How to properly solder wires to the board

How to properly solder a wire to a board? — Metals, equipment, instructions

Let's look at it in detail: how to solder wires, what kind of solder to use, choose the right soldering iron and much more in this article.

One of the most reliable methods of connecting wires is soldering. Soldering is a non-separable type of connection. It provides very low contact transient. At the same time, solder joints have high mechanical strength.

For soldering, alloys with a relatively low melting point, called solders, are used. Technically, the soldering process consists of wetting the surface of the connected conductors with molten solder.

After the solder hardens, the metal of the conductor is firmly connected to the alloy, forming a contact with good electrical parameters. In most cases, tin-lead solders POS-40, POS-60 are used for soldering conductors (the numbers indicate the percentage of tin content).

Low melting point solders may contain bismuth, cadmium, zinc, antimony or other metals.

There are a variety of tools and materials available in the market today to make solder joints. The minimum set for soldering wires may consist of a soldering iron, solder and flux.

If it is necessary to perform a large number of solderings of insulated wires, it is a good idea to have a special tool for stripping insulation and wire cutters. If such operations are performed infrequently, a sharp knife, such as a stationery or surgical scalpel, is suitable for removing insulation.

Sandpaper can be used to remove insulation from enameled wires.

Wire Soldering Tools

The main tool for soldering wires is a soldering iron. Currently, stores offer a wide range of electric soldering irons of varying power. A soldering iron for wires often used in everyday life can have a power of 40 - 60 W.

For soldering electronic components, thin conductors or printed circuit boards, soldering irons with a power of 15–25 W are most often used. If you need to solder large cross-section wires, you may need a soldering iron with a power of 100 - 150 W or more. For soldering massive metal objects, soldering irons with external heating are used.

Such soldering irons have a tip in the form of a massive copper “hatchet” and are equipped with a handle. The tip is heated in the flame of a gas stove burner, with a blowtorch or gas burner.

In addition to electric ones, the industry produces gas soldering irons. In them, the tip is heated using a gas burner. Structurally, gas soldering irons consist of a can of reduced gas, a gas burner and a tip made in the form of a nozzle. Gas soldering irons are convenient to use in places where there is no electricity.

Many manufacturers produce soldering irons with tips that have a special coating. Such coatings “hold” solder well and do not fade for a long time. If your new soldering iron has a copper tip, it needs to be prepared for use, that is, thoroughly tinned.

To do this, the working surface of the soldering iron tip should be thoroughly cleaned with a fine file or sandpaper to a characteristic “copper” shine. Then use the tip of a heating soldering iron to melt a little rosin. Afterwards, solder is applied to the soldering iron tip and distributed evenly over the entire surface.

Even distribution of solder can be achieved by rubbing the tip on a wooden block.

We have already mentioned that to solder wires you will need a knife and wire cutters. In principle, there are no special requirements for these tools. It is only important that the tool is sharply sharpened, and that the cutting edges of the wire cutters fit snugly against each other.


In recent years, wire or tubular solder has been mainly used for soldering wires. Both wire and tubular solder can be delivered directly to the soldering site without applying it to the soldering iron tip. This allows you to accurately dose the amount of solder. Tubular solder is also good because the tube contains flux (rosin), the presence of which significantly improves the quality of soldering.

Fluxes are used to clean soldered surfaces from metal oxides. When soldering copper wires, gum rosin is often used as a flux. For soldering other non-ferrous metals, such as aluminum, alloys or steel, various active fluxes are used.

The purpose of a particular flux and the method of its use are usually indicated on the packaging. It should be noted that many active fluxes work well only in a strictly defined temperature range. And yet, most active fluxes after soldering need to be washed off with solvents, as they can continue to “work”.

This can lead to corrosion of the solder joint.

In previous years, when active fluxes were extremely rare on sale, craftsmen used aspirin, boric or citric acid to tinning “complex” materials. Often these readily available "fluxes" did the job quite well.

Important! When soldering, fluxes and solders can release harmful substances, which, if inhaled through the respiratory system, can be harmful to health. Therefore, soldering should be done under a hood or at least in a well-ventilated area.

How to solder wires correctly

Learning how to properly solder wires with a soldering iron is not difficult. The soldering process is not particularly difficult. The insulation is removed from the wires, stripped to a shine and carefully tinned, after applying flux to them.

Then the wires are mechanically connected to each other in one of the possible ways. Afterwards, flux is applied to the “twist” again, and this area is carefully soldered, making sure that the solder spreads evenly over the entire surface.

Below is a table showing the main types of solder wire connections.

In general, the quality of soldering can be judged by the type of solder. It should shine and be evenly distributed over the soldering area.

After soldering is completed and the flux residue has been removed, the soldering area is insulated. To do this, you can use electrical tape, vinyl or cotton. You can also use a small piece of heat-shrink tubing of a suitable diameter to insulate the soldering area. The tube is placed on the solder joint and heated. For heating, you can use a soldering iron or gas lighter.

Having gained some skill in soldering simple wires, you can try to perform a more complex task. For example, repair broken headphones.

How to solder headphone wires

Typically, headphones fail due to broken wires near or inside the plug. If the location of the damage is accurately determined, then repairing the headphones is quite simple. The plug with the damaged section of the wire is cut off. The wires are carefully separated. They are soldered to a detachable plug purchased at a radio parts store according to the following diagram.

Since the headphone wires are quite thin, tinning the wires and soldering them to the plug must be done quickly. Otherwise, the insulation on the wires will melt greatly. To avoid melting the wires, you can solder the headphone wires using solder with a low melting point, such as Rose's alloy or Wood's alloy. When using such alloys, the soldering iron is heated to the melting temperature of the solder and then unplugged.

