What are the hallmarks for silver?

What types of silver are there?

The metric standards for silver in many countries around the world are somewhat different. Thus, in Japan there is silver marked “1000”, and in Egypt – “600”. In the countries of the former CIS, including Russia, a unified assessment and labeling system is still in effect. In accordance with this system, an alloy of this metal below 800 fineness is not considered precious. In order not to be deceived when choosing a silver product, before purchasing you need to familiarize yourself with what types of silver there are in Russia.

What is silver hallmark

The fineness of a precious metal is determined by the percentage of the precious metal itself and the alloy (nickel, copper, aluminum) that is mixed to form the necessary qualities.

Since it is too prone to mechanical deformation and in its pure form is not suitable for creating, for example, jewelry, they will necessarily contain pure metal in a certain amount (87.5%), the rest will be an impurity (12.5%).

The hallmark number on silver items indicates the percentage of metal present in them, excluding impurities (if the item is marked with an 875 hallmark, it contains 87.5% pure metal).

999 silver bar

What types of samples are there?

The rare metal has a wide range of applications - from threads used to conduct electric current to exquisite family jewelry. Naturally, metal of different grades is used for different purposes, among which the following are quoted in Russia:

  1. 999 is the highest standard of silver. Such material is completely unsuitable for the manufacture of artistic objects, since it can be deformed by light pressure. However, every bank employee knows that it is from it that bullions are formed in which capital can be invested. It is also used to make exclusive collectible coins that serve the same role as bullion.
  2. Metal marked “960” looks and has the same characteristics as pure metal. But due to its greater hardness, it is used, in addition to casting ingots, in the jewelry industry to create single highly artistic objects, unique jewelry, not intended for everyday wear.
  3. 925 is called “standard silver.” Due to its resistance to corrosion and sufficient hardness, this metal is popular with jewelers, but products made from it (family jewels, cutlery) are also considered exclusive and are made, mainly to order. Another name is “sterling silver”, since the old English coins of one sterling were minted from it.
  4. 916 marks silverware. It is from this alloy that highly artistic table sets are made, onto which gilding or enamel painting fits perfectly.
  5. 875 marks our rings and earrings. Here is the answer to the question of what standard silver is in jewelry. Unique items are created from 96% or 92.5% pure material, available in every jewelry store - from 87.5%.
  6. Metal of 830 standard is visually and structurally no different from 875 standard. It is used for the same purposes, but costs slightly less due to the higher content of the alloy.
  7. 800 is used to make silverware, but is visually distinguished by its yellowness. Due to poor fusibility and hardness, such cutlery is not made “by hand”, but is cast. Here is the answer to what types of silverware there are - 916 and 800. It all depends on the quality of the product.

Before the emergence of the usual system, ancient silver samples were in effect, of which the 84th sample (84%) is the rarest and most expensive today. Silver 75 was considered the lowest, although it cannot be said that it was not in demand. Vice versa! After all, it was distinguished by its yellowness, likening it to gold, hence the name “spool”.

Technical silver

Technical silver is a conventional name that does not refer to a specific sample. As a technical material, as a rule, metal of the highest standard – 999 – is used. Transistors, resistances, contact relays in radio engineering, soldering joints, conductive wire in electronics, battery production are the most well-known areas of application.

Conventionally, an alloy marked “720”, which is not considered precious, but rather resembles gold, can also be classified as technical. Its properties are radically different from those endowed with the highest standard of silver. However, its refractoriness, lack of ductility, and hardness make it indispensable in industry for the manufacture of pins, high-strength parts, springs undergoing high loads, and solder.

Pure silver

Pure silver is a metal marked “999”. Just like for technical metal, for pure noble metal this name is conditional. In fact, this designation characterizes a universal material - a standard, using which with various impurities, you can obtain the desired result. Or use it for production purposes.

How to check the quality of silver at home

Home quality testing may not be 100% reliable, but it will detect large deviations. There are several ways:

  • rub the product in your palms (if your palms are clean, the quality is high, if they are dirty, there is a large admixture of zinc);
  • drop iodine (the faster the area in contact with iodine turns black, the higher the quality);
  • rub with chalk crumbs (the darker the chalk becomes, the better);
  • cover a small area of ​​the product with sulfur ointment (it turns black in a couple of hours - high quality, turns red - there are impurities, does not change color - fake);
  • if you suspect that the product is only silver-plated, try to scratch the top layer in an inconspicuous place, it will easily come off and show “what’s inside.”

How to determine the authenticity of silver

In order not to regret purchasing a silver item, you must check its authenticity. Here's how to do it yourself:

  • you can refer to the thermal conductivity of the metal - clamped in the palm, it instantly takes on its temperature (the same can be done with warm water), and if it heats up slowly - it’s a fake;
  • the most common way is to check the metal with a magnet when purchasing: silver will not react to a magnet;
  • when dropped, the silver item will emit a vibrating, ringing sound, but in no case a dull sound.

The special reagent “Silver Test” sold in pharmacies is considered a good remedy. It's inexpensive and has a lot of benefits.

Everyone knows what silver looks like, but only a jeweler can compare the correspondence between the sample and the actual material of the product, and accurately determine the types of silver samples, thanks to special devices and reagents. Therefore, to avoid any doubts, it is safer to buy silver items from certified points, and not from the hands of random strangers.


Source: https://fintolk.ru/o-raznom/kakie-byvayut-proby-serebra.html

Sample of silverware

Silverware is an excellent investment. In addition, it is also useful with pleasure. As long as you use plates, spoons, forks and cups, the cost of them is constantly increasing. What more could you ask for?

However, there are times when a certain amount of money is required. And handing over your silverware to a pawnshop is the best way to solve short-term financial difficulties. In this material we will talk in detail about silverware: differences in samples, determination of authenticity, origin.

999 silverware

The noble composition of the metal in its pure form is not suitable for creating high-quality jewelry, not to mention tableware. The whole problem lies in the fragility of the metal. To impart better mechanical qualities and rich color, silver is enriched with other non-ferrous metals. The marking on the product indicates the silver content in the alloy.

If we talk about a silver-plated product, then when marking it is mandatory to indicate the designation of the base metal or alloy. For example, there are the following options:

  • AL – aluminum;
  • MNC – nickel silver;
  • MN – cupronickel;
  • STAINLESS – stainless steel.

Cutlery that is plated with silver is characterized by the presence of double markings - the brand of the base material is used together with a brand. This rule applies to all products manufactured in the Russian Federation. If we are talking about antiques, then in this case the mark of only the thinnest silver coating (silver plating) may be indicated.

Manufacturers: German, French, Russian silverware

1. France. French craftsmen held the leadership in the production of silverware for many centuries. However, silverware was initially valued primarily for its antiseptic qualities. No aesthetic goals were pursued. French silverware from the following masters is especially valued:

  • Ercuis;
  • Odiot;
  • Hippolyte Thomas;

2. England. Since the beginning of the 14th century, English kings issued a decree that every silversmith must use high-quality alloys and put his own special marking. Already in those days the softness of this material was noticed.

Famous English workshops:

  • John & William F Deakin;
  • Wakely & Wheeler;
  • George Ridley & Nathan Hayes;
  • Barker Brothers Limited.

