What metals are magnetic?

What metals are magnetic?

Typically, powerful magnets are designed to find precious metals. A search magnet reacts to gold and silver quite strongly, and although it is difficult to find them in their pure form, its power is enough to pick up jewelry and coins from the ground. The main goal of all search engines is treasures, expensive coins, and sometimes just ferrous metal.

The article will describe the structure of the magnet and the basic principle of operation. He will also figure out what exactly can be found with its help and how to find expensive alloys. It will be explained in detail what ferromagnets, paramagnets and diamagnetic materials are. In addition, valuable tips and recommendations will be given that will greatly simplify the search for valuable items.

Search magnet device

This device consists of a steel case, inside of which there is a neodymium magnet. It is made from a rare alloy containing neodymium, iron and boron. This compound has a powerful attractive property. Despite its compactness, it is capable of holding things tens of times its own weight.

To make it easier to get various things, the case is equipped with a special mount. It is screwed into the magnet body via a thread. On top of the fastener there is a fastener in the form of a hook or loop that will hold the cable or rope. This mount has a rigid base that is firmly screwed into the body. The entire structure has a reliable foundation, and in this case, there is no fear in lifting any expensive and heavy thing.

Principle of operation

The search magnet has rather poor functionality. The main task of such an object is to attract as many metal objects as possible. But the device copes with its main task more than well. Thanks to its unique design, it has great strength and is able to hold quite large objects, as well as objects containing gold or silver, which ordinary magnets cannot handle.  

This is especially convenient when getting things out of wells, funnels and various pits. It's also good to use this thing underwater. In water, all objects are subject to great resistance, and picking up any object becomes a rather labor-intensive task. But with a neodymium magnet, searching and removing such objects is greatly simplified.

What items can be found

When asked what kinds of things can be found using a search magnet, iron objects, including coins, immediately come to mind. Almost all paramagnetic metals can be found.

Simply put, materials that are attracted to the magnet body, but more on that later. Such coins, or precious metals, can be of great value.

For example, you can find iron coins from the period of Tsarist Russia, as well as many rare Soviet coins.

Powerful magnets can attract metals such as:

  • aluminum
  • copper
  • tin
  • brass
  • lead

Most searches are carried out in attics, in various beaches and public places where people can lose things, as well as in wells and pits. In such places they usually find costume jewelry, expensive jewelry, various metal boxes, and sometimes even expensive mobile devices (on the beach). This is what finding things on land is all about.

As for water, you can also find many valuable things, including gold jewelry. Also, thanks to superstitions, a whole fortune of coins can be raised from the bottom. Moreover, there is no need to get coins from city fountains, since there are quite a lot of abandoned wells that no one needs, but they store precious things.

Does a magnet attract gold and silver?

Is it possible to find pure gold or silver with powerful magnets? No, since such metals are diamagnetic, that is, they are not attracted to magnets. But it's not all bad, thanks to all the power of neodymium alloy, it is possible to get some jewelry. Such objects usually have a ligature in them.

This alloy helps precious metals such as gold or silver acquire certain properties. For example, silver jewelry does not darken as much, but gold jewelry is more durable. But the most important thing is that the ligature allows magnetization and makes it possible to find various alloys.

But it is also possible to find pure gold or silver. At the beginning of the article it was said that iron boxes can be found. Typically, jewelry made of gold or silver is stored in such cases. So, walking through an attic or similar places, you can get rich, in the literal sense of the word.

Magnetic properties of various metals

In order to go hunting for valuable metals, you need to know what exactly will be attracted to a magnet. Since metals have different magnetic properties, and some do not have them at all. They can be divided into three groups:

  1. ferromagnets

  2. paramagnets

  3. diamagnetic materials

Ferromagnets are metals with some of the best magnetic properties. Such metals are highly magnetic. These include ferrous metal.

Paramagnetic materials have the usual properties; they are readily attracted to a magnet, but do not have the function of magnetization. These include some alloys of jewelry and several types of non-ferrous metals.

And finally, diamagnetic materials. Such alloys are extremely difficult to respond to magnetic fields and greatly complicate the search for truly precious things. Diamagnets include gold, silver, aluminum, patina and other metals that even the strongest magnet does not pick up.

Is it possible to find gold with a magnet?

As already discussed earlier, jewelry and coins with gold can be lifted, but it is very problematic.

It is impossible to get pure gold with a magnet.

But if various factors are favorable, such as an iron box or paramagnetic jewelry lying nearby, then there is a chance to find it. Basically, only jewelry containing gold, such as bracelets, earrings and rings, can be caught with a magnet. The best places to search are sandy beaches, wells, and the sea or river bottom where a large number of people swim.

Source: https://steelfactoryrus.com/kakie-metally-magnityatsya/

How to identify metal: types of tests, use of chemistry

Probably everyone had to hold in their hands a piece of jewelry or another object, obviously metal.

But how can you determine what metal is used in production? It could be a precious material or a counterfeit, or even a trinket with no claims to value. Expertise from specialists will give you the exact answer, but it is not free.

But there are methods for approximately determining the type of metal at home. They were used a long time ago, but they have not lost their relevance in our time.

Magnet check

Bringing a magnet close to the item being tested is a good way to perform initial testing. By the reaction of the magnet you can determine which group the metal belongs to:

  1. Ferromagnets. The magnet is clearly attracted to the object, which means that the product may contain iron, steel or nickel.
  2. Paramagnetic materials. The interaction with the magnet is very weak. This group includes aluminum and chrome. Precious metals that are paramagnetic are platinum, palladium and silver.
  3. Diamagnets. In general, they do not react to magnets. Copper and zinc have these properties. Precious metals - gold.

Magnet check

Of course, such a check will not allow us to accurately determine the material from which the item is made. After all, a non-magnetic metal may not be in its pure form, but in the form of an alloy with a ferromagnet. But it can confirm or refute the assumption. For example, if it is checked whether it is gold or not, but the item is clearly magnetic, then it can be argued that it is a fake.

When checking jewelry, you should take into account that, in addition to precious metals, they may contain clasps, built-in springs, made of another material. You need to check the metal itself.

Heat check

You can also determine the group of a metal by how it conducts heat. It is known that the thermal conductivity of silver is very high. It is almost five times higher than that of iron or platinum. Slightly worse for gold, copper and aluminum. Platinum transfers heat even weaker than iron.

If you immerse the metal in hot water for 15–20 seconds, then based on its temperature, determined by touch, you can draw some conclusions.

  1. Gold and silver objects will become as hot as the water in which they were dipped.
  2. During this time, platinum and items containing iron will become warm, but not hot.

In this way it is easy to distinguish platinum from silver. But it’s not possible to compare silver or aluminum alloy.

Iodine test

You can check the authenticity of the metal using an iodine solution purchased at a pharmacy. A drop of iodine is applied to the surface and left for several seconds. Iodine will not harm noble metals - gold, platinum, silver. If the color of a drop of iodine does not change, and after removing it with a napkin, no traces or stains remain, this indicates the authenticity of the metal. If darkening is visible at the place of the drop, then this is a low-quality alloy or an outright fake.