  How to properly harden an ax?

In this article we talked about soldering wires using a soldering iron. However, in extreme conditions, you can solder wires without a soldering iron. One of the methods of soldering without using a soldering iron could be like this. The wires are twisted and flux is applied to them. A little thin wire solder is wound around the soldering area. Then the soldering area is heated with a gas torch or lighter, ensuring that the solder spreads evenly.


How to attach a wire to a board without a soldering iron

If it is necessary to connect several parts together, soldering is the most common solution to the problem. In order to solder something, first of all, it would seem, you need a soldering iron itself. However, this is not entirely true, and if this tool is not available at home, then knowledge of how to solder without a soldering iron will be very useful in everyday life.

Tinning without a soldering iron

A soldering iron is a convenient and easy-to-use household appliance that will help when you need to join metals, small items together, or solder circuit boards. However, in a situation where there is no electricity or the tool itself, the question immediately arises of how to solder without a soldering iron at home.

In order for the quality of soldering, as well as the electrical contact, to be at the proper level, it is necessary to carry out tinning: first apply a small layer of solder to the surface of the metals or parts that will be soldered.

When performing this procedure, it is possible to do without a soldering iron. To store solder you will need some kind of metal container. Even a coffee can lid will do just fine. You should place rosin and pieces of tin in the selected container, but you can also use tin-lead solder (POS-60). How to tinning wires without a soldering iron:

  1. Remove the insulation from the ends of the wires (approximately twenty millimeters).
  2. Heat the container in which the solder and rosin are stored until the mixture melts. Instead of a soldering iron, you can use a lighter, candle, stove or other fire source as a heater.
  3. Immerse the bare part of the wires in the molten flux so that it spreads over the entire surface.
  4. Place the treated part of the wires in the solder for a few seconds.
  5. Remove the wires from the solder. Quickly remove excess from them with a rag.

    Thus, on the part of the wires that went through the process, there should be a small and even layer of solder left.

If it is necessary to tinning a flat area of ​​a part:

  1. Finely chop pieces of rosin and solder and pour them onto the surface of the area.
  2. Bring a fire source under the area with solder and rosin to melt the mixture.
  3. The molten solder must be spread over the surface using a steel tube, rod or something similar.
  4. Remove excess mass with a rag.

If the part is steel, then rosin is not used when tinning it. The process itself remains the same, only taking into account the use of soldering acid, with which the area is treated.

Soldering process

The mass of solder that ends up in the tinned layer may not be enough to reliably connect large wires. It is worth pouring grated solder on the top of the twisted section. Continue heating until the solder melts and fills the gaps in the twist.

If it becomes necessary to solder a wire to a flat surface, both the surface area and the end of the wire are pre-tinned. Now the end of the wire and a section of the part are clamped, and grated solder is poured on top.

After this, a fire source is brought from below, the parts are heated, the solder melts and soldering occurs.

Using the gutter

Wires with a diameter of up to three millimeters can be soldered with a groove, which is used instead of a soldering iron. The gutter is made from thin aluminum foil. The soldering itself is carried out as follows:

  1. At a thirty-millimeter length, the insulation is removed from the ends of the wires.
  2. The bare ends are laid parallel or twisted together.
  3. A short strip is cut from a piece of foil, the width of which will be equal to the width of the joined area.
  4. The strip of foil is deformed into a groove that covers the wires at the junction with each other.
  5. Fine rosin and solder are poured into the groove.
  6. To prevent the solder and rosin from spilling out, one end of the foil is wrapped around the area where the connection is planned.
  7. The area covered by the foil is heated by a fire source until the solder melts.
  8. When the molten mass hardens, the foil is removed from the area.
  9. If necessary, excess solder is removed with sandpaper.

How to seal a hole

From time to time there is a need to seal a small hole in some container (in a bucket, basin or pan). If the hole is no more than seven millimeters in diameter, then you can patch it without using a soldering iron. You will need POS-60. Actions taken:

  1. Carefully sand the area surrounding the hole inside the container to give the hole a cone shape.
  2. Treat the area with soldering or hydrochloric acid.
  3. A small thin plate is placed at the bottom of the hole to prevent loss of solder.
  4. In the inside of the container, rosin and solder in a crushed state are poured into the hole.
  5. With the help of a fire source, the solder melts.
  6. The molten solder solidifies and seals the hole.

If you need to seal an aluminum container, you need to prepare special solder in advance. It can be one of the following mixtures: zinc with tin in a ratio of ¼; bismuth with tin 1/30; aluminum with tin 1/99. These alloys are produced exclusively by mixing at high temperatures.

DIY pasta

Self-made solder paste is well suited as solder. For soldering without a soldering iron, such a tool can be indispensable. To obtain it, the following manipulations are performed:

  1. Concentrated hydrochloric acid 32 ml is poured into an enamel container and mixed with 12 ml water.
  2. 8.1 g of zinc is added to the resulting mixture.
  3. When the zinc dissolves, 7.8g tin is added to the container.
  4. After the chemical reaction is completed, the water is evaporated from the container until the mixture takes the form of a paste.
  5. The paste is transferred to a porcelain container.
  6. The following are added to it with preheating and mixing: tin 14.8g; lead 7.4g; dry ammonia 7.

    5g; glycerin 10ml; zinc in powder form 29.6g; rosin 9.4g.

The soldering process itself with such a paste is not too different from the option with conventional solder. First, the area that needs to be sealed is cleaned, then the paste is smeared onto it with a brush. This area is heated until the paste melts.

