod has to be prepared for work more often. To avoid unnecessary procedures, you should follow some rules.

Preventive measures against oxidation:

  • Maximum power cannot be used continuously.
  • The temperature regulator in the soldering station should be set to the lowest possible value.
  • Experienced craftsmen equip the soldering iron stand with a switch with a voltage limiter - when the tool is not used, the heat is maintained and the coating does not oxidize.
  • After each soldering, the coating should be restored.

The tool should always be kept ready. After a long period of inactivity, the soldering iron tip does not become tinned due to severe oxidation. Restoring the adhesion of coatings, especially copper ones, is carried out with rosin. After immersion in it, the sting is rubbed with a cotton cloth. During operation, the soldering iron also needs to be cleaned periodically.

Source: https://orensbyt.ru/elektrika-v-kvartire/pochemu-pripoj-moim-samodelnym-payalnikom-plavitsya-otlichno-no-ne-luditsya.html

How to properly tin a soldering iron tip, soldering guide

Good afternoon, beginner radio amateurs and radio technicians. Today, in this article, I will tell you about a very useful and necessary thing for high-quality and reliable soldering, radio components and electronic circuits.

How to properly tin a soldering iron tip , this skill is useful to everyone; without this, it is simply impossible to competently and reliably perform high-quality installation of radio elements.

Why do you need to tin a soldering iron?

During installation and soldering, it is necessary to add a certain amount of tin to the leg of a microcircuit or other radio element. There are cases when, due to a poorly tinned soldering iron tip, the tin does not want to be taken. Sometimes it is taken in very small quantities, or simply taken in small balls or porridge. Therefore, you need to properly tin the soldering iron tip.

You will not be able to make normal contact between the radio component leg and the board without a tinned and heated soldering iron. These troubles and inconveniences must be avoided and dealt with, now I will tell you how to do this, consistently, explain in accessible language and illustrate all this with photographs.

Preparing the soldering iron for tinning and operation

Let’s say you have a soldering iron, it’s either new just from the store, or it’s your working one, but with overheating spots and temperature cavities on the tip. As a result, soldering of electronics becomes poor quality and inconvenient.

To start tinning the soldering iron, the tip must be cleaned or corrected using special means. You can use a file, preferably a fine one, sandpaper and a needle file from the kit.

In the absence of the listed tool, you can use any abrasive object, even a brick.

We remove oxides and fumes, if the soldering iron is new, grind off all the burrs and immediately shape the tip that we need or will find convenient. At the end of the procedure, you should have a clean, smooth and slightly shiny soldering iron tip. Now you will learn how to properly tin a soldering iron tip.

Let's start tinning the soldering iron tip

For the next steps, we will need the soldering iron itself, a socket for connecting it to a 220 volt 50 Hertz network, a wooden plate, solder and rosin.

We plug the soldering iron into the mains and wait for the soldering iron to start heating up, this will become clear when the characteristic burning smell appears, and immediately dip it in rosin and leave it to heat up.

As soon as the rosin on the soldering iron tip begins to boil, add a piece of tin or solder to it. As soon as a piece of solder begins to melt, we immediately begin to rub it on a wooden block.

We continue this friction until we get a positive result. When a thin film of solder does not form over the entire surface of the tip, its working part, the one we cleaned.

It may not work the first time, try again and it will work.

How to properly tin a new soldering iron tip

If you have just purchased a soldering iron, you need to carry out the same actions with it as with a working one. But first, it needs to be warmed up properly so that the spiral and the working part of the soldering iron itself are burned from oil and other unnecessary spraying.

After warming up, you should let it cool down and start tinning the soldering iron.

Recommendations for using a soldering iron

Over time, the soldering iron often overheats and pits form on it. Over time, they eat the copper sting. After that, it has to be tinned again, correctly.

To avoid this trouble, always after work, clean the soldering iron from any remaining tin, rosin and other material that you may have touched while working. Just brush away any leftovers with a folded piece of paper, this will prolong its life.

By performing this simple procedure, you won’t have to take baths and often tin the soldering iron tip.

Source: https://energytik.net/elektroistrument-dlya-doma-i-zarobotka/kak-pravilno-zaludit-zhalo-payalnika-rukovodstvo-dlya-pajki.html

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