3. Germany. German silverware, which has a long history, is especially valued. Famous German factories:

  • Herbert Zeitner;
  • Robbe & Berking;
  • Franz Schnell Halle.

4. Denmark. Products from this Scandinavian country are distinguished by their special elegance. The following masters should be highlighted:

  • COHR;
  • Anton Michelsen;
  • Georg Jensen.

5. Russia. The largest suppliers of silverware on the territory of Tsarist Russia were the factories of Kurlyukov, Laurie, Carl Faberge, and Khlebnikov. “Kubachi Silver” deserves special attention.

Marking on silverware: differences in markings

Branding is known for its diversity. Each state currently uses its own design to designate hallmarks. Almost all countries adhere to the metric system - the amount of precious metal as a percentage per 1000 units of the alloy. Thus, in the international system there are the following samples:

  • 999;
  • 960;
  • 925;
  • 916;
  • 875;
  • 800;
  • 750.

Harder and more ductile metals such as copper, cadmium, aluminum, nickel, and zinc are usually used as additives (alloying elements) - all of them make silver more durable and resistant to abrasion.

Most often, 875 silver is used to make dishes and serving utensils. For the production of silver cutlery with enameling, 916 alloy is used. 960 sterling alloy is already filigree products with antiseptic properties. It should be noted that in some countries silver items are irradiated, which provides additional resistance to oxidation. For example, this is what they do in Italy.

Old silver cutlery is usually hallmarked in the spool system. That is, forks and spoons made of 84 standard silver are an analogue of the modern 875 standard. However, the cost of a spoon marked 84 standard is higher, since such a product is already sold as an antique.

Silver has differences in color. The rule is simple: the higher the silver content in the alloy, the whiter the metal will be.

Strange hallmarks and marks on silver spoons. What to do?

Antique cutlery, which was made by hand, is not uncommon today. Until the 19th century, a unified marking and branding system simply did not exist in nature. For this reason, the designations can be surprising.

Nowadays, by the distinctive signs it is possible to find out the place of origin of the product - England, Germany, France, Italy, Russia.

In such cases, you need to contact specialists for examination - they will help establish the origin of the item and even its history.

Mark on silverware: guarantees from the state

Each country guarantees the quality of silver products that are sold within the state. That is, all produced silver undergoes careful control for compliance with quality and composition. Each product is accompanied by regulatory documents and a label containing the following information:

  • weight;
  • date of manufacture;
  • Name;
  • quality control stamp;
  • price and more.

If there is no state stamp on the product, this may indicate the following:

  • silver content is less than 80% (fineness below 800);
  • the goods were imported from another state;
  • the product is simply not silver.

When purchasing, you need to be as careful as possible.

Profitable loan for silverware

Sennaya Pawnshop provides loans secured by silver products. Are you experiencing short-term financial difficulties? You can use the services of our credit company. The entire procedure will take no more than 20 minutes:

  • visit one of our branches in St. Petersburg with the collateral;
  • the appraiser will examine the product;
  • an agreement will be drawn up in two copies with all the rights and obligations of the parties;
  • the client receives the money on the day of application.

No bureaucratic procedures. You only need to have your passport with you. We guarantee the confidentiality of the information provided.

  • Sennaya square, building 6 (Metro station Sennaya, Spasskaya)
  • Yaroslav Hashek str., building 4/1 (Metro Kupchino)
  • Varshavskaya st. house 108 (Moskovskaya metro station)
  • Ave. Veteranov, building 140 (Metro Ave. Veteranov)

The lending rate is 0.39% per day.

The lending rate is 0.35% per day.

The lending rate is 0.35% per day.

The lending rate is 0.39% per day.

Source: https://sennoy.spb.ru/blog/proba-stolovogo-serebra/

Silver sample: properties of alloys and areas of their application

Silver is a noble metal that is used only in combination with other elements. Products made from pure silver become dull, are susceptible to damage and do not retain their presentation for long. To improve the qualities of the metal, impurities are added to it. The result is an alloy containing a noble element. The standard of silver depends on its quantity. To understand what type of silver exists, you need to decide in what form it comes.

Precious metal forms

The metal comes in various types and forms, which determine the standard of silver. The following types of element are distinguished:

  1. The technical mineral contains a minimal amount of metal. Technical silver standard - 800 and below. This means that the alloy contains no more than 80% of the element. Such metal is not subject to marking.
  2. Sterling metal is the standard element. It differs from other alloys in its white color, which looks noble and elegant. This metal is used to create jewelry. Silver products are marked as 925, which means that 92.5% is pure element, the rest is impurities. In addition to the brand, the manufacturer may be indicated in letters on the decoration.
  3. Since the times of Tsarist Russia, silver tableware has become widespread. Such household items spoke of the wealth and refined taste of the owners. In Tsarist Russia they were used for interior decoration and for medicinal purposes. It was believed that old silver items had bactericidal properties. For example, silverware was used to purify water.

In Tsarist Russia, silverware could have a standard of 800, 875, or 925; it was made not from a metal alloy, but from silver coins.

For example, it took 2 coins to cast one spoon.

  1. In Tsarist Russia, blackened metal markings were common. But, despite its popularity, it was and is an exclusive type of material. Amulets and ancient objects are made from it. This method of processing an element also dates back to the times of Tsarist Russia and has not lost its relevance to this day. In this case, chemical, galvanic, and mechanical methods are used. Modern technologies make it possible to make blackened material by oxidizing the metal with air.
  2. One of the varieties of blackened mineral is oxidized metal. It is obtained by adding sulfur to the noble element. In this case, the ring, bracelets, and pendants made of mineral will look like antique items.

The oxidized coating tends to become thinner, so it may need to be restored over time.

  1. Filigree material belongs to the refined alloys and has a high value among jewelers. It consists of a large number of small parts and the finest silver threads. There are two types of filigree: background and openwork.
  2. Matte material has a rough surface and can be coated with enamel on top. This effect can be achieved by coating the mineral with a special composition that can change the top layer of the element. Jewelry with openwork patterns is made from it.

Samples of silver products

A person most often encounters precious metal when buying jewelry. Therefore, he is concerned with the question of what types of silver are there? Everyone needs to know this so as not to run into a fake.

The table will help you figure out what the standard of silver is. Here you can see not only the types of silver samples, but also what the distinctive features of the mineral are, depending on the marking, and its use.

Sample Quality of metal Application Distinctive features
600 and below The mineral is of low quality Used in industry as solder Has a reddish tint
720 The mineral is of low quality In jewelry it is used only for the manufacture of low-quality jewelry The yellow-colored mineral quickly becomes covered with an oxide film
750 The mineral has an average level of quality It is used to make tableware Oxidizes quickly and requires frequent cleaning
800 The mineral has an average level of quality Used in the production of cutlery It quickly becomes covered with an oxide film. Regular cleaning required
875 The mineral has an average level of quality Used for the production of interior decorations, tableware The strength criteria are higher. With frequent use, a black coating appears. Needs periodic cleaning
916 High level of quality Used in jewelry production to make expensive jewelry, coins, and memorial signs The best standard among all markings for large-scale production
925 High level of quality Used in jewelry production to make expensive jewelry, coins, and memorial signs The best standard among all markings for large-scale production
960 The highest standard of silver Used to create filigree It has high plasticity and a bright white color. Virtually not subject to mechanical stress
999 The highest standard of silver Used in industrial electronics and mechanical engineering. Is an excellent investment vehicle The best test for investment. Has the form of round or rectangular ingots
THIS IS INTERESTING:  What is the specific gravity of a metal

The table shows that which silver standard is better depends on the application of the metal. For example, silver of the highest standard cannot be used for soldering elements, and the lowest quality is not suitable for jewelry production.