Iodine testing of gold

Vinegar test

Household vinegar solution also does not affect precious metals. And it is dangerous for counterfeits. But, unlike the iodine test, acetic acid takes time. To wait for the result, you need to immerse the metal being tested in a container with vinegar for 15–30 minutes. The absence of traces of interaction between metal and vinegar is a sign of nobility.

If, in addition to metal, the product contains precious or semi-precious stones, then it is better not to check them this way; vinegar can ruin them. This is especially true for pearls.

Dental check

From novels and films we know that they used to test the authenticity of gold coins by biting them. What exactly can be installed in this “old-fashioned” way? Gold is a soft metal. Therefore, even with a weak bite, a dent from the teeth remains on it. Fake alloys do not have this property; you cannot take them with your teeth.

Such a test gives good results for high-quality products. The higher the pure gold content, the softer it is. Gold of 900 purity and higher is so soft that they try not to expose valuable items made from it to contact with other objects.

This is how you can compare platinum and silver. The latter does not have the softness of gold, but a strong bite may leave a small dent. It is impossible to leave marks with teeth on real platinum.

Application of chemicals

Testing with active chemical reagents should be left as a last resort. If handled improperly, they will damage even genuine precious metal. And they can be dangerous for the health of the inspector.


Pure gold does not react to ammonia. But practically no products intended for use are made from gold 900 and 999, only for collections. And on a precious metal of lesser purity, ammonia can leave an irremovable mark. Its solution in combination with other substances is used to clean gold items. Therefore, it is not worth identifying gold and silver items using ammonia.

Platinum products are usually produced with a high purity. Therefore, you can check the authenticity of platinum with ammonia. This chemical will not leave a mark on her.

Nitric and hydrochloric acids

Separately, these acids do not affect high-grade gold and platinum. And if you mix their concentrated solutions in a ratio of 1:3, you get a mixture called aqua regia. It can even dissolve gold. Aqua regia does not “take on” platinum when it is cold. This precious metal will gradually dissolve in the heated mixture.

Oddly enough, royal vodka is not afraid of genuine silver. It reacts to it by forming silver chloride in the form of a thin film on the surface. The latter protects the product itself from destruction.

Density check

One of the reliable ways to determine the type of metal or alloy is to determine its density. For pure gold it is two times higher than for copper and almost three times higher than for iron. Platinum is even heavier than gold. Even an alloy of 585 gold is noticeably heavier than base metals.

Of course, to determine the exact density of a small product you will need pharmaceutical scales, volume calculations (Archimedes' law to help) and tabular data on the density of base metals. But to solve the question of what the alloy is mainly made of, gold or another metal, rough estimates are sufficient. If you have at hand an object made of obviously genuine metal of approximately equal volume, then you may not even need a scale. A weight difference of two to three times is not so difficult to catch.

Separately, each of the considered methods will not give an exact answer to the question of what metal the product is made of. But if several different tests show the same results, you can be confident in the correct determination. If not, then you will have to turn to professionals.

Source: https://DedAntikvar.com/interesnoe/sposoby-opredeleniya-metalla

How to distinguish gold from fake without a jeweler

I am a jeweler, and people often come to me with questions about the authenticity of gold jewelry. We use special reagents for this purpose, which make it possible to reliably identify a fake. In this material I’ll tell you what to do if you don’t have the opportunity or desire to go to a jeweler.


Checking the presence of a sample is the simplest and most obvious way to identify a fake. It should not only be present, but also be clear and show a real-life number.

Thus, in Russia, products are now produced with hallmarks 375, 500, 585, 750, 900, 916, 958. On old jewelry you can find hallmark 560. For jewelry from other countries, this list may be different, so I advise you to study the issue more carefully.


It is necessary to pour this substance into any convenient container, without diluting it with water or anything else. Then lower the decoration there and leave for 5-10 minutes. Nothing will happen to gold, but fakes will definitely change color noticeably.

Nitric acid

The jewelry should be placed in a metal container and a little nitric acid should be dripped onto it in an inconspicuous place. Entirely gold jewelry will not change color, gold-plated jewelry will acquire a light milky tint, and jewelry made from a non-precious metal alloy will turn green.


Drop undiluted iodine onto the surface of the product, wait about a minute, then wipe off the excess with a cloth or paper towel. Gold will not leave marks, but other metal alloys will in most cases.

Silver nitrate

The method allows you to distinguish an entirely gold product from a gilded one. In the first case, no visual changes will occur to the decoration, but in the second case, streaks will appear on it.


Most gold alloys produced by the jewelry industry do not contain ferromagnets, that is, metals that are attracted to a magnet. But there are exceptions, so it is better to use this method of verification in combination with others, so as not to make a mistake.


It is necessary to carefully, without strong pressure, scrape the surface of the product with the tip of the needle. There will be no traces left on the gold, and if the product was plated with gold, it will be partially removed.


Normally, gold does not smell at all. And even more so, it cannot have a characteristic metallic smell. If it is clearly present, this is definitely a fake.


Gold jewelry cannot be sold much cheaper than the cost of the metal used for its production. If the seller insists on the need for money, don’t believe it. You can sell gold for scrap by weight at any pawnshop, and there are them in almost every city.

White gold testing

White gold is an alloy of gold with nickel, palladium or silver. All the methods described above will help to distinguish it from alloys of base metals. Here's how to check whether the jewelry was made entirely of silver without a drop of gold:

  • Press the decoration over the paper. It is important that it is not glossy. Silver will leave a slight grayish mark, white gold - none.
  • Take a closer look at the decoration. Pure silver has a cooler, more matte tone.
  • During wear, silver quickly acquires a blackish coating due to contact with sulfur in the air and on human skin. Gold darkens much more slowly.
  • Silver is softer than gold. It is much easier to bend or otherwise deform a product made from it.


  • The product must have a sample. The exception is antiques from those times when its placement was not yet mandatory by law.
  • Real gold has no odor and tarnishes very slowly.
  • Most gold alloys are not magnetic.
  • Gold leaves no marks on paper.
  • Gold does not change color when exposed to vinegar, iodine, nitric acid or silver nitrate.
  • Genuine gold jewelry cannot cost a penny.
  • Gold is not so easy to scratch with improvised objects.
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When using materials from thebestvideo.ru, a link to the source is required.

Source: https://thebestvideo.ru/fun/poleznosti/zoloto-ot-poddelki/

Magnets instead of valve springs

dude knows physics like his back hand

Well, as I understand it, the consumption should have decreased due to the fact that the force applied to opening the valve has decreased significantly. That’s just how the problem of valve hanging at high speeds is solved, since it is precisely for this reason that stiff springs and double springs are installed so that the piston does not catch up with the valve, which by inertia is still in the opening stage, although the camshaft is no longer pressing on it.