In cases of working with the thinnest copper wires or small radio components, a slightly different composition can be used: lead powder 7.4g; zinc in the form of dust 73.8g; rosin 4 g; powdered tin 14.8g. The mixture becomes a paste by mixing all this with glycerin or a 10 ml solution of diethyl ether, which will contain 10 g of rosin.


How to solder correctly with a soldering iron: instructions for beginners

When a novice electrician watches a master work with a soldering iron, all the actions seem simple and understandable.

However, as soon as you pick up the tool yourself, troubles immediately begin: the solder does not hold, the contacts fall off, the insulation burns, the tip becomes covered with soot.

To prevent this from happening, certain rules must be followed.

The master knows them and fulfills them. For a beginner, I advise you to first understand how to solder correctly with a soldering iron. Only after that do you take on this work.

3 main secrets: posture, light and air

Even at home, to perform high-quality soldering, a comfortable worker position with good lighting is required. I recommend installing a desktop near a window that receives sunlight during the day and an artificial source of light in the evening.

Soldering involves heating substances and releasing fumes. Although heated rosin smells like pine needles, this smell is still harmful if inhaled frequently. And other fluxes and acids are even more dangerous. Entering the body through the respiratory system, they accumulate and cause chronic diseases.

Therefore, ventilation is important. Work with an open window, or even better, use forced exhaust.

Useful devices

A short tin with a paper lining is necessary for working with solder and rosin.

A special stand helps to store a heated soldering iron, and a sponge allows you to clean the hot tip from oxides.

It is convenient to remove excess melted solder with a desoldering pump.

Working with small objects is made easier by tweezers, small vices, and “third hand” devices. The simplest option: regular pliers with an elastic band.

You can make other simple designs with your own hands.

Selecting and preparing a soldering iron

The sale offers various models with voltage from 12 to 220 or 380 volts. Each soldering iron is created for a specific job, although it has universal capabilities.

They are assessed by the power consumption of electrical energy, which is spent on heating the tip of the tip.

It is convenient to solder radio components with a soldering iron with a power of 40÷60 watts, and for wires choose 80÷100.

For beginner soldering ironers, it is enough to use simple models of two soldering iron designs with:

  1. heating from nichrome wire and a copper rod;
  2. ceramic insert and copper tip with nickel coating.

The first type of soldering iron is cheaper, but it requires constant care of the tip, takes longer to heat up to the desired temperature, and wears out faster.

A soldering iron with a ceramic insert works better, but is more expensive. In addition, ceramics require careful handling. It can break due to mechanical shock.

Personal preferences

I have been using transformer soldering irons of the “Moment” type for more than 30 years.

Some people don't like it because of the extra weight. But for me this indicator is not critical. The industrial wattage of 65 is good for amateur radio soldering, but it is not enough for connecting electrical wires.

Therefore, I assembled a more powerful structure with my own hands.

This technology is described in a separate article on the website.

About counterfeit brands

For a long time I could not understand why I like transformer soldering irons, but they are massively criticized on the Internet. Even in the above article, readers expressed a negative opinion about them, criticizing their fragility and poor quality.

I realized this only after a visitor to my site sent me a burnt-out soldering iron from the Chinese company Licota for experiments.

It looks very nice, is light in weight, fits comfortably in the hand and is originally packaged. Upon closer examination of it, I discovered many installation and design defects. I wrote them down in separate articles:

When buying cheap soldering irons from dubious sellers, you can end up with low-quality products, lose money and time. Please pay attention to electrical performance and warranties.

There are other different types of soldering irons designed to get professional work done well. But it’s better to start learning soldering using the models described above.

About sharpening the tip

Cleanliness is not only a guarantee of our health, but also a guarantee of high-quality soldering. It must be observed during work.

The copper tip of the soldering iron heats up to such a state that oxides and carbon deposits form on it. When they penetrate the solder, you can forget about the quality of the soldering. Therefore, the tip of the tip should always be clean and well sharpened.

Its shape is created for a specific type of parts to be soldered:

  • The “flat head screwdriver” transfers heat well. It is used to heat massive parts;
  • A “pyramid” or “sharp cone” makes it more convenient to control the amount of heating. It is used to connect small radio elements or thin wires;
  • The “blunted cone” is sharpened for soldering medium-section wires.

The first type of sharpening is more popular. It can be formed by hammer blows. Then the metal is better compacted and retains its properties longer.

By placing this tip on the part to be soldered with a plane or an acute angle, you can regulate the degree of its heating.

Modern ceramic soldering irons have a set of removable tips of the most necessary shapes. They are coated with a layer of nickel on top and do not require sharpening or preparatory treatment.

How to tin a copper tip

The tip of a new soldering iron without a protective nickel coating must be coated with a thin layer of solder, which will protect it from carbon deposits and premature wear. For this:

  1. the soldering iron is turned on under voltage, heating the tip to working condition;
  2. immerse it in a piece of rosin;
  3. melt the solder, distributing it over the surface of the tip tip. It is convenient to use a wooden object.

What are the soldering steps?

The main objective of this technology is to connect two metal parts, most often conductors, with a low-melting alloy so that they hold firmly and pass electric current with the lowest possible resistance.

To do this, you need to perform a series of actions sequentially. Let's look at them using the example of soldering wires. This:

  • removing insulation from the connected ends of the wire;
  • mechanical stripping of metal cores to an ideal state of oxides;
  • heat treatment with flux - tinning the ends with a thin layer;
  • heating the solder and applying it to the soldering area.

Removing insulation

The dielectric layer of the wire can be made of polyethylene, fabric, varnish or other similar material. It needs to be removed.

This work is best done with a sharp knife, placing its blade almost parallel to the axis of the metal core. This prevents cutting and deep scratches. They weaken mechanical strength and increase electrical resistance. This cannot be allowed.