How can you tell if metal is real?

You can find out the markings of silver jewelry with the help of a jeweler. It easily determines the composition of the alloy and the purity of silver. When determining markings, specialists should focus on the approved silver standard in Russia. All of them have been ratified by GOST of the former Soviet Union and have quality certificates.

If you have any doubts about the quality of the jewelry, then you need to know how to check the authenticity of the metal. In order to determine the marking of silver at home, there are several ways:

  • Everyone knows that the element belongs to metals that are not attracted to a magnet. Therefore, checking this method is the most effective;
  • the metal has excellent thermal conductivity. If you hold the mineral in your hands, it will begin to heat up;
  • The precious metal reacts well with certain elements. For example, when interacting with sulfur it darkens. If you smear the surface of jewelry with sulfur ointment, after a few hours a black tint will appear on the silver;
  • Another way to determine the sample of silver is to apply a drop of iodine to the silver. A dark stain appears instantly; It is advisable to drip iodine onto the inner surface of the jewelry, as it is difficult to remove.
  • You can rub the products with regular chalk. If it darkens, this indicates a higher grade of the mineral.


Prices for 1 gram of metal depend on its marking. The lowest quality metal has a low cost. The most expensive marking is 999, as it contains the largest amount of pure metal. The average price ranges from 18 to 40 rubles.

When buying silver products, you need to think not only about its beauty, but also pay attention to its fineness. This will help you avoid counterfeiting and, accordingly, enjoy your purchase.

Source: https://ProDragmetally.ru/dragotsennye-metally/serebro/svojstva-splavov.html

All about the quality of silver products

As a rule, jewelry is not made from pure precious metals. They acquire the necessary mechanical properties and the desired color thanks to the addition of non-ferrous metals.

The result is jewelry made from an alloy, in which the amount of precious metal determines its fineness. It is fixed and guaranteed by the state, so all items made of silver must undergo test control.

 If a piece of jewelry is marked 925, this means that the alloy contains at least 92.5% silver, and the remaining 7.5% is an alloying metal.

There are several sampling systems. In the former USSR, on the territory of modern Russia and in the CIS countries, back in 1927, they adopted the metric system, according to which the following standards of silver were established:

  • gold – 375, 500, 585, 750, 958, 999;
  • silver – 800, 830, 875, 925, 960, 999;
  • palladium – 500, 850;
  • platinum – 850, 900, 950.

Silver is quite soft, and to increase its hardness, copper is mainly added to it. Nickel, aluminum, cadmium and zinc are also sometimes used. It is this alloy that guarantees the good quality of silver products.

For your information, in Russia today all silver products that have a fineness lower than the minimum (800) are not stamped and are considered non-precious.

There is such a term as “technical silver”. And this does not mean its poor quality, but rather the opposite! Technical silver is used in radio parts, relays, etc. And this is all thanks to its physical characteristics: high electrical conductivity and light reflection.

Today, the largest producer of silver in the world (both technical and jewelry) is Mexico, followed by the USA, Spain, Canada, Australia, Peru, and Russia completes the list.

800 sample

This alloy contains at least 80% silver. It has good casting properties, but quickly oxidizes in open air. This differs from other alloys in its yellowish tint. This is all due to the fact that the alloy contains a large amount of copper. Therefore, it is used primarily for dining sets. It is equated to 375 gold.

830 sample

Accordingly, this alloy contains at least 83% silver. The quality of this alloy is not particularly different from the previous one, but is often used for jewelry.

875 sample

Precious metal in this alloy is at least 87.5%. Various types of household items and jewelry are made from just such an alloy.

925 sample

At a minimum, 92.5% of the precious metal is contained in the alloy. Due to its color characteristics and anti-corrosion properties, this alloy looks like pure silver. Due to the fact that the alloy is easily shaped and retains its hardness and elasticity, it is often used in jewelry.

960 sample

The amount of precious metal in this alloy is about 96%, so it is not much different from pure (like the previous number). It is often used when working on products with enamel. Fine filigree work is also not complete without alloy number 960.

What types of silver are there?

In addition to these, there are other types of branding in different countries. Consider, for example, 720 silver. It is practically not used when working with jewelry, as it has a pronounced yellow tint. The shape of such an alloy is difficult to somehow change, and during operation it loses its elasticity and hardness. It is commonly used to make pins, springs and other parts that can withstand heavy loads.

By the way, the Soviet five-kopeck coin is nothing more than 500 standard silver. This suggests that half of the total composition of the alloy is copper. It was 500 silver, of very low quality, that was used for all low denomination coins. If the denomination is high or the coins are commemorative or investment, then no 500-carat silver can hold a candle! Such coins were minted from a high-grade alloy with the number 900.

At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries in Russia, diamonds were set into silver jewelry. A striking example of this is the imperial crowns. Since platinum had not been used in jewelry before, silver was the best option.

It did not distort the color scheme of the stones and it was believed that if it was softer than gold, the stones would not be scratched. Since diamond is characterized by high dispersion and the ability to break the sun's rays, it equally successfully reflects the colors of surrounding objects. That is, if you fix it in a yellow frame, the stone will be yellowish.

Until the mid-19th century, this precious metal was considered number one and was imported to all European countries.


If we are talking about antique silver products, then this is an 84 alloy. It mainly served as the basis for tableware, as well as boxes, cigarette cases and other items.

Until recently, the basis for jewelry abroad was 916 sterling alloy, which is no longer used. In Europe, the 935 sample is common. Many countries around the world have unique alloys. For example, in Japan there is the highest standard - 1000, and in Egypt - 600.

How to determine the authenticity of silver at home?

Identifying this metal at home is not so difficult. We offer you a small list of how this can be done:

  • bring the product to the magnet. Silver will never be magnetic;
  • This metal is quite thermally conductive, that is, if you hold it a little in your hand, it will instantly become warm. If you immerse a silver item in hot water, it will quickly become the same temperature as the water;
  • Silver cannot be identified by smell, since there are now a large number of aromatic additives. It is also useless to bend the product. Although it is believed that a silver spoon will bend in half, and the other metal will spring back, this information will not help 100% determine the authenticity of a silver product;
  • try smearing the item with sulfur ointment, which can be purchased at a pharmacy. After a couple of hours, wipe it off with a napkin. If the smeared area turns black, then it is 100% precious metal. By the way, it can either turn black, or turn red, or not change color. There is no fourth option given;
  • A 100% precious metal will also turn black if iodine is dropped on it. In this way, you can determine the concentration of silver in products: the faster it turns black, the more there is. However, it will be difficult to wash it after such procedures;
  • try rubbing the product with chalk. If the chalk turns black over time, it is silver;
  • The best method for determining the metal is the “silver test,” which is commercially available.

A high-quality silver product does not leave any marks on the skin. If, for example, your hand gets a little dirty, then most likely you purchased a fake and a large amount of zinc is concentrated in such an alloy. It happens that low-quality silver items darken over time, but you can return them to their previous appearance using special creams for jewelry. No cream will help a low-quality product.