So it turns out that the meaning of such a modification is lost because the force will be almost the same as with a spring, but the price of this design will be tens of times higher than a simple spring. If, on the contrary, the magnet force is too weak, then at high speeds the pistons will catch up with the valves. If only you make variable power of the magnets when it decreases at opening and increases at closing. But this is PPC space technology for a simple engine))))

with sufficient magnet power, there will be no valve “hanging” at all - it will always be in contact with the camshaft. the shaft itself will pull the valve towards itself without waiting for the spring to “wake up” to push the valve out of the combustion chamber.

in other words, the attraction of the valve is constant, not variable (unlike a spring, which has less force at the beginning of its compression, and more at the end), not inertial - there is no swing. there are a lot of advantages. I agree that space technology))) but everything was once expensive until mass production began.

What’s more interesting is the accuracy of the valve length. or some very cunning adjustment will turn out - the valve with the stop glass will turn out to be non-separable

They say about these people “Kulibin” - after the name of the famous Russian inventor Ivan Kulibin. There have always been eccentrics inventing crazy mechanisms in Rus' and the USSR. We collected the inventions of several of them and found out that “Kulibinism” comes in different forms.

I have to admit right away: this material was intended to be 100% entertaining, as a reason to once again marvel at strange homemade products and those who invent them. But during the preparation process, a couple of interesting details became clear.

We decided to talk not just about homemade cars (this is a separate topic), but about something more - it’s always interesting when a person encroaches on the very principles of a car’s design. We all, as a rule, believe that it is very difficult to invent something new in this area - and in any case, it is impossible to do it in your own garage or Khrushchev room.

We have become accustomed to the idea that the time of lone inventors remains somewhere in the first half of the 20th century. But perhaps we are wrong.

Inventor of the Wheel

Let's start with the supposedly invented technology of driving on a flat tire. Modern “Kulibins” are very fond of television - stories about them appear with enviable regularity on regional and even central channels. Alexei Mishin from Yekaterinburg had his moment of fame - in 2012, his “invention” was broadcast on “Russia 2”.

Television people, unless they are dedicated car channels, generally don't know much about cars or vehicle technology in general, and this was one of those cases where they fell victim to their ignorance. As, apparently, the inventor himself.

In the story, his “know-how” is contrasted with Runflat technology , but nothing is said about other experiments with various tire reinforcement options that have been going on almost since the beginning of the last century - say, about the Michelin “armored” tire PAX-System.

In addition to the lack of obvious novelty, the Ekaterinburg resident’s “invention” is difficult to disassemble and assemble, is difficult to balance and has enormous weight compared to a regular wheel.

Source: https://automotocity.com/avtovaz/magnity-vmesto-klapannyh-pruzhin.html

What metals are magnetic - Metalist's Handbook

Only steels have magnetic properties , and not all of them. For example, austenitic stainless steels do not attract magnets because they do not have ferromagnetic properties.

However, there are a sufficient number of enthusiasts who believe that magnetic waves are emitted by any metal, and therefore there should be a search magnet for gold and silver, and for some this expression is quite normal for perception and practical use.



In our article we describe the theory of how non-ferrous and precious metals can be detected using magnetic fields. This article is our fantasy, supported by scientific developments of foreign scientists.

See also the article - Extraction of scrap metal from water (about ferrous metal and search magnet).

Device for adjusting the magnetic field from metal objects

Strictly speaking, this is not a magnet, but rather an electromagnet, with the help of which you can initiate and configure any magnetic radiation, even quite weak ones, to be captured by appropriate devices. It is not easy to build such a device, but the authors, citizens of Australia, have no doubt about its effectiveness.

That's why they patented their invention in their patent office. Based on the fact that Australian soil is not much different from domestic soil, we will give a description of the device and operating principle of such a magnet for gold and silver.

Although it is necessary to repeat - in the generally accepted sense, this design has nothing .

The operation of the device is based on the well-known physical fact that when any object that generates magnetic oscillations in an alternating electric field moves, changes occur inside the trapper circuit associated with the movement of atoms around the nucleus.

If the area of ​​electric field generation is sequentially moved along or across the magnetic field from a metal object, changes will occur in this area, the intensity of which determines the degree and strength of the interaction of two fields - magnetic and electric.

The difficulty is that strong magnetic fields are not created by noble metals .

It is known, for example, that, according to the principle of decreasing, the electrochemical potentials of non-ferrous metals are located as follows (we consider only the area of ​​interest to us): copper → mercury → silver → palladium → platinum → gold.

Thus, if the expression “is copper attracted to a magnet” may still have some basis, then the phrase “magnet for gold” does not make any sense at all.

It is more correct to talk about an electromagnetic trap, which will record the fact of a coordinated change in electric and magnetic fields in a certain, rather local, metallic volume.

— how copper interacts with a magnet:

Recording of changes that occur in the apparatus under the influence of such fields is captured by the measuring circuit.

It is a highly sensitive spring made of rhenium, a rare metal that is absolutely insensitive to temperature changes. The rhenium spring must be adjusted to operate.

  The process is to set the conditional zero of the device, for which it is placed as far as possible from all metal objects.

In urban areas, such a “search magnet for gold, silver and other precious metals” will not work. However, search engines are much more likely to look for gold, platinum, copper, silver, etc. in old abandoned rural estates

With any movement of the device, a similar action occurs with the electric field, while the magnetic field remains constant in coordinates. Therefore, the resulting movement of the spring will also be different.

Where it turns out to be most intense, its source is almost certainly located - the magnetic field. Another thing is that this kind of search magnet for non-ferrous metals will not be able to show which metal is hidden under the thickness of wood or earth.

But the device will definitely show that there is metal there.

Any metal can be detected by a magnetic field

The principle of operation of such a pseudo-magnet is similar to the coils of a metal detector, with the only difference being that the “magnet” will be tuned to only 1 metal and this is in theory - but we don’t know how it will behave in practice, BUT, most likely, it’s cheaper, faster and simpler will use an ordinary metal detector to search for non-ferrous metals, since not a single wizard has yet invented a magnet for non-ferrous and precious metals, maybe because there are no wizards!

How to assemble and set up

It will be very difficult to find/buy a rhenium spring, but all other parts of the device are quite accessible for making yourself. The sequence is:

  1. A steel axle is made from a thin-walled steel pipe with a diameter of no more than 16 mm. Its length should not be less than three diameters, otherwise the change in the magnetic field cannot be detected.
  2. A frame is made from thin copper or brass wire. The authors do not describe its dimensions, but, based on the dimensions of the tubular axis, it should be at least 200x200 mm. The frame must be sufficiently rigid.
  3. Three (as many as possible) holes are drilled in the tubular axle at equal distances, in which the wooden axles are placed.
  4. Thin-walled wooden disks are made, the number of which must correspond to the number of holes drilled in the axle. Obviously, discs can also be made of plywood: what matters is the mass of the disc and its absolute immunity to magnetic fields.
  5. The central sectors of each disk are covered with metal foil made of the metal that will be searched. Thus, a search magnet for non-ferrous metals - copper, gold and silver (platinum is searched for much less frequently) should have three sets of replaceable wooden disks.
  6. The frame with disks must be able to move freely along the entire tubular axis with fixation in a certain place. If the fits of the mating parts are made with the required accuracy, then there should be no swaying of the frame when it moves.
  7. To create a magnetic trap, plates from an old transformer are used, which are packed into the frame outline. The distance between adjacent plates should not exceed 1.5 mm in thickness and 56 mm in length. Such plates form the screen of the device that perceives magnetic radiation.
  8. Next, assemble the magnetic coil. You will need a solenoid made of 600 layers of enameled wire, which is connected to an alternating current voltage source. The winding should be multilayer, this will reduce the parasitic capacitance of the coil and make the device less inertial.
  9. A ferromagnetic or - which is better - a ferroelectric core is inserted inside the coil.
  10. By connecting this structure through a step-down transformer, a constant position of the frame with the plates is achieved relative to the wooden disks. This will be the conditional zero of the search “magnet” for non-ferrous metals.