Thin wires coated with varnish can simply be treated with an open flame of matches or a lighter. The same method is suitable for twisted pair and even thicker wires.

There are special pliers of various designs on sale for stripping insulation from the end of a wire of any diameter. They allow this work to be done professionally without damaging the core.

After removing the insulation, the condition of the metal surface is assessed. Pay attention to cleanliness, absence of dents and cuts.

Removing dirt and oxide film

Only pure metal can ensure a high-quality connection of parts when soldering. It is created by mechanical cleaning of the surface and chemical solutions.

First, they work with a knife blade, lightly pressing it against the contaminated metal at an obtuse angle. The core is pulled from the insulation layer to the bare end, rotating slightly in one direction. The metal will immediately lose its dullness and begin to shine.

Chemical cleaning involves treatment with solvents, alcohol, and FES flux.

Tinning of contact pads

The final cleaning of the metal surface of the conductor is carried out by heat treatment with flux, using a tinned soldering iron tip. The most popular and universal remedy is rosin. It is used in a solid state, dissolved in alcohol or jelly-like.

The sale allows you to purchase rosin in any form and provides a wide range of other fluxes.

For soldering parts of electrical circuits, it is not recommended to use fluxes containing acids . They are quite difficult to completely neutralize, and even minor residues quickly oxidize the metal and destroy its structure.

The sequence of tinning a wire core with solid rosin:

  1. Heat the soldering iron to the desired temperature. It can range from 180 to 240 degrees and depends on the solder and the metal parts being connected. To control the heating, the tips are touched with a tip of solid rosin. If it begins to rapidly form steam, then heating is normal.
  2. The cleaned conductor is placed on the rosin and touched with the tip of the soldering iron. The wire is rotated to coat it evenly with molten flux.
  3. The tip of a soldering iron melts the solder and applies it to the rosin-treated wire, evenly distributing it over the surface.

A solution of rosin in alcohol is applied with a brush to the surface to be tinned or simply dripped through a dropper tube.

Jelly-like rosin is squeezed out of a special syringe, which is very convenient to do.

The conductor treated with liquid or jelly-like rosin is heated with a heated soldering iron tip with a drop of solder, accelerating it over the entire contact area.

Direct soldering

It is started after both contact pads are prepared for connection: cleaned of dirt and oxides, tinned.

The soldered ends are connected together. A piece of solder is placed on them with a heated soldering iron, ensuring that it spreads over both areas. After this, the tip is sharply retracted to the side, and the parts remain motionless until the tin completely hardens. This is judged by a slight darkening of its color.

Correctly performed soldering is distinguished by a strong connection of contacts and a smooth surface of the solidified solder, which is slightly shiny. Its quality is checked using a small mechanical tensile force.

If the surface of the solder has darkening and unevenness, then the soldering is unreliable and needs to be corrected.

5 Tips for Creating Reliable Soldering

These include:

  1. Warming up of the parts to be connected should be done not with the tip of the tip, but with its side surface. This provides greater contact and better temperature transfer. However, when working with a tip with a blunt tip or a transformer soldering iron, this advice will practically not help.
  2. To give increased strength to the connection being created, additional twisting of the wires is done.
  3. A mechanical device, the third hand, makes it easier to fix the stationary position of the parts being connected.
  4. New electronic components are manufactured with tinned contact surfaces. If they are not contaminated in any way, then flux and solder can be immediately applied to them without prior tinning. This speeds up the soldering process.
  5. The sale offers craftsmen tubular solder, inside of which there is a flux. Usually this is rosin. This combination is easier to work with: the number of intermediate operations is reduced due to the simultaneous supply of both components.

4 signs of high-quality soldering

The reliability of the connection is assessed by:

  1. the bright shine of the created surface layer;
  2. absence of excess solder on parts;
  3. tensile strength of control mechanical force;
  4. integrity of the insulation layer, absence of traces of melting.

Additionally, I recommend watching the video from the owner of AutoAndElectronics “How to solder correctly with a soldering iron.”

If you still have questions about this topic, then ask them in the comments. I will definitely answer.


How to solder a wire to a microcircuit - All about electricity

Many breakdowns can be repaired yourself; all you need to do is equip yourself with a soldering iron. With minimal skills, you can solder loose wires and parts and thus restore the functionality of the device.

The question often arises, how to learn to solder? In fact, it’s not that difficult, the main thing is to get the hang of it.

With a little experience, you can carry out home repairs on almost any device where the essence of the breakdown is torn and disconnected parts.

What do you need to learn to solder?

To solder anything, you first need to prepare a work area. The part itself should be located on it, as well as the place where you will put the tool.

Please note that the soldering iron heats up to high temperatures, so it should not be placed on plastic or other flammable objects.

The best solution would be to use a metal or ceramic stand.

It is also worth taking care in advance of those tools that may be needed during the work. These can be pliers for holding large objects or tweezers for fixing small parts.

Additionally, you need to have a damp sponge on hand; use it to remove the remnants of old solder on the tip.

If all of the above are recommendations rather than mandatory items, then  three elements are always required for soldering:

  • the soldering iron itself is a tool whose tip heats up to high temperatures and is capable of melting solder;
  • solder - a metal or alloy that melts at relatively low temperatures and is capable of conducting current (most often it is tin);
  • flux is a substance that has degreasing and oxidation-preventing properties.

The principle of soldering is extremely simple and has remained unchanged for many years.

There is a simple diagram of how to solder correctly:

1. Cleaning parts from old solder. This point can be omitted when repairing modern (mostly Chinese) devices - there is so little solder in them that if they break down, the place remains almost clean.