By the way, all test results may be zero if the surface of the jewelry is silver-plated. In this case, only a small incision can provide a 100% guarantee. If the authenticity is confirmed, the decoration will be damaged.

The most reliable way to verify the authenticity of a product today is to test it using a special device. This modern device will allow you to distinguish different types of precious metals from each other (gold, white gold, platinum). At the same time, he will also indicate the percentage of this metal content and sample. The pleasure is not cheap, but if you are engaged in buying or trading precious metals, then you cannot do without such a device.

No one is safe from purchasing a fake. If you notice that the product is of poor quality and it did not pass all household tests, it is best to return it back as soon as possible.

Source: https://oserebre.ru/proby-serebra/proverit-kachestvo.html

Silver samples: their designation and characteristics


Silver is a beautiful and noble metal. At all times, ladies loved jewelry, and gentlemen were great admirers of weapons made from silver alloys. Precisely alloys, because not a single piece of jewelry is made of pure metal. And since its amount in the alloy can be different, the concept of “silver sample” was introduced, which makes it possible to determine the cost of the finished product.

Silver samples

The peculiarity of precious metals is that in their pure form they are not very durable. Therefore, jewelry and decorative items made from them turn out to be very fragile. In order to increase the strength of jewelry, base metals began to be added to precious metals - copper, nickel, gum, zinc, aluminum. These alloy “neighbors” are usually called alloys.

In addition to changing hardness, alloys also affect the color of the alloy. Thus, a high copper content can give the product a yellow tint. But gum, on the contrary, makes jewelry snow-white.

The sample determines the precious metal content in 1000 g of jewelry. For example, one gram of a 925 ring contains 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper. Based on these data, several samples can be distinguished for precious alloys, which are necessarily marked on jewelry and cutlery:

  1. 800 sample . The main characteristic of these products is that they oxidize quickly. In addition, they are characterized by a yellowish tint due to the high copper content. Most often, cutlery is made from alloys of this sample.
  2. 830th . This alloy is used to make inexpensive jewelry, which is not of high quality and oxidizes quite quickly.
  3. 875 sample . Most often found on silverware. But it is not very suitable for making jewelry, since the products quickly lose their appearance.
  4. 925 sample . Due to its malleability and beauty, it is considered standard for jewelry making. The decorations are subtle and elegant. At the same time, the copper contained in the alloy does not change the color of the products, but makes them harder and more durable. It should be noted that the price of this sample is much higher than the previous ones, but it is best to buy jewelry with this sample.
  5. 960th . This silver is very high quality, but soft. It is used to make real jewelry works of art, which, unfortunately, are quite easy to damage. Therefore, jewelry made from 960 sterling silver is often coated with enamel, which only makes it look better.
  6. 999th . This is the most expensive silver sample and the purest. Due to the increased softness of the noble metal, neither jewelry nor, especially, dishes are made from it. 999 standard is only suitable for the production of solders, the manufacture of parts for various devices and silver bars.

Most often, alloys containing less than 80% precious metal in their composition are called technical and are not marked.

Therefore, the average person is unlikely to ever come across a product, for example, 325 sterling silver.

In order to better understand the hallmarks of silver alloys and understand what is made from them, you can use a table that allows you to find out, for example, what hallmark is for table silver and what is for jewelry:

Sample name silver, g ligatures, g Manufactured products
800 800 200 Silverware
830 830 170 Silverware and inexpensive jewelry that are not of good quality
875 875 125 Dishes, interior items and decorations
925 925 75 Various jewelry and coins
960 960 40 Jewelry

Thus, the lowest grade alloy is considered to be the one marked 800. And the best silver alloy used for the manufacture of high-quality products can confidently be called 925 grade metal.

Types of precious metal

Our ancestors also noticed that the quality of the alloy depends not only on its composition, but also on the processing method. Therefore, regardless of what types of silver there are in Russia, there are several types of precious metal:

  1. Sterling . This is 925 sterling silver. It has a noble shine and pure white color.
  2. Blackened . Made by mixing noble metal, copper, lead and sulfur and then heating them. After carrying out all the necessary manipulations, this complex alloy produces products covered with interesting dark patterns. Blackened silver is highly durable and does not require cleaning.
  3. Oxidized . It is created by applying a special film to the metal, which is quite easily damaged when cleaning the jewelry. The big advantage of oxidized silver is that after polishing the jewelry, its concave parts remain dark, and the convex parts become light and shiny.
  4. Filigree silver is very thin strands of silver soldered together. Jewelry made from this type of metal is distinguished by its lightness and beauty.
  5. Matte . Products made from this type of silver have a rough surface, which gives them rare beauty and uniqueness.

Absolutely every type of silver has its admirers. Only some people prefer blackened metal, while others prefer oxidized metal, or prefer products made of matte silver more than works of art made of filigree. Therefore, depending on the standard of silver in jewelry and its type, lovers of this metal are also divided into certain categories.

Methods for determining authenticity

Any buyer always strives to purchase a high-quality and authentic product. Silver jewelry is no exception.

Unfortunately, not everyone knows how to distinguish a genuine piece of jewelry from a skillful fake, especially at home. Of course, it is best to seek help from a professional. But not everyone and not always have such an opportunity.

Therefore, after purchasing silver jewelry, you can use several methods to determine its authenticity:

  1. The assistant is a magnet. All lovers of silver jewelry should remember that this noble metal is not magnetic under any circumstances. Therefore, the easiest way to determine the authenticity of a product is to hold a magnet to it. Unfortunately, this method cannot be called absolutely accurate, because not all other metals are capable of being magnetized.
  2. Heating. Silver has high thermal conductivity, so it heats up easily even in your hands.
  3. Sulfuric ointment. If you apply it to a product and leave it for several hours, the silver will definitely turn black.
  4. Iodine. If you apply an iodine solution to a small area of ​​a silver item, a reaction will occur as a result of which the item will darken. But you should remember that it will be very difficult to clean this dark spot.
  5. Chalk. It is enough to rub the silver jewelry with chalk and it will definitely darken.
  6. Rub the product in your hands. If the jewelry stains the skin, then it is better to refuse to buy it, as this indicates the presence of a large amount of zinc in its composition.
  7. When purchasing, be sure to pay attention to the mark that is placed on absolutely all jewelry pieces. But scammers will most likely fake it.

These are the most effective and simple methods for determining the authenticity of silver jewelry. But not all of them are safe for the product itself.

Therefore, it is better to refuse to use iodine or sulfur ointment if you are not sure that the jewelry is fake, because you can ruin a real silver work of art.

Thus, looking at the huge number of samples and types of silver, one can be happy for lovers of this noble metal - they have the opportunity to choose. After all, not a single jeweler’s product will be similar to its “neighbor” either in brilliance or execution.

Silver samples: their designation and characteristics Link to the main publication

Source: https://VseoMetallah.ru/serebro/proby-serebra

Silver samples, alloys. Types of silver, imitation

Pure silver is an incredibly beautiful metal, but not very practical. The highest standard silver is soft, scratches easily, and quickly loses its luster. Openwork details of jewelry made of pure silver, with intensive wear and careless cleaning, even with soft abrasives, lose their relief and become smooth.