The easiest way to check whether a search “magnet” attracts gold and silver is on a real object made of these metals. At the same time, it will be possible to establish the practical sensitivity of the device.

about how a search magnet does NOT magnetize gold, silver and other coins

Source: https://ssk2121.com/kakie-metally-magnityatsya/

Why does a magnet attract or everything about magnetic fields

 Why does a magnet attract or everything about magnetic fields

Magnets, like the toys stuck to your refrigerator at home or the horseshoes you were shown in school, have several unusual features. First of all, magnets are attracted to iron and steel objects, such as the door of a refrigerator. In addition, they have poles. Bring two magnets closer to each other. The south pole of one magnet will be attracted to the north pole of the other.

The north pole of one magnet repels the north pole of the other. The magnetic field is generated by electric current, that is, by moving electrons. Electrons moving around an atomic nucleus carry a negative charge. The directed movement of charges from one place to another is called electric current. An electric current creates a magnetic field around itself.

This field, with its lines of force, like a loop, covers the path of electric current, like an arch that stands over the road. For example, when a table lamp is turned on and a current flows through the copper wires, that is, the electrons in the wire jump from atom to atom and a weak magnetic field is created around the wire.

In high-voltage transmission lines, the current is much stronger than in a table lamp, so a very strong magnetic field is formed around the wires of such lines. Thus, electricity and magnetism are two sides of the same coin - electromagnetism.

The movement of electrons within each atom creates a tiny magnetic field around it. An electron moving in orbit forms a vortex-like magnetic field. But most of the magnetic field is created not by the movement of the electron in orbit around the nucleus, but by the movement of the atom around its axis, the so-called spin of the electron. Spin characterizes the rotation of an electron around an axis, like the movement of a planet around its axis.

In most materials, such as plastics, the magnetic fields of individual atoms are randomly oriented and cancel each other out. But in materials like iron, the atoms can be oriented so that their magnetic fields add up, so a piece of steel becomes magnetized. Atoms in materials are connected in groups called magnetic domains. The magnetic fields of one individual domain are oriented in one direction.

That is, each domain is a small magnet. Different domains are oriented in a wide variety of directions, that is, randomly, and cancel each other's magnetic fields. Therefore, a steel strip is not a magnet. But if you manage to orient the domains in one direction so that the forces of the magnetic fields combine, then beware! The steel strip will become a powerful magnet and will attract any iron object from a nail to a refrigerator.

Magnetic iron ore mineral is a natural magnet. But still, most magnets are made artificially. What force can force atoms to line up to form one large domain? Place the steel strip in a strong magnetic field. Gradually, one by one, all domains will turn in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

As the domains rotate, they will draw other atoms into this movement, increasing in size, literally swelling. Then the identically oriented domains will connect, and lo and behold, the steel strip has turned into a magnet. You can demonstrate this to your comrades using an ordinary steel nail. Place the nail in the magnetic field of a large neodymium magnet.

Hold it there for a few minutes until the nail domains line up in the desired direction. Once this happens, the nail will briefly become a magnet. With its help you can even pick up fallen pins from the floor.

Why doesn't a magnet attract everything?

In fact, the interaction of a magnet with substances has many more options than just “attracts” or “does not attract.” Iron, nickel, and some alloys are metals that, due to their specific structure, are very strongly attracted by a magnet.

The vast majority of other metals, as well as other substances, also interact with magnetic fields - they are attracted or repelled by magnets, but only thousands and millions of times weaker.

Therefore, in order to notice the attraction of such substances to a magnet, you need to use an extremely strong magnetic field, which you cannot get at home.

But since all substances are attracted to a magnet, the original question can be reformulated as follows: “Why then is iron so strongly attracted by a magnet that manifestations of this are easy to notice in everyday life?” The answer is: it is determined by the structure and bonding of iron atoms. Any substance is composed of atoms connected to each other by their outer electron shells.

It is the electrons of the outer shells that are sensitive to the magnetic field; they determine the magnetism of materials. In most substances, the electrons of neighboring atoms feel the magnetic field “at random” - some repel, others attract, and some generally try to turn the object around.

Therefore, if you take a large piece of a substance, then its average force of interaction with a magnet will be very small.

Iron and metals similar to it have a special feature - the connection between neighboring atoms is such that they sense the magnetic field in a coordinated manner. If a few atoms are tuned to be attracted to a magnet, they will cause all neighboring atoms to do the same. As a result, in a piece of iron all the atoms “want to attract” or “want to repel” at once, and because of this, a very large force of interaction with the magnet is obtained.

A magnet is a body that has its own magnetic field. In a magnetic field, there is some effect on external objects that are nearby, the most obvious being the ability of a magnet to attract metal.  

The magnet and its properties were known to both the ancient Greeks and the Chinese. They noticed a strange phenomenon: small pieces of iron were attracted to some natural stones.

This phenomenon was first called divine and used in rituals, but with the development of natural science it became obvious that the properties were of a completely earthly nature, which was first explained by the physicist from Copenhagen Hans Christian Oersted.

He discovered in 1820 a certain connection between the electric discharge of current and a magnet, which gave rise to the doctrine of electric current and magnetic attraction.

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Natural science research

Oersted, conducting experiments with a magnetic needle and a conductor, noticed the following feature: a discharge of energy directed towards the needle instantly acted on it, and it began to deviate.

The arrow always deviated, no matter from which side he approached.

A physicist from France, Dominique François Arago, began repeated experiments with a magnet, using as a basis a glass tube rewound with a metal thread, and he installed an iron rod in the middle of this object.

With the help of electricity, the iron inside began to be sharply magnetized, because of this various keys began to stick, but as soon as the discharge was turned off, the keys immediately fell to the floor.

Based on what was happening, a physicist from France, Andre Ampere, developed an accurate description of everything that happened in this experiment.

When a magnet attracts metal objects to itself, it seems like magic, but in reality the “magical” properties of magnets are associated only with the special organization of their electronic structure. Because an electron orbiting an atom creates a magnetic field, all atoms are small magnets; however, in most substances the disordered magnetic effects of atoms cancel each other out.