2. Degreasing the tip and parts. For this, either liquid flux or rosin is used. This must be done to ensure that the tin attaches to the items. First, the parts and the soldering iron itself are treated with flux, after which they are evenly coated with solder. This process is also called tinning.

3. Melt the tin and put the required amount on the tip. This moment requires some skill. Most beginners fail to take the required amount of solder, which is why the parts are either not soldered at all, or the work done does not look neat.

4. Holding the parts to be soldered together, transfer solder to the joint. At this stage it is important to hold objects clearly. If your hand shakes, the parts will come apart and the procedure will have to start over. It is important to hold the parts until the solder hardens.

How to solder with a soldering iron with rosin?

Rosin is considered a classic substance used in soldering. The whole principle of operation remains the same, the main differences are noticeable only at the degreasing stage.

The peculiarity of rosin is that it is a solid resin. Most often it is in a small metal jar with an airtight lid.

Despite the variety of modern liquid solders, rosin still remains a popular material. Many radio amateurs are confident that only with its help can high-quality and fast soldering be performed.

The peculiarity of how to properly solder with rosin is that you need to press the tip and wires against the resin itself. After this, solder is applied. The goal is to achieve uniform coverage of the part with solder.

When choosing a flux in this way, it is worth considering one point. Rosin is not compatible with all metals, so for complex soldering it is worth choosing a different flux that is suitable for all parts.

How to solder wires with a soldering iron? Work specifics

The soldering technique differs slightly depending on what exactly is being worked with. Working with various parts and circuits has its own specifics due to the size and characteristics of the fastening.

The process of soldering wires is distinguished separately. It is slightly different from the process of attaching regular parts. There is a certain inconvenience in this work - the wires are flexible and movable, so they must be tightly fixed when soldering.

Here's how to solder wires:

1. Strip the wire. The size of the cleared space should correspond to the soldering area. If you expose too little of the reins, it will interfere with your work, and if you expose too much, it may cause a short circuit.

3. First, the soldering iron is tinned, then the wire itself. When using rosin, this is conveniently done by immersing it in the resin and heating it with a sting. It is necessary to achieve uniform coverage.

You can also connect the wires to each other using a soldering iron. Before soldering, the wires are stripped and twisted together. Only after this is tinning and soldering done (solid rosin is most often used, but liquid solder can also be applied with a brush).

It doesn’t really matter what kind of wires you use: either copper or aluminum can be easily soldered.

There are several simple methods on how to learn how to perform such work efficiently. The classic and most effective option is to use wire.

 Twelve identical sections are cut from it, after which a cube is formed by soldering. The design is tested for strength by squeezing the cube in your fist. If not a single edge has fallen apart, the job is done correctly.

In the opposite case, a new set of wires is cut and the model is soldered again.

Features of how to solder microcircuits

The specificity of the microcircuit is the small size of the parts, as well as the high probability of their overheating. It is very important to remove the device quickly. If necessary, a heat sink is used - tweezers or another metal object can act as it.

For such work, it is worth choosing a soldering iron with a small tip, since there is a very small distance between the parts. There are several soldering methods. Some craftsmen prefer to make indentations in the soldering iron tip, others connect using a special solder paste, and still others methodically solder the taps one after another.

To understand how to properly solder a particular part, you need to determine what temperature needs to be applied. Much depends on the material from which the board is made. Most often it is 200-300 degrees Celsius.

How to solder the boards largely depends on their design. Simpler circuits are easily connected by alternating solder wires, but complex modern chips require special care - after all, by soldering the next part you can easily eliminate the previous one.

How to solder with a soldering iron with acid? Features of work

Some craftsmen are confident that using acid is much simpler and more reliable than soldering with rosin. However, the use of such a substance can lead to corrosion of the installation.


How to solder correctly. Equipment and tools. Soldering Tips

How to solder correctly - the method of forming a permanent connection by introducing molten solder into the contact area is called soldering. In this case, the melting temperature of the solder should be lower than that of the parts being connected. To learn how to solder correctly, it is necessary, in addition to theory, to master this technology practically.

Soldering irons

Electric soldering irons produce voltages up to 220 volts. It is difficult to make a high-voltage heating element with a weak soldering iron, because a lot of thin conductor is required. This will lead to an increase in the size of the soldering iron and will compromise electrical safety.

The power of the soldering iron is selected taking into account the size of the parts. The larger the parts being connected, the more powerful the soldering iron should be.

The required temperature of the soldering iron core can be maintained either automatically or manually. For such purposes, thyristor-based regulators are used.

To increase the service life of the soldering iron, the tip of the tip is forged. Then copper acquires properties in which it is less susceptible to dissolution in solder. The tip is sharpened with a file to give it a special shape: cut or angular. The end of the tip in the form of a knife is made for soldering several contacts of parts at once.


The workplace must be equipped with a tool before the parts can be soldered correctly.


A heated soldering iron is usually placed on a stand, which serves as a location for the flux, as well as a working platform for soldering. A clamp with a piece of foam rubber is attached to the stand to clean the soldering iron tip.


It consists of clamps that move in height and angle, as well as a soldering iron holder and rosin.

Handy tools

They are necessary to support parts, clean the surface, and give a certain shape to the wire. Such tools are usually pliers, tweezers, pliers, wire cutters, a knife, etc.

Soldering Tips

  • Application of materials. One of the materials used for soldering is tin. However, its melting point does not exceed 230 degrees. When installing radio components that are small in size, they fail due to overheating. Solder, composed of tin and lead, melts at a temperature of 180 degrees and is also cheaper. The quality of the connection is not inferior to tin soldering. In general, pure tin is rarely used. When installing radio components, POS-61 solder is used. The number is the percentage of tin content. To remove traces of oxides at the soldering site, fluxes are used. In tinsmithing, acids are used for such purposes. But they are not suitable for electrical connections. Here we need fluxes that are neutral to the contacts. Let's figure out how to properly solder using rosin to protect against oxidation.