THIS IS INTERESTING:  What is the strongest metal

As a result, the silver jewelry loses its expressiveness. Its attractiveness and artistic value are reduced. Perhaps it makes sense to use alloys with alloyed silver to make jewelry? There are, and quite a few - masters from all over the world are sure.

But the percentage of ligature inclusions in silver alloys is different for everyone. Some people consider 5% additives sufficient, while others boldly add up to 50% of God knows what alloys to the precious metal - and loudly praise their product. That is why the authorities had to introduce standards for testing alloys of precious metals.

This is the only way to stop the arbitrariness of amateur craftsmen who are eager to receive super-profits.

Some domestic and foreign silver samples

In general, the Russian silver assay system complies with international standards. The three-digit number - the sample number - reflects the exact number of grams of precious metal in a kilogram of jewelry alloy. The ligature in silver alloys is most often copper: the metals are “friends” with each other, mixing well, fusing perfectly, and most importantly, imparting many useful properties to each other.

The addition of cadmium to the master alloy dramatically increases the cost of the product, while significantly increasing the expressive properties of the metal. Instead of copper (or together with copper), aluminum, zinc, and nickel can be mixed with silver. However, the generally accepted jewelry standard is an alloy of silver and copper. The 750th or 800th sample is considered the minimum acceptable. At the same time, in the countries of the poor south, jewelry is successfully made from 600-carat silver.

By the way, often market traders in the South-East persistently offer our tourists silver trinkets of a noticeably red hue, claiming: the metal of the product is high-quality silver of the full 600 standard. In fact, the redness of the silver alloy indicates that the amount of copper in the product is simply off scale. The alloy becomes reddish even when the ratio of silver and copper is parity (50% each). The more copper, the redder the tint.

There is every reason to believe that the appearance of such products suffers greatly during a minimum period of use, because even the 720th standard of silver means: the jewelry is yellowish in color, the formation of an oxide film occurs quickly. However, 720th standard silver is used in domestic jewelry practice : as solder between high-grade parts, as a material for fasteners and locks, springs, needles, etc.

Silver of the 800th (and even 750th) standard is considered suitable for the manufacture of cutlery, salt shakers, oil dishes and other utensils. True, such silver requires constant care - that is, periodic cleaning of the oxide film. Life is a little easier for owners of 875-carat silverware.

This is still a low-grade alloy, but it can already be used to make not only dishes and cutlery - napkin rings, shot glasses, glasses and pouring containers, ashtrays - but also interior decorations. 916-carat alloy is deservedly considered good silverware. It is this alloy that is used to make sets decorated with enamel or gold plated. The famous sterling silver is a 925 silver alloy. Sterling is an ancient (ΧΙV century) English coin.

It is generally accepted that the silver used to mint sterling was of the highest quality. Sterling silver is still considered the best material for making jewelry, art and household items. 960 sterling silver used in jewelry has no external differences from pure silver. Products made from this alloy are distinguished by the highest artistic merits, but require special care when worn.

The plasticity of soft metal does not in any way contribute to the durability of such jewelry. Silver of 999 standard is held in high esteem among residents of the Far East. The Japanese, who have long and firmly believed in the close relationship between pure silver and the Moon, inhabited by deities merciful to people, eagerly buy jewelry made from 1000-carat silver.

Metal sampling system: Metal Metric Spool Carat
Gold 375 36 9
Gold 500 48 12
Gold 583 / 585 56 14
Gold 750 72 18
Gold 958 92 23
Gold 999 96 24
Silver 750 72 18
Silver 800
Silver 875 84 21
Silver 916 88 22
Silver 925
Silver 960
Silver 999 96 24
Platinum 950
Palladium 500 12
Palladium 850

The pragmatic French are most fond of 800-carat silver, while other Europeans prefer to buy items made from 935-carat silver alloy.

Types of silver

Multi-colored gold will no longer surprise anyone. Silver is available in a single color variation - white! But still, noble metal can be different. Sterling silver is white, durable, and does not tarnish. Its color is characterized as dazzling, and its quality is standard.

Blackened silver is a product of the use of special jewelry technologies associated with the creation of black melts. Blackened silver jewelry gives the impression of antiquity, is considered magically powerful and is extolled as amulets and charms. Modern technologies make it possible to replace full blackening with quick and shallow oxidation.

New oxidized silver is indistinguishable from blackened silver, but does not retain high aesthetic standards for so long. Filigree silver is the name for openwork products made with highlighting the smallest details. Essentially, filigree silver is lace woven from thin silver wires and either soldered onto a background or placed in a frame.

Matte silver has become popular in recent decades. Microroughness on the surface of products is created by treating silver with a special liquid suspension of chemically active ingredients.

Imitation silver

Imitations of silver are not necessarily counterfeits of the precious metal. Cupronickel and nickel silver were created as inexpensive replacements for expensive materials.

Silver leaf - a thin foil made of an aluminum-zinc alloy - is used to cover non-metallic sculptural forms to give them a silvery shine.

Cupronickel is an alloy of copper and nickel with small inclusions of iron and manganese (or without them), known since prehistoric times. Cupronickel silver cutlery has long been considered a worthy replacement for silver spoons and forks, but it is now recognized that nickel is harmful to the body.

Nickel silver is a type of cupronickel with an admixture of zinc. The alloy is inexpensive, but it is only conditionally suitable for making cutlery: if a nickel silver spoon is not coated with a layer of natural silver, the food will acquire a metallic taste.

Imitations of silver exist officially, legally. Counterfeit silver is alloys created to maliciously imitate natural silver. The mixture often includes a little silver and even gold (although the base is still the same nickel silver), as well as iron. Jewelry is made from counterfeit silver, counterfeit investment coins are minted, and small ingots are cast for the purpose of active sales via the Internet. The Chinese are famous for their special skill in counterfeiting silver. For some reason, many buyers are sure that hallmarking of silver items is not necessary, and therefore the presence of so-called personal or company marks, in their opinion, is equivalent to the presence of a hallmark stamp. Chinese “specialists” are so skilled in falsifying silver alloys and hallmarks that they do not hesitate to put into circulation not very accurate copies of products from famous brands. Jewelry sellers often use the expression “Tibetan silver” when talking about the high percentage of natural silver in the alloy. In fact, we are talking about the well-known nickel silver, really (usually imaginary) enriched with real silver. The best examples of so-called Tibetan silver contain up to 30% of the precious metal. In the worst cases, no silver is detected at all. Fraudsters have coined the concept of “Leningrad silver”. Without guilt, the enterprises of a St. Petersburg company that produces silver-plated brass jewelry turned out to be at fault. Criminals buy very high-quality products, equip jewelry with a raised mark resembling an assay stamp, attach false labels and sell the products as silver. In fact, no special “Leningrad silver” exists in nature!

How to spot a fake?

At home, it is very difficult to determine the authenticity of a silver product and whether the sample corresponds to the actual quality of the metal.

Common advice recommends listening to the ringing purity of the silver you purchase, checking it for hardness and thermal conductivity, and treating the alloy with chemicals available in everyday life. Following any of the recommendations does not give reliable results.

There is only one way out - you need to buy silver only from reputable suppliers of jewelry stamped by the state assay office. All other methods of acquiring silver do not provide confidence in the fairness of the transaction.