The situation is different in magnets, the atomic magnetic fields of which are arranged in ordered regions called domains. Each such region has a north and south pole. The direction and intensity of the magnetic field is characterized by the so-called lines of force (shown in green in the figure), which leave the north pole of the magnet and enter the south.

The denser the lines of force, the more concentrated the magnetism. The north pole of one magnet attracts the south pole of another, while two like poles repel each other. Magnets attract only certain metals, mainly iron, nickel and cobalt, called ferromagnets.

Although ferromagnetic materials are not natural magnets, their atoms rearrange themselves in the presence of a magnet in such a way that the ferromagnetic bodies develop magnetic poles.

Magnetic chain

Touching the end of a magnet to metal paper clips creates a north and south pole for each paper clip. These poles are oriented in the same direction as the magnet. Each paper clip became a magnet.

Countless little magnets

Some metals have a crystalline structure made up of atoms grouped into magnetic domains. The magnetic poles of the domains usually have different directions (red arrows) and do not have a net magnetic effect.

Formation of a permanent magnet

Typically, iron's magnetic domains are randomly oriented (pink arrows), and the metal's natural magnetism does not appear. If you bring a magnet (pink bar) closer to the iron, the magnetic domains of the iron begin to line up along the magnetic field (green lines). Most of the magnetic domains of iron quickly align along the magnetic field lines. As a result, the iron itself becomes a permanent magnet.

Magnetic effect

Today it is obvious that the matter is not in miracles, but in a more than unique characteristic of the internal structure of the electronic circuits that form magnets. An electron that constantly rotates around an atom forms the same magnetic field.

Microatoms have a magnetic effect and are in complete equilibrium, but magnets, with their attraction, influence some types of metals, such as iron, nickel, cobalt.
These metals are also called ferromagnets. In close proximity to a magnet, atoms immediately begin to rearrange and form magnetic poles.

Atomic magnetic fields exist in an ordered system; they are also called domains. In this characteristic system there are two poles opposite to each other - north and south.


The north pole of a magnet attracts the south pole, but two identical poles immediately repel each other.

Modern life without magnetic elements is impossible, because they are found in almost all technical devices, including computers, televisions, microphones, and much more. In medicine, magnets are widely used in examinations of internal organs and in magnetic therapy.

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Source: https://magnet-prof.ru/index.php/pochemu-magnit-prityagivaet-ili-vse-o-magnitnyih-polyah.html

The meaning and features of gold magnetization

Gold is a special metal because it has unique properties. Thus, it is resistant to oxidation processes and acids. Also, the metal has a high density, but at the same time it is very ductile. Many people wonder whether gold is magnetic, since there is information that it does not tend to be attracted to a body that has its own magnetic field.

Features of interaction

Pure gold with a purity of 999 (that is, 1000 grams of the alloy contains at least 999 grams of metal) has antimagnetic properties. This means that if you bring a magnet to a bar of pure gold, the bar will not be attracted.

a gold bracelet

As for jewelry, pure gold is never used to make it, and all because in this form the metal is too fragile and ductile, and therefore unsuitable for long-term use in the form of jewelry.

Therefore, in the jewelry industry, only alloys are used, which, in addition to the base metal, contain additional ones, called alloys. The gold alloy becomes more wear-resistant when silver, copper, zinc, platinum, palladium and nickel are added to it.

Therefore, the question arises whether gold is attracted to a magnet if it is combined with a master alloy in an alloy.

There are several metals in nature that are highly magnetic:

  • iron;
  • steel;
  • nickel;
  • cobalt;
  • gadolinium;
  • alloys of these metals.

But there are also metals that attract only slightly, and in this case we are talking about copper and aluminum. But silver, gold and bismuth are not attracted at all, but on the contrary, they repel the magnet. Based on this, we can say that real gold jewelry made of high-grade metal will never be attracted to a magnet and this is not difficult to explain.

A high-grade alloy is considered to be one that has a purity of 585 (here 58.5% is gold, and the remaining 41.5% is distributed between silver and copper). In combination, they will not be affected by a magnetic field (gold and silver are not magnetic, and copper exhibits this property very weakly).

For this reason, experts advise checking the authenticity of jewelry at home, taking this property into account.

Checking a gold ring with a magnet

What does magnetization mean?

It’s easy to imagine the surprise of a person who decided to test his jewelry in this way and discovered that it was sticking to a magnet. What does this phenomenon indicate?

If a bracelet, earring, or ring sticks, it means that they have a component that can be affected by a magnetic field. Therefore, if gold has a purity of 585 or higher, but it has not passed a home test for authenticity, then it is 100% likely that it is just a fake containing iron, steel, cobalt, etc.

It may also be that the fake is almost 100% copper, which is weakly, but still, magnetic. Often, fakes are made from copper, and to make them look like gold they are covered with a layer of gilding.

In addition, such chains, rings and earrings may also have a hallmark, but upon inspection it turns out that the “jewel” is actually costume jewelry.

The most popular alloys from which counterfeit jewelry is made are:

  • aluminum bronze: 90% copper, 10% aluminum;
  • bartbronze: bronze - 50%, tin - 50%;
  • goldin: a combination of copper and aluminum;
  • platinum: the main part of the alloy is copper, and the rest is platinum, silver, nickel and zinc.

If a product sticks to a magnet, you should contact a professional to determine its authenticity. Using reagents and special equipment, a specialist will check the product in a matter of minutes and form an assessment of its authenticity. As for home methods for checking rings, bracelets, pendants and chains, none of them can guarantee one hundred percent reliability of the results obtained.

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Source: https://DedPodaril.com/zoloto/imform/magnititsya-li-zoloto.html

Search magnet for gold and silver: what is it, does it exist, what metals does it attract, operating principle and assembly

We are glad to welcome you to our website, dear guests. Today we will talk about whether there is a search magnet for gold and silver, the principle of operation of the magnet, useful properties and methods of application. We will review the models and suggest a way to build such a device yourself. Stay, it will be interesting.

Magnetic field and metals that conduct it

A magnetic field is a force that can influence electric charges, atomic nuclei, and simplest particles. This is matter that arises from the interaction of particles that have their own charge. All substances react to this field, and some emit it.

Depending on the reaction, the substances are distinguished:

  1. Ferromagnetic materials react to fields and retain magnetization. Thus, they themselves begin to emit their own field.
  2. Paramagnetic materials - the electrons in their composition react to a magnetic field so weakly that such a reaction can only be detected using special measurements. Such substances include platinum, aluminum, oxygen.
  3. Diamagnets are substances that do not attract, but, on the contrary, repel from a magnet, exhibiting negative susceptibility. Diamagnets include copper, water, carbon, gold, and silver. Most substances known to science are diamagnetic.

Design and types

Finders take advantage of the ability of some metals to interact with a strong magnetic field by using special search magnets in their searches. More often this is a simple design that contains the rare earth metal neodymium, enclosed in a steel case.