Rosin-based flux is passive. It protects the liquid solder from air during soldering, preventing the formation of oxides. However, it does not remove them from the surface. It is convenient to solder with solder in the form of a tube, inside of which there is rosin.

In places with difficult accessibility, a solution of rosin in alcohol is used.

  • The core (tip) of the soldering iron must be cleaned and coated with solder in order to avoid the formation of oxide deposits, which interfere with operation.
  • Soldering surfaces must be cleaned and tinned for a good soldering connection.
  • The soldering areas are first heated with a soldering iron, then connected and soldered.

How to solder correctly with a soldering iron

  • The soldering surfaces are cleaned with sandpaper and degreased with gasoline or acetone.
  • The soldering iron tip is cleaned with a file, sandpaper and other tools to remove oxides and carbon deposits.
  • The soldering iron is heated, dipped in rosin, and tinned. To properly tin the tip, take a wooden block and rub the solder on the tip. The surface of the working area should turn silver.
  • Warming up the solder. A particle the size of a drop of solder is applied with a soldering iron to the surfaces to be joined and leveled. If necessary, more solder is added to completely cover the joint. The contact between the core and the wire is assumed to be maximum. Rosin must be present on the solder to avoid the formation of oxides. It is recommended to do soldering in one step, since after several touching times the solder oxidizes due to the evaporation of rosin. While the solder is cooling, the parts cannot be moved, as cracks will form, which will reduce the strength and quality of the connection.
  • The remaining rosin is removed with alcohol and a brush.

Soldering conductors

Now let's figure out how to solder the wires correctly. The ends of the wire for connection are stripped of insulation and heated. The size of the core must be selected according to the size of the parts. If the core is too large, then the parts nearby will overheat when soldering. If it is too small, the soldering will be poor quality.

It is better to remove the wire insulation with a knife or wire cutters. If the wires are multi-core, then the wires are twisted and then tinned. To do this, the stripped end of the wire is dipped into a container with rosin, a drop of solder is applied to the copper wires and passed several times. In this case, the wire is rotated to cover it with solder on all sides.

The wires are twisted to form a common axis. One conductor is twisted along the other. Rosin is applied to the joint to be joined, followed by solder. The connection is warmed up for 3 seconds.

If there is not enough solder, you need to add it. Sometimes it is not clear why a powerful soldering iron does not warm up the contact, and how to solder. Heat comes from bottom to top. The twist needs to be heated from below. When the heating is sufficient, the solder spreads evenly, and when there is little heat, the result is loose solder.

After soldering, heat shrink is placed on the contact to create insulation. You can heat the heat shrink with a lighter.

Copper and aluminum wires must not be twisted together. To connect them, an intermediate structure is used in the form of a terminal clamp, a bolted connection, or a layer of another metal. There is a solder for aluminum that is combined with copper wire and is used to solder them.

How to solder radio components correctly

Soldering of radio components is carried out by preliminary twisting, or overlapping, using a heat sink. Many parts of radio elements are afraid of strong heating above 70 degrees.

On the circuit board, the hole for attaching the part is covered with solder. Next, the rosin-coated and tinned end of the part is inserted into this hole, heated and moistened with solder. In this case, the tip should touch the board and the part simultaneously. Excess solder is removed with copper braiding. If all solder points look the same, then the soldering is done well.

A soldering iron without solder cannot be kept hot for a long time and cannot be overheated. Oxides are formed, and again it will be necessary to clean and tinning the tip. There should always be rosin on the heated core of the soldering iron. And if the breaks between soldering are long enough, then it is recommended to turn off the soldering iron. Oxidized unnecessary solder is removed from the core with a sponge.

Some elements and parts of circuits fail under the influence of static electricity. To prevent this from happening, the body of the soldering iron must be connected to ground.

Related topics:


How to solder a wire correctly - to a headphone, LED strip, board and speaker, without a soldering iron

The success of the soldering operation depends on the cleanliness of the tip. Before the first use, the tip must be sharpened, giving it the desired shape depending on the nature of the work ahead. This operation can be carried out with various tools, but a file is most often used.

The second necessary operation is to remove the soldering iron tip, that is, remove the oxide film and cover the surface of the working part with a stable layer of solder. This is done by immersing the tip in rosin during the first heating, after which, immediately wipe the tip on a wooden surface or a special sponge. Then, the tip needs to be coated with solder by immersing it in melted (with a soldering iron) solder.

To connect wires in this way, you need to perform the following operations:

  1. Remove the ends of the wires from insulation , if any. This operation is best performed with a special tool called a crimper; when stripping with a knife, there is a danger of damaging the wire, which will negatively affect the connection - its durability and the characteristics of the network with such a connection.
  2. Tin the bare ends, while:
    • Strip the wire from the varnish coating (if any).
    • Place the bare end of the wire on a piece of rosin and heat it with a soldering iron until the flux melts, carefully remove the tip out and let it cool.
    • Place a drop of solder on the tip of the soldering iron and apply it to the wire, ensuring an even coating of the wire with solder.
  3. Repeat the operation with the second end of the wire.
  4. Place the ends to be soldered together , take a drop of solder onto the tip of the soldering iron and apply it to the joint, achieving a uniform monolithic layer.
  5. In some cases , it is better and more reliable to twist the wires being connected, which will increase the strength of the soldered joint.