All stones

Source: https://finesell.ru/serebro/proba-serebra-splav.html

Mark on silver: what does it mean?

Each mark on silver belongs to one or another assay system. For example, the hallmark of 84 hallmarks refers to the ancient hallmark system, which is called “spool”. This is how silverware was branded even before the revolution, although this method was actively used in the USSR.

The 84 silver hallmark appeared at the end of the 18th century, but other markings also exist. Now craftsmen work according to the metric system and test products according to a special table.

The set will highlight the hallmarking of precious metals, their principles and types of alloys that are subject to assaying.

What does a hallmark mean on silver items?

You will not find such marks on silver bars, which do not have impurities. The fact is that pure precious metal is very soft and is not intended for creating jewelry or decorations. Craftsmen deliberately began to add other impurities to these metals in order to make the raw material harder and more convenient for processing. In addition, objects made of pure metal have the ability to lose shape.

These may be various components that will be indicated in the product certificate. The most popular additives were considered to be zinc, aluminum, copper and cadmium. Based on the amount of impurities in ounces, the fineness of the silver or other precious metal can be determined. The hallmarking system prescribes the percentage of pure silver in the alloy.

What does a hallmark mean on silver items?

On a note! The number of the hallmark on silver objects or jewelry means how many shares of silver are present in the product, and how many shares of additional impurity.

History of the Assay System

Not only numbers are used by the assay system, but also letters. If previously the sample carried more detailed information: the value of the item, the name of the jewelry maker and even the date of manufacture, now branding occurs strictly according to a system table.

In Rus' this art has been studied for a long time. Only the master himself or his chief assistant could set samples. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian emperor even issued a decree that special chambers should be equipped for hallmarking silver and other metals.

The marking system has evolved, and along with it, the print itself will periodically change. There was one for each category of precious metals.

The first print was in the form of a woman’s head in a kokoshnik, but each individual district in the Russian Empire had its own mark, on which letters were printed. They were the initials of the head of the district.

Then it was decided to put an abbreviation according to the regions. At that time in Russia there were many German craftsmen who made their products from silverware with personalized names.

A unified testing system appeared under Peter the Great, in 1899. It was he who obliged the craftsmen to indicate the sample on the precious metal so that they could roughly determine the value of the item. An interesting fact is that on the first print the woman’s profile was turned to the left, and the mark itself was a primitive design.

When high-quality fakes of the sample began to appear, it was decided to complicate the mark and in the final version, people saw the woman’s face, already turned to the right. In addition to this change, the craftsmen added additional touches to the image so that fraudsters could not fake it without special skills and equipment.

On a note! After approval of the new brand, each district additionally put down the letter abbreviation of its district.

Types of hallmarks on silver

Over the entire era of the stamp, there are several dozen impressions. They appeared at one time or another and were not all included in the official marking table. Some positions have survived to this day, but the main part has sunk into history.

Now you can find sample No. 875, and the alloy in composition and characteristics is identical to that which was branded under number 84. This is due to the fact that sample 84 belongs to the spool system, and 875 to the metric system, which was created in 1927.

Alloy 925 is also popular in the modern world.

The stamp itself can be made in the form of an oval, the sides of which are slightly cut off. There should always be a letter at the bottom of the stamp. Using it you can find out in which region or locality the product was tested.

Since ancient times, branding has been handled by a separate department, which simultaneously evaluates the item based on chemical analysis of individual components. This procedure can be done manually, during jewelry making, or using a special device.

Brands are written with the following symbols: “A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “D”, “E”, “F”, “Z”, where:

  1. A and B are a round print with a woman’s head, and the sample is located behind the circle, near the image.
  2. C and D – a round print with a five-pointed star, with a hammer and sickle inside, and the sample is located behind the circle, near the image. This mark dates back to the USSR era.
  3. “D”, “E”, “F”, “Z” - do not have independent meaning. It is applied as an additional stamp. Without a standard stamp, such a marking cannot confirm that the item is created from silver metal.

In modern jewelry, only the meanings of “D” and “E” are used. The first letter is depicted on precious things, enclosed in a rectangle, the ends of which are slightly rounded. The letter designation "E" is used extremely rarely. It is placed on products that do not correspond to the declared sample. Again, this is done in the approbation department, because each metal unit must undergo appropriate testing.

In modern jewelry, only the values ​​of “D” and “E” are used.

It should be noted that the letter “B” is placed on some items after production. It may mean that the products will be exported abroad or, on the contrary, have arrived in Russia.

Without this sign, the goods simply will not be allowed through the customs zone. In this print, instead of a woman wearing a kokoshnik, a sea vessel is depicted. If a person comes across jewelry with such a stamp, it means that it was either made abroad or came from there.

Many jewelry factories create their own stamps, but the presence of name marks does not replace the main stamp, which confirms the composition of the alloy by a competent department. Only those companies that do not claim to confirm individual components of the product can make do with a personal imprint. This is what workshops do that produce expensive jewelry and give it a presentable appearance with silver plating. There are also so-called “holiday” or “temporary” stamps:

  1. In 1967, an astronaut was present in the oval for 60 days. This seal was made for the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution. Many antique lovers keep silver coins with this sign.
  2. Until 1994, jewelry workshops that created church paraphernalia from silver could only brand it with the letter “D.” Now the church again wants to achieve its own distinctive sign, but so far their request is not being considered by the state.
  3. Also, until 1997, all medals that were issued to heroes of the Soviet Union and people for their contribution to the development of the state were subject to branding.

On a note! In the Soviet Union, it took a long time to displace German stamps. Devices with this imprint can still be found to this day, but most of them are in a museum in Moscow.

Principles of branding

The mark can be located inside or outside the product. The very first and most popular method is mechanical. Every jewelry maker should have this art. At first, an ordinary hammer was used for this, and then a special mechanism was made that carried out the process automatically. There were also special anvils, without which it was almost impossible to accurately apply a jewelry stamp. The machines had already been introduced when mass branding was required.

The electric spark method is carried out with the participation of electrodes

The electric spark method is carried out with the participation of electrodes. For this purpose, a special installation was made, with the help of which the print is burned out with a spark. If the brand has jumpers at the top between the outline and the badge, it means that this item was branded using the electric spark method. This method is more effective, but not all jewelry workshops and factories use it, because such an installation costs a lot of money.

For very expensive jewelry, a special laser can be used, which applies the mark very carefully. This method is not as relevant in mass production because the laser mark disappears over time. If a person has purchased such a product, then he needs to treat it more carefully, because after a while the mark will simply disappear and it will no longer be possible to confirm that the jewelry belongs to the precious right.

IMPORTANT! It is not so difficult to fake a sample, but the master will immediately understand that it is not real. In Soviet times, it was precisely because of the work of scammers that the prints changed several times. Most often, counterfeit items were found in silver dishes.

Silver alloys subject to hallmarking

They put a mark on many products made of precious metals. The standard mark marks all jewelry that weighs more than three grams. The following items are subject to mandatory branding:

  1. Having historical value.
  2. Of archaeological significance.
  3. Ingots of imported and domestic production.
  4. Nuggets.
  5. Silver leaf.

Despite the fact that most of the historical treasures are in the museum, archaeologists find new parts made of precious metals every day. Before transferring them to museum institutions for storage, they are checked and branded with a special sign.