Depending on the scope of application, devices are produced:

  • in the form of a rod for simplified access to narrow crevices and other hard-to-reach places;
  • trawls that allow you to effectively examine the bottom of water bodies;
  • one-sided, designed for lifting objects, equipped with a housing that shields magnetic radiation, providing one working surface;
  • double-sided, suitable for universal work.

Differences from a metal detector

The operating principle of a metal detector is also based on electromagnetic radiation, however, this device does not attract metals to itself, but captures echoes of the “response” of substances to the field it emits. If there is metal in the ground or water, the device gives a signal. Further work on retrieving objects falls on the person.

The magnet does not provide any information, but simply “attracts” to itself those objects that it is capable of influencing.

Where can it be used

There are areas where you cannot do without a device:

  • deep wells;
  • rock crevices;
  • the bottom of reservoirs, including at great depths.

The device allows you to explore such places and remove objects located there without additional effort.

Can you attract silver and gold?

Precious metals are diamagnetic, so they cannot be extracted using a magnet. An exception may be objects that contain parts made of ferromagnetic metals, and such a part must be voluminous enough to be attracted.

You should not rely on the device to magnetize precious alloys. As a rule, the proportion of ferromagnets in the composition of the alloy is extremely small.

If you want to search only for precious metals, you are better off purchasing a metal detector.

What metals still attracts

The most famous ferromagnets:

  • among metals - iron, cobalt, nickel, chromium;
  • their alloys, such as cast iron and stainless steel.

Rare earth metals (lanthanides) are attracted to the device. Manganese, sulfides, selenides and tellurides have ferromagnetic properties.

Advantages and disadvantages

The indisputable advantage of a magnet is its ease of use:

  • it does not require special storage conditions; you should, perhaps, avoid heating it above 80 degrees;
  • does not need recharging;
  • has a very simple design;
  • takes up little space.

The disadvantage is that it cannot be used to extract gold, silver, and their alloys, including nuggets.

Another thing is metal detectors. The advantage of modern metal detectors is their ability not only to find, but also to distinguish which metal is within its coverage area. How does this feature work? This was made possible thanks to the use of a computer in the design of the device, which analyzes all incoming signals, reacting to the smallest changes.

Is it possible to make money searching for gold and silver with a magnet?

It is impossible to effectively search for precious metals using only a magnet. However, you can use it as an additional device, along with other equipment.

Using it, you can clear the surface of the search site from metal debris, which usually makes it very difficult to detect silver and gold with a metal detector.

Tips for choosing

In addition to their shape, the devices also differ in the strength of the radiation and the method of attaching the cable.

Experienced treasure hunters are advised to choose powerful double-sided magnets, since they are universal and easy to use, although they are more expensive.

Weight and ammunition

Any tool is most effective if it is selected in accordance with the task at hand. The choice of magnet is no exception. To begin with, you should decide what items it will be used to search for, and based on this, select the appropriate device.

It should be taken into account that the higher the power of the magnet, the greater its mass and cost. The optimal option is 400 kilograms. This is not the weight of the magnet, but the weight it can lift!

In addition to the magnet itself, you will need a cable with which the search device can be lowered to the bottom of the reservoir. It is better to choose ammunition with a large margin of safety, exceeding the power of the magnet itself, in order to avoid ruptures and loss of the device. Finding him later is almost impossible.

Review of popular devices and their prices

The most well-known magnet manufacturers offer devices of varying power and cost:

  1. NPK Supersystem produces a wide range of magnets. A device capable of lifting a weight of about 90 kg will cost about 700 rubles. For a very powerful double-sided copy, designed for 690 kg, you will have to pay more than 7,000 rubles.
  2. CJSC NPO Redmag produces magnets with a capacity of 600 kg and a cost of 3-5.5 thousand rubles.
  3. Magnets made in China are also very popular. A device with a capacity of 600 kg can be purchased for 4900 rubles, devices with a capacity of 300 kg are sold at a price of 2700-2800 rubles.

How to assemble and set up a magnet with your own hands

Making a magnet at home is not an easy task if you don't have neodymium supplies on hand. But building an electromagnet using not a rare ferromagnet, but an electric field, is quite simple.

Required Components

To build an electromagnet you will need:

  • iron for the core (nail, lock shackle);
  • copper insulated wire;
  • source of electric current (battery, accumulator);
  • connecting wire;
  • soldering iron

Assembly sequence

Copper wire is wound tightly, neatly, in one direction, onto the core. If a regular AA battery is used as the power source, you can connect it directly to the ends of the winding. For power supplies and batteries, it is necessary to solder the connecting wires (twisting and insulation are also allowed).

See the assembly visually in the video:

How to use it correctly

To search for valuables, it is better to use industrially made magnets. When purchasing a device, it is better to choose units with an eye bolt, which makes it much easier to separate the magnet from the object.

Safety precautions and what to be careful with

It should be remembered that the magnet affects all objects nearby, including pacemakers.

For a person who has such a stimulator, the magnet is dangerous, as it can cause malfunctions in the operation of the medical device.

Mobile devices and bank cards should also be protected from electromagnetic influence to avoid their failure.

How to distinguish a counterfeit coin from an original using a search magnet

If a coin is stuck to the device, you can be sure that it does not contain either gold or silver. A precious coin or jewelry will remain in its place when exposed to the device.

Tips for caring for your device

If work was carried out in water, after use the device must be thoroughly wiped from moisture and dried to avoid rust.

Protect the device from strong shocks, since neodymium cores are quite fragile, and if a crack or chip occurs, they lose power.


Egor: “The magnet is great for removing small metal debris from soil dumps when working at a mine. I recommend".

Andrey: “It’s a great thing to get change out of fountains, especially in Europe.”

Victor: “Such a thing is of little use when searching for gold and silver, but for diggers who hunt in battlefields and look for artifacts of the Great Patriotic War, it is an irreplaceable thing.”

THIS IS INTERESTING:  What does 875 gold purity mean?


I hope this material has helped you clarify the question of what is the use of a magnet and whether it is worth acquiring such a device to search for valuable items.

Don't forget to comment on what you read and share articles on social networks. And we take our leave, all the best.

Source: https://zhazhdazolota.ru/dobycha/poiskovyj-magnit-na-zoloto-i-serebro

Is copper magnetic to a magnet - Metals, equipment, instructions

February 24, 2015.

In the magnetic circuits of various electrical machines, transformers, instruments and apparatus of electrical engineering, radio engineering and other branches of technology, a variety of magnetic and non-magnetic materials are found.

The magnetic properties of materials are characterized by the values ​​of magnetic field strength, magnetic flux, magnetic induction and magnetic permeability.

The relationship between magnetic induction and magnetic field strength, expressed graphically, forms a curve called a hysteresis loop. Using this curve, you can obtain a series of data characterizing the magnetic properties of the material.

An alternating magnetic field causes the appearance of eddy currents in magnetic materials. These currents heat the cores (magnetic cores), which leads to the consumption of some power.