To earphone and plug

remove the outer braid from the cable, strip the ends of the wires. Remove the varnish coating mechanically using a knife. tin the ends and solder them respectively to the channels. the left channel is marked with a red stick, the right – with a green stick. If there is a common channel, its wire is usually used without insulation.

to the board

When performing this operation, preparing the end of the wire for soldering is the same as in the examples described above. The peculiarity of this operation is that you cannot overheat the conductor on the board, it may burn out.

therefore, a heat sink must be installed near the soldering point. As such, you can use tweezers, which can be used to hold the soldered end with emphasis on the conductor on the board. The soldering area must be immobilized until the solder has completely hardened.

to LED strip

A very important operation is cleaning the contacts on the LED strip. they are coated with silicone, and the slightest residue of it on the tape can lead to irreparable consequences. Clean the contacts on the wires briefly and tin them.

Separate the wires from each other, cutting the insulation by about 1.5-2 cm. Put a heat-shrinkable tube on the cable that matches the size of the LED strip. put smaller diameter tubes on the cut ends.

Soldering should be done very quickly, within about 1 second, so as not to melt the silicone housing of the LED strip. Use a lighter to shrink the smaller tubes, push the larger tube onto the LED strip and heat it to shrink it. The top heat-shrinkable tube should be transparent.

to the speaker

The peculiarity of this operation is that the speaker lead wires are very thin and operate under constant vibration conditions. in addition, they are glued to the membrane. Before soldering, you need to carefully separate the wire, strip the end, and tin it. pick up a similar wire and solder it to the broken end. Solder the other end to the speaker contact, leaving a small loop. Glue the finished conductor to the membrane with “super moment” glue.

necessary materials and tools

The main tool for soldering is a soldering iron.

There are many varieties of them and they are used depending on the nature of the connection being made by soldering:

Soldering irons EPSN

The most common type of this tool , in which the rod is heated by a nichrome heating element. As a rule, these devices are equipped with thermostats that prevent the soldering iron from overheating and the heating coil from burning out.

A time-tested thermocouple is usually used as a thermostat. Structurally, these soldering irons are made in various versions. The simplest ones have a nichrome spiral, which is wound on a dielectric material and, when heated, transfers heat to the core. These products usually use a copper rod as the core, since copper has high thermal conductivity.


A tip made of this material, to which contacts are connected, is used as a working body. When current is passed, the tip heats up to the desired temperature. Ceramic heating elements are considered the most advanced and durable, provided they are used correctly. In such devices, a wide range of temperature and power adjustment of the working body is possible.


The tip is heated through an induction coil. When current passes through it, eddy currents are induced on the surface of the tip, quickly heating the working element.

When the core is heated to a certain temperature, its ferromagnetic coating stops inducing eddy currents and it cools until it reaches the induction temperature of stray currents. Thus, thermoregulation occurs smoothly and the instrument maintains an almost constant temperature.

Pulse soldering irons

They constitute a separate category of similar instruments. They are characterized by the fact that the heating element in them is included in the electrical circuit and when current passes through it, it instantly heats up. The power supply circuit provides a high-frequency transformer designed to reduce the voltage, and a frequency converter that increases the frequency to 20-40 kHz.

Thus, the working tip is heated for several seconds while the start button is held down. When it is released, the soldering iron turns off. Modern products of this type allow you to solder fairly large parts, and not only work with electronic circuits.


They are used as stand-alone devices. The work is carried out in a stream of flame from a gas burner. Refueling is done from an ordinary can of lighter gas.


They also belong to the class of stand-alone devices. Their power is usually about 15 watts and is used for minor repairs of electronic devices.

Soldering stations

There are two types of these devices on sale:

  1. Hot air - the soldering zone is heated by a stream of hot air with a temperature of up to 300 ° C, focused by the soldering iron nozzle. The pressure is created either by an impeller in the soldering iron body (turbine) or by a compressor (compressor).
  2. Infrared - in them heating is carried out by a stream of infrared radiation.

Soldering stations are used in cases where soldering irons with their copper or ceramic tips are inconvenient or generally unsuitable for work. This occurs when working with modern miniature boards that use SMD mounting.


This is the material that joins two parts together during the soldering process.

Depending on the chemical composition, two types are distinguished:

  1. Low-melting with a melting point of up to 400°C.
  2. Refractory , in which this indicator is above 400 ° C.

The choice of the required solder depends on the characteristics of the materials being soldered, the conditions and purpose of soldering, and many other parameters. Available in the form of wire, tubes, plates, pastes and other forms.

Low-melting metals and their alloys are used as solders:

  • tin;
  • lead;
  • cadmium;
  • antimony;
  • bismuth;
  • zinc;
  • copper;

Alloys of these metals with fluxes are actively used, which make it possible to combine two main operations: tinning and soldering itself.


When heated during soldering, oxidation of the surface of the parts being connected is inevitable, which prevents the solder from spreading over the surface of the conductors and reduces the adhesion of solders to the metal. Fluxes are used to protect the surface. The flux melt destroys the oxide film, improving solderability.

Conventional division of fluxes - active and passive. Active fluxes can destroy the soldering area during operation. Therefore, the adhesion sites must be thoroughly washed with water. They are not used for working with electronic installations.

The following are used as fluxes:

  1. Rosin is a processed resin from coniferous trees, the quality indicator is a light tone.
  2. Alcohol rosin flux is a mixture of rosin (10-60%) with alcohol, actively used in radio installation.
  3. LTI fluxes are a mixture of rosin and alcohol with the addition of triethanolamine, used for soldering iron, copper, brass and other metals.
  4. Soldering paste made from a mixture of flux , tin and lead with the addition of up to 2% silver, used in radio installation.
  5. Soldering fat and soldering acid are used for soldering iron parts, actively removing the oxide layer from the surface.
  6. Borax is a high-temperature flux (melting point about 900°C) for soldering parts made of iron, cast iron, copper, brass and other materials.