THIS IS INTERESTING:  What is the melting point of bronze

Even if the product contains a mixture of alloys, it must have a sample on it. For example: a ring made of silver and gold: two stamps. Any items made of precious metals that are created for scientific or industrial needs are not branded. Such things are subject to special consideration.

Such records can be found in journals of laboratories, medical and other professional institutions.

If a person sees a silver item, but cannot detect a hallmark on it, then most likely this item was made by a private craftsman or does not belong to precious alloys. When products are sealed, each item is indicated in a special registration book. The authenticity of the sample can be confirmed or refuted by any jeweler with a magnifying glass at hand.

Source: https://1nerudnyi.ru/klejmo-na-serebre-01/

Features of silver and pure metal samples

There are many people in the world who prefer silver jewelry, and all because such products not only look elegant, but are also characterized by wear resistance. In addition to bracelets, earrings, pendants, and silver rings, they produce exquisite cutlery - spoons, forks, jugs, teapots, gravy boats, etc.

In the jewelry industry, items are never made from pure metal because silver deforms due to its ductility. Therefore, impurities of stronger metals are added to silver.

The combination of the precious metal with less valuable analogues led to the introduction of the metric system of samples, demonstrating the amount of the precious part in the alloy. What types of silver exist?

Types of metal

Fineness is a measure that shows how many grams of precious metal are contained in an alloy. For example, 960 silver fineness indicated on a product means that it is made from an alloy, one kilogram of which contains 960 grams of silver, while the remaining 40 grams are represented by a ligature.

What types of silver are there in Russia and the CIS countries:

Sample on a silver ring

The minimum acceptable fineness of silver is 800. This metal is suitable for making silverware. But jewelry is made from high-grade alloys. To better understand the features of existing alloys, you should consider all types of silver.

  1. 800: Here 80% or 800 grams is silver and the remaining 20% ​​(200 grams) is copper and admixtures of other metals. In this regard, the product has a characteristic yellow tint. The advantages of the alloy include its excellent casting properties, which make it possible to make high-quality cutlery from it that will not be scratched or deformed over time and retain an excellent appearance. However, low-grade silver has a disadvantage - due to the copper content, it oxidizes when exposed to air.
  2. 830: Similar to the above alloy, but the difference is that 830 silver contains 30 grams more precious metal. Not included in the International Metric System.
  3. 875: in this alloy, 87.5% is silver, the remaining 12.5% ​​is the alloy represented by copper, germanium and silicon. Good jewelry is made from this metal - bracelets, earrings, pendants, rings, chains. The alloy is also used in the production of cutlery. 875 silver is notable because many people confuse it with white gold, especially if products made from such metal are coated with a layer of rhodium or sputtered. However, the price per gram of 875 silver is significantly different from the price per gram of white gold. In addition, the silver hallmark is shaped like a barrel.
  4. 925: answering the question about what type of silver is the most common, it is worth noting this alloy, which consists of 92.5% of the precious part. High-grade silver also resembles white gold in its hue. In the UK, the 925 fineness metal is called sterling silver because it was used to make the English pound coins. This alloy is also considered the silver standard. The metal is used to make coins, jewelry, and ionizers. Fine cutlery is also made from high-grade silver. The advantage of this alloy is its resistance to oxidation.
  5. 960: The highest standard of silver used in jewelry and cutlery. This metal has a white tint. The metal is ductile and soft, which allows it to be processed efficiently and easily forged. From such silver, professional jewelers make works of art that have small elements characteristic of fine artistic work.

Test on cutlery

Silver 999

Silver with a purity of 999 is considered a pure metal without any impurities. This alloy - the highest standard of silver - is easy to process, but due to its ductility, it is not used for making jewelry and other things that are usually made from silver.

However, the plasticity of the metal allows it to be rolled, for example, from silver with a purity of 999, taken in an amount of thirty grams, you can make a fifty-meter wire. Also, parts for electrical engineering, high-precision mirrors, etc. are made from this alloy.

Pure silver is also used in medicine as a raw material for the production of bactericidal medicines. Metal is also included in ionizers and air purifiers.

When purchasing silver jewelry or cutlery, you should give preference to specialized stores and showrooms that sell certified goods that have passed an examination. But buying silver “from hand” risks purchasing a counterfeit and, as a result, losing an impressive amount of money.

We recommend other articles

Source: https://DedPodaril.com/serebro/vidy/proby-serebra.html

Silver samples. Types, features and applications of silver samples

In accordance with GOST, corresponding digital designations have been established for precious metals, in other words, a sample of silver or other metal, which determines the number of parts of the precious metal contained in one kilogram of silver or gold alloy.

925 sterling silver ring with blue topaz inserts

In the Russian Federation there is officially no 925 standard gold, but there is 925 standard silver . However, on many jewelry forums there is a constant discussion about the existence of 925 gold.

Some claim that such a standard does not exist, while others prove that they themselves personally bought the product, made of 925 gold and at the same time call it “white”. “White gold” is usually called alloys of gold with palladium or nickel; they actually exist. This type of metal was developed back in 1920, but luxurious and very beautiful jewelry made from it began to appear relatively recently.

The photo shows 875 sterling silver with a gold-plated bottom

White gold alloys have different properties and characteristics, it depends on the percentage of impurities, but 925 standard white gold is not found in Russia.

In the Russian Federation, according to the standards established by law, gold hallmarks can only have the following digital designations: 375 - the lowest hallmark of gold, 583 and 585 hallmarks, 750 hallmarks and the highest 958 hallmarks.

If the product still has 925 hallmark, then the question immediately arises: is it gold or is it still silver ?

In Russia, this 925 standard is usually typical for silver. It has been used for quite a long time in the production of jewelry in combination with diamonds, since it is the white base that very strongly reflects the shine of precious stones.

The photo shows 875 silver earrings with jewelry enamel

Silver has been known to mankind since ancient times. This ductile, malleable noble white metal is found in nature in the form of nuggets, but more often it is found in various ores, such as copper, iron, and platinum. This speaks to silver's ability to easily combine with these metals. Silver is very widely and actively used in jewelry.

The chemical activity of silver is greater than that of gold, so silver is practically never found in nature in its natural, pure form. Silver alloys have unique physical characteristics.

925 silver has good electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity properties. In its pure form, silver is a heavy and durable metal, it is harder than gold and significantly heavier than copper. The density of silver and its melting point are lower than that of gold, but its hardness is higher.

The photo shows a ring made of 925 sterling silver with chrysolite

Silver, of course, is considered a noble metal, which is characterized by a rather low reactivity. It does not react with dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, carbon and nitrogen, does not undergo oxidation even at very high temperatures in the presence of oxygen, and is also absolutely indifferent to alkalis.

However, after some time, in the presence of high humidity, silver products tarnish. Modern industry produces refined silver in the form of ingots. Refined silver means absolutely pure. But even the purest silver acquires a gray patina over time.

Ring made of 925 silver with jewelry enamel

Silver is widely and very actively used in the field of medicine, electrical engineering, chemistry, and mechanical engineering. In jewelry production, various jewelry is created from it, for connoisseurs of this particular metal. Coins are also minted from silver, various awards are produced, and products made from inexpensive metals are coated with it for greater wear resistance.