To characterize a material operating in an alternating magnetic field, the total value of power expended on hysteresis and eddy currents at a frequency of 50 Hz is referred to 1 kg of material weight. This value is called specific losses and is expressed in W/kg.

The magnetic induction of a particular magnetic material should not exceed a certain maximum value, depending on the type and quality of the material. Attempts to increase induction lead to increased energy losses in a given material and its heating.

Magnetic materials are classified as soft magnetic and hard magnetic.

Magnetic soft materials

Soft magnetic materials must meet the following requirements:

  1. have a large relative magnetic permeability µ, which makes it possible to obtain a large magnetic induction B with the smallest possible number of ampere-turns;
  2. have the lowest possible losses due to hysteresis and eddy currents;
  3. have stable magnetic properties.

Soft magnetic materials are used as magnetic cores of electrical machines, transformer cores, chokes, relay electromagnets, electrical measuring instruments, and the like. Let's look at some soft magnetic materials.

Electrical hardware

obtained by electrolysis of sulphide or ferric chloride, followed by melting in vacuum of the electrolysis products. Powdered electrolytic iron is used for the production of magnetic parts, similar to the production of ceramics or plastics.

Carbonyl iron

obtained in the form of a powder as a result of the thermal decomposition of a substance that includes iron, carbon and oxygen [Fe(CO)5].

At a temperature of 1200 °C, carbonyl iron powder is sintered and used to manufacture the same parts that are made from electrolytic iron. Carbonyl iron is characterized by high purity and ductility; used in the electrovacuum industry, as well as in instrument making for the manufacture of laboratory instruments and devices.

The two types of highly pure iron we considered (electrolytic and carbonyl) contain no more than 0.05% impurities.

Electrical steel sheets

is the most common material in electrical engineering and transformer manufacturing. Electrical steel is alloyed with silicon to improve its magnetic properties and reduce hysteresis losses. In addition, as a result of the introduction of silicon into the steel composition, its resistivity increases, which leads to a decrease in eddy current losses.

Sheet thickness depending on the steel grade is 0.3 and 0.5 mm. Electrical steel, cold rolled and then annealed in a hydrogen atmosphere, has particularly high magnetic properties. This is explained by the fact that the metal crystals are located parallel to the rolling direction. This steel is designated by the letters KhVP (cold-rolled high permeability, textured).

Steel sheets have dimensions from 1000 × 700 to 2000 × 1000 mm.

The grades of electrical steel used to be designated, for example, as follows: E3A, E1AB, E4AA. The letter E means electrical steel; letter A – reduced power losses in an alternating magnetic field; letters AA - especially low losses; letter B – increased magnetic induction; numbers 1 – 4 show the amount of silicon contained in steel as a percentage.

According to GOST 802-54, new designations for electrical steel grades have been introduced, for example: E11, E21, E320, E370, E43. Here the letter E stands for electrical steel; first numbers: 1 – lightly doped with silicon; 2 – medium doped with silicon; 3 – highly alloyed with silicon and 4 – highly alloyed with silicon.

The second digits in the designation of grades indicate the following guaranteed magnetic and electrical properties of steels: 1, 2, 3 – specific losses during magnetization reversal of steels at a frequency of 50 Hz and magnetic induction in strong fields; 4 – specific losses during magnetization reversal of steels at a frequency of 400 Hz and magnetic induction in average fields; 5, 6 – magnetic permeability in weak fields (H less than 0.01 A/cm); 7, 8 – magnetic permeability in medium fields (H from 0.1 to 1 A/cm). The third digit 0 indicates that the steel is cold-rolled, textured.


an alloy of iron and nickel. Approximate composition of permalloy: 30–80% nickel, 10–18% iron, the rest copper, molybdenum, manganese, chromium. Permalloy is easily processed and is available in sheet form.

It has very high magnetic permeability in weak magnetic fields (up to 200,000 H/cm).

Permalloy is used for the manufacture of telephone and radio communication parts, transformer cores, inductors, relays, and parts of electrical measuring instruments.


an alloy of aluminum, silicon and iron. The approximate composition of alsifer is: 9.5% silicon, 5.6% aluminum, the rest is iron. Alsifer is a hard and brittle alloy, so it is difficult to process.

The advantages of alsifer are high magnetic permeability in weak magnetic fields (up to 110,000 H/cm), high resistivity (ρ = 0.81 Ohm × mm²/m), and the absence of scarce metals in its composition.

Used for the manufacture of cores operating in high-frequency installations.


an alloy of iron with cobalt and vanadium (50% cobalt, 1.8% vanadium, the rest iron). Permendur is available in the form of sheets, strips and tapes. It is used for the manufacture of electromagnet cores, dynamic loudspeakers, membranes, telephones, oscilloscopes and the like.


These are magnetically soft materials, crushed into small grains (powder), which are isolated from one another by resins or other binders. Electrical iron, carbonyl iron, permalloy, alsifer, magnetite (feO Fe2O3 mineral) are used as magnetic material powder.

Insulating binders are: shellac, phenol-formaldehyde resins, polystyrene, liquid glass and others. The magnetic material powder is mixed with an insulating binder, thoroughly mixed, and from the resulting mass the cores of transformers, chokes, and radio equipment parts are pressed under pressure.

The granular structure of magnetodielectric materials causes low losses due to eddy currents when these materials operate in magnetic fields of high-frequency currents.

Source: https://spb-metalloobrabotka.com/magnititsya-li-med-k-magnitu/

Checking the prior phase sensor

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Checking the camshaft sensor (DPRV) allows you not only to verify its functionality, but also to make sure that in engines with phased (sequential) injection, fuel is supplied in exactly the required sequence.

Another name for the device is a phase sensor (it is often used by owners of domestic VAZs). The test can be performed using a multimeter in voltmeter mode and/or an oscilloscope.

Checking the camshaft position sensor is simple in nature, and even a novice car enthusiast can handle it.

What is a camshaft sensor

Before moving on to the question of checking the camshaft position sensor, you need to find out what kind of device it is, what it is needed for and on what principle it works. This will help clarify the details of the audit in the future.

A camshaft sensor is a device that records the angular position of a specified shaft at a specific point in time. The information obtained with its help is transmitted to the electronic engine control unit (ECU), and on its basis this control element issues commands for fuel injection and ignition of the air-fuel mixture in each cylinder at a specific point in time.

The operation of the camshaft position sensor is based on the Hall effect. So, directly on the camshaft there is a metal tooth, which, when the shaft rotates, changes the magnetic field in a nearby sensor. This tooth is called rapper. The sensor detects a change in the magnetic field, which is converted into a low voltage electrical signal. This signal is sent to the electronic control unit.

In fact, the camshaft position sensor only registers one position, corresponding to the position of the piston of the first cylinder at top dead center. Next, phased fuel injection is performed in the firing sequence of the cylinders. Typically this is a 1-3-4-2 system.