The list is far from complete; there are many types of fluxes.


Name Image Purpose Price, rub)
Mounting binocular Eye protection when soldering, increasing visibility of the working field when installing small parts 350
Soldering kit (6 items) ZD-151 REXANT Installing parts, cleaning contacts and soldering points and other auxiliary operations 500
Soldering iron stand “Cast iron square” ZD-10A REXANT Storing the soldering iron when heating up and between operations 550
Antistatic bracelet ZD-152REXANT Grounding of static charges 300
Third hand holder with lens and stand for soldering iron ZD-10A REXANT Holding parts during operation, illumination. Used in electronic editing and watchmaking 1200
Solder desoldering pump ZD-108 REXANT Removing excess solder or flux during assembly/disassembly in electronics 350
Soldering iron tip cleaning sponge 40x70 mm ZD-929 REXANT Cleaning the soldering iron tip from solder and flux residues 80

The table shows examples of the design of devices; in fact, these products are produced in an innumerable number of varieties and by many manufacturers.

How to solder a wire without a soldering iron?

There are several ways to connect wires without soldering:

  1. Thoroughly clean and degrease the ends of the connected wires and twist them. Apply a few drops of Kontaktol glue to it and let it dry. Insulate the connection point.
  2. Perform twisting , having previously prepared the connection points, connect the wires to a powerful power supply (5-6 volts, 4-5 amperes). Connect a massive conductor, for example a nail, to the second contact. Touch the nail to the twist. An arc is formed that reliably welds the wires. Insulate the connection point.


Soldering wires and cables with connectors

A soldering iron is a must-have for every home DIYer. With its help, with minimal knowledge of electrical engineering, you can independently eliminate most minor and visually visible breakdowns of household electrical appliances.

We'll tell you how to solder wires. In addition, we will describe how to restore functionality if cables are damaged, using the most common connector standards.

The progress of soldering from start to finish

In this chapter, we will describe the entire process in detail, taking into account both significant points and seemingly simple, but no less important, subtleties.

What is needed for work

Electrician tools

The set of tools and materials for work is not very large; all this can be easily purchased in specialized stores. The price for all this is small.

We will need:

  • A soldering iron with a stand, and do not choose a powerful model with a thick tip, 15-40 W with a tip with a diameter of about 5 mm is enough;
  • For solder, you should also not take thick rods; it is convenient to work with wire 2-3 mm thick;
  • Rosin - in addition to it, it is advisable to additionally have both liquid flux and a brush for applying it;
  • Tweezers;
  • Assembly cutters;
  • Pliers;
  • Knife;
  • File for sharpening and straightening the soldering iron tip;
  • Sandpaper, file or needle file with a fine notch to remove oxides and enamels.

Advice! Tubular solder with rosin inside is very convenient.

This is a sufficient set - sometimes you can do without some tools, for example, sandpaper or tweezers, but it is advisable to have everything at hand. Additionally, you may need a tester or probe (if you need to connect a cable of several wires that are not marked with different colors).

There may also be a “third hand” problem when you need to hold two wires or a wire and a connector, but the hand is occupied with a soldering iron. To solve this, you can use a clamp or any suitable clamp.

If you need to connect contaminated wires, then you need to additionally use an alcohol-gasoline mixture, gasoline or some other degreasing agent.

Getting the soldering iron ready

Sharpened soldering iron tip

The soldering iron tip must be sharpened at an angle of 45° and have no defects on the surface. We sharpen it, if necessary, remove excess metal until a smooth surface is obtained.

With a new soldering iron, even after sharpening, the tip becomes tinned. To do this, heat it, dip it in rosin and then touch the solder so that it covers the entire surface of the beveled working area.

Soldering wires

connecting wires by soldering: an example of high-quality work

Soldering wires is carried out in several operations, and they depend on their type and insulation. In addition, we are only talking about copper or brass conductors; if they are aluminum, then a soldering iron will not help us (although this can be done with special fluxes) - they are connected with twists or special clamps (see Terminal blocks for connecting wires).

The thickness does not affect the sequence of operations; soldering a thick wire is no different, except that if the diameter is excessively large, it will not warm up. In this case, you just need to take a more powerful soldering iron.

Attention! According to the current operating rules for electrical installations (PEU) and GOST, soldering of copper wires on power, grounding and neutral lines of electrical equipment is prohibited. In an emergency, they can become very hot and the solder will drain. Special clamps are used for connection.

If we solder single-core wires without insulation, we need:

  • Remove oxides from the surface - we do this with sandpaper, a fine file or just a knife. You can also pull the wire between the jaws of the nippers several times, turning to clean the entire surface but without squeezing the handles too hard so as not to bite. We do not clean the entire wire, but only the section that we will connect.
  • Cover the surface with flux - heat the wire, pressing it against the rosin, it should be completely covered with it. You can also apply liquid flux with a brush.
  • Tin - take a little (no need to be greedy) solder on the tip (it should not be a drop, but a small dome, up to 1 mm high, on the working surface of the tip). Then, we touch the soldering iron to the wire and heat it. The solder should cover the surface itself, there is no need to make rubbing movements, just heat it up. If you need to tin a long length of wire, then touch it in several places.
  • We connect the wires together , not end-to-end, but lay them parallel to each other for a length of at least 15-20 diameters (this will ensure the mechanical strength of the connection). Better yet, twist the wires.
  • Cover the surface with flux again.
  • We solder, just like when tinning, we take a little solder and simply warm up the connected wires. It is important that during the process and for some time after the soldering iron is removed (until the solder cools