To create jewelry, silver of the highest standard ; its color harmonizes very well with semi-precious minerals. Low-grade silver is used for alloys, which are subsequently used to produce table sets, which are a sign of a certain wealth of the family. All jewelry silver alloys have their own hallmark. Usually there are 8 types.

The lowest is considered 720 silver , in which the content of pure silver is 72%. Products made from such a silver alloy have a large number of negative properties. They are very refractory and have an unattractive yellowish tint. They are most often used in industry.

The picture shows options for hallmarks on silver products

There is also 800 standard silver . Products from this sample also have an ignoble yellowish color, but this alloy already has high casting properties. This is the more commonly used standard of silver in the production of cutlery.

875 silver has more positive qualities and can already be used both in modern industry and in jewelry production, because this silver standard in its mechanical and aesthetic parameters is very close to the highest standard silver.

The purest and most noble silver starts with 925 purity - this is at least 92.5% of the precious metal. In this case, the metal acquires high anti-corrosion qualities, it is perfectly amenable to melting and is able to take the desired shape.

The picture shows the types of silver samples used in the Russian Federation

916 sterling silver is practically not used, but 960 sterling silver is in great demand and is widely used in jewelry to make finer and more highly artistic masterpieces.

The main disadvantage of silver is its darkening over time. This is due to the ability of the metal to react with sulfur compounds that are in the air. sterling silver 875 and higher retain their aesthetic qualities much longer

Centuries-old jewelry practice found new ways to preserve the pristine quality of jewelry: they were boiled in sulfuric or hydrochloric acid, covered with a layer of rhodium, and varnish or wax was applied.

The photo shows a 925 sterling silver ring with amethyst and white zircons

There is constant debate in the world about the benefits of silver and gold jewelry. There are millions of supporters of both gold and silver.

History proves to us the primacy of gold in jewelry, and chemistry notes the strength and durability of silver, economics, in turn, forces us to take into account the huge difference in the cost of these precious metals, and finally fashion dictates its seasonal preferences to everyone and is not able to give primacy to the warm, bright golden light , nor the dull coldness of silver.

Advantages of silver

Silver is the second noble metal after gold, in demand at all times in the jewelry industry. No one, even the most professional jewelry connoisseurs, can say unequivocally that gold or silver is more beautiful in jewelry. There is a fairly large number of exclusive products made from 925 silver, which are not inferior to products made from gold.

In the photo there is a pectoral cross made of 875 sterling silver

The price of a silver product can also be much higher. And yet, more often than not, silver is used as an additional material in the creation of modern jewelry; you can find it in the form of overlays or as a base for precious stones. You can see some options for silver products in this Ethno Shop store.

For minerals such as pearls and amber, a base made of 925 sterling silver is very advantageous in terms of harmonious light perception. Diamonds that are too large in a silver setting will not look very good, since this metal can fade over time, but diamonds and other precious stones should always sparkle.

Magical and healing properties of silver

Everyone has long known that silver perfectly purifies water, while saturating it with silver ions beneficial to the human body. Also, 925 sterling silver is widely used for the production of amulets, rings and other paraphernalia specific to the Christian religion.

This noble metal is most often used to make body bags with various inscriptions. 925 sterling silver will help to actively fight diseases and resist the negative influence of negative external forces.

Silver earrings made of silver with natural pink pearls and clear diamonds

In eastern countries, silver is attributed to the negative negative energy of the feminine principle “Yin” with lunar symbolism of fertility. Silver is ideal for people with inherent constant overexcitation, as well as those prone to frequent irritability. Silver can lull ardor and calm the human nervous system.

Modern silver jewelry designers believe that silver is not inferior in beauty and lightness to gold jewelry, however, despite all of the above, gold still holds the lead.

Source: https://tvoi-uvelirr.ru/proby-serebra/

What types of silver are there? More information about types and characteristics

» Articles » What are the types of silver samples: marking, composition, cost

When buying a piece of jewelry or decorative item, consumers meticulously study: what grade is the silver? This information is also important for enterprises that use the ductile silver-white metal for industrial purposes. In its pure form, argentum (the 47th element in order in the periodic system) is practically not used due to its softness. Alloys that contain varying amounts of silver and copper are common.

What do the numbers tell you?

The word “sample” has many meanings:

  • This is the name of a small seal - a mark that is placed by craftsmen.
  • This concept characterizes the content of precious metal. Having seen a three-digit number on a silver product, you can answer the question: how many grams of silver does 1 kilogram of alloy contain?

The following types of silver samples are common:

  • 999th. Used exclusively for industrial purposes.
  • 960th. Allows jewelers to create exquisite pieces and decorative items.
  • 925th. In addition to 925 grams of silver, the alloy contains 75 grams of copper, which enhances strength without adding yellowness. Widely used in the work of jewelers. Rings, earrings, bracelets impress with their beauty and originality of shape. Commemorative coins, rich interior decorations, awards and good silverware - the list of products of this high standard is wide.
  • 875th. The “silver spoons” that disappeared during the visit of guests in the plot of the famous joke may have been made of just such an alloy. However, like many other dishes. It may get darker over the years.
  • 830th. Used in the production of inexpensive jewelry and tableware.
  • 800th. A fifth of the alloy is copper, so it is characterized by strength, a clear yellow tint, and susceptibility to oxidation. Can be used for cutlery.

Where is the sample placed?

Manufacturers of products made from silver alloys know exactly how hallmarking is performed. The location of the sample is extremely important.

For example, a wristwatch is branded on the outside and inside the case, a mirror on the handle or frame, dishes on the bottom, a knife on the blade, rings on the inside, and earrings on hooks.

Ignoring the rules by official manufacturers is unacceptable. Even if the product is too fragile, miniature or hollow, there is a special method for applying the sample. A schnapper is soldered to the thing - a silver plate the size of the stamp.

6 signs of a fake

Buying fake silver is a nuisance. Products can quickly lose their attractive appearance and fail to perform their functions. For example, it can instantly darken, tear or break. Professional experts know thoroughly what standard is used for silver. They will accurately determine whether it is a fake or an original. Typical signs of a fake:

  • Fuzzy outline of the mark. This is because fake jewelry is often made from soft metal.
  • The year of manufacture does not correspond to the type of marking. A specialist will easily detect deception, knowing the nuances of applying samples in different historical periods. There is also a difference in the approach of different states to this issue.
  • Attracting the product to a magnet.
  • Long heating time. Place a silver spoon in boiling water and it should immediately heat up. The secret is high thermal conductivity.
  • Body getting dirty. When zinc is generously added to the silver alloy, dark spots on the skin are guaranteed.
  • In order not to pay a fabulous sum for a fake, positioned as a precious work, it is useful to know this trick of unscrupulous sellers: a stamp is soldered to the fake from the original item. You can notice the forgery by breathing on the soldered area or seeing the difference in wear on the product itself and the sample through a magnifying glass.

If you have any doubts about the authenticity of items made of silver, gold or other precious metals, it is better to consult with a professional.

When purchasing silver from METAL LLC, you can be 100% confident in its quality.

Source: https://silversalt.ru/stati/kakie-byvayut-proby-serebra-markirovka-sostav-stoimost

Did you like the article? Share with friends:
Metals and their processing
-- Sideb lion (lipk) -->
For any suggestions regarding the site: [email protected]
Для любых предложений по сайту: [email protected]