If the camshaft sensor fails (the electronic control unit receives incorrect information from it or does not receive it at all), then it is programmed to switch to emergency mode. It involves the use of pairwise-parallel (group) fuel supply to the engine. This leads to two negative consequences:

  1. A slight loss of engine power, especially when driving in critical modes (acceleration, driving under load).
  2. Increase in fuel consumption by approximately 1020% (depending on engine power, its design features, as well as operating conditions).

As for diesel engines, camshaft position sensors are designed similarly, but there is one difference. It lies in the fact that the sensor records the position of not only the first cylinder, but all of them. This is done due to the fact that the drive disk has a separate tooth for each cylinder.

Thus, if a sensor fails, it makes sense to diagnose it as quickly as possible and, if necessary, replace it.

Signs of DPRV failure

There are several typical signs that indicate that the camshaft position sensor has failed. It is immediately necessary to clarify that the symptoms listed below may indicate completely different malfunctions. Therefore, it makes sense to perform additional diagnostics. So, signs of a DPRV breakdown:

  • Problems with starting the engine, under any conditions - “cold”, “hot” and in other modes. This usually results in having to crank the starter longer.
  • Unstable engine operation, “floating” operating and idle engine speeds.
  • “Dips” in the movement of the car; when you press the accelerator pedal, it does not respond immediately, the dynamic characteristics of the car are lost (it accelerates poorly, does not pull, especially when loaded and when moving uphill).
  • When the accelerator pedal is released, the engine stalls.
  • Increased fuel consumption (by 1020%).
  • The Check Engine warning light on the instrument panel activates. It is necessary to perform additional diagnostics using an electronic scanner (for example, an ELM 327 device or its equivalent). In this case, typical errors regarding the operation of the sensor are numbers P0340, P0342, P0343.

In fact, the camshaft position sensor is a fairly simple and reliable device, so it rarely fails. More often, its wiring is damaged - the wires fray, the insulation on them is damaged, the so-called “chip”, the place where the sensor is connected to the car circuit, fails.

However, for cars that run on gasoline, the problems described above are not so clearly expressed.

But a failed camshaft position sensor will cause many problems for owners of cars equipped with gas equipment, in particular the fourth generation.

The malfunctions and problems described above can appear on such machines “in all their glory.” Therefore, owners of cars equipped with HBO are strongly recommended to diagnose and replace the sensor as quickly as possible if it is suspected of being faulty.

Location of the DPRV on the engine

To check the camshaft position sensor, you need to know where it is located. As a rule, on eight-valve engines the DPRV is usually mounted at the end of the cylinder head. On sixteen-valve engines it is also mounted on the cylinder head, usually in close proximity to the first cylinder.

Source: https://chevroletcars.ru/info/proverka-datchika-faz-priora/

What metals are not magnetic and why?

Any child knows that metals are attracted to magnets. After all, they have more than once hung magnets on the metal door of the refrigerator or letters with magnets on a special board. However, if you put a spoon against a magnet, there will be no attraction. But the spoon is also metal, so why does this happen? So, let's find out which metals are not magnetic.

Scientific point of view

To determine which metals are not magnetic, you need to find out how all metals in general can relate to magnets and a magnetic field. With respect to the applied magnetic field, all substances are divided into diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic.

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Each atom consists of a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons. They move continuously, which creates a magnetic field. The magnetic fields of electrons in one atom can enhance or cancel each other, depending on the direction of their movement. Moreover, the following can be compensated:

  • Magnetic moments caused by the movement of electrons relative to the nucleus are orbital.
  • Magnetic moments caused by the rotation of electrons around their axis are spin moments.

If all magnetic moments are equal to zero, the substance is classified as diamagnetic. If only spin moments are compensated - to paramagnets. If the fields are not compensated, use ferromagnets.

Paramagnets and ferromagnets

Let's consider the option when each atom of a substance has its own magnetic field. These fields are multidirectional and compensate each other. If you place a magnet next to such a substance, the fields will be oriented in one direction. The substance will have a magnetic field, a positive and a negative pole.

Then the substance will be attracted to the magnet and can itself become magnetized, that is, it will attract other metal objects. For example, you can magnetize steel clips at home. Each one will have a negative and a positive pole, and you can even hang a whole chain of paper clips on a magnet.

Such substances are called paramagnetic.

Ferromagnets are a small group of substances that are attracted to magnets and are easily magnetized even in a weak field.


In diamagnetic materials, the magnetic fields inside each atom are compensated. In this case, when a substance is introduced into a magnetic field, the movement of electrons under the influence of the field will be added to the natural movement of electrons. This movement of electrons will cause an additional current, the magnetic field of which will be directed against the external field. Therefore, the diamagnetic material will be weakly repelled from the nearby magnet.

So, if we approach the question from a scientific point of view, which metals are not magnetic, the answer will be – diamagnetic.

Distribution of paramagnets and diamagnets in the periodic table of Mendeleev elements

The magnetic properties of simple substances change periodically with increasing atomic number of the element.

Substances that are not attracted to magnets (diamagnets) are located mainly in short periods - 1, 2, 3. Which metals are not magnetic? These are lithium and beryllium, and sodium, magnesium and aluminum are already classified as paramagnetic.

Substances that are attracted to magnets (paramagnets) are located mainly in the long periods of the Mendeleev periodic system - 4, 5, 6, 7.

However, the last 8 elements in each long period are also diamagnetic.

In addition, three elements are distinguished - carbon, oxygen and tin, the magnetic properties of which are different for different allotropic modifications.

In addition, there are 25 more chemical elements whose magnetic properties could not be established due to their radioactivity and rapid decay or the complexity of synthesis.

The magnetic properties of lanthanides and actinides (all of which are metals) change irregularly. Among them there are para- and diamagnetic materials.

There are special magnetically ordered substances - chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, the properties of which change irregularly.

What metals are not magnetic: list

There are only 9 ferromagnets, that is, metals that are highly magnetic, in nature. These are iron, cobalt, nickel, their alloys and compounds, as well as six lanthanide metals: gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium and thulium.

Metals that are attracted only to very strong magnets (paramagnetic): aluminum, copper, platinum, uranium.

Since in everyday life there are no such large magnets that would attract a paramagnetic material, and also no lanthanide metals are found, we can safely say that all metals except iron, cobalt, nickel and their alloys will not be attracted to magnets.

So, what metals are not magnetic to a magnet:

  • paramagnetic materials: aluminum, platinum, chromium, magnesium, tungsten;
  • diamagnetic materials: copper, gold, silver, zinc, mercury, cadmium, zirconium.

In general, we can say that ferrous metals are attracted to a magnet, non-ferrous metals are not.

If we talk about alloys, then iron alloys are magnetic. These primarily include steel and cast iron. Precious coins can also be attracted to a magnet, since they are not made of pure non-ferrous metal, but of an alloy that may contain a small amount of ferromagnetic material. But jewelry made of pure non-ferrous metal will not be attracted to a magnet.

What metals do not rust and are not magnetic? These are ordinary food grade stainless steel, gold and silver items.

Source: https://24Simba.ru/zdorove-i-bezopasnost/2451-kakie-metally-ne-magnitjatsja-i-pochemu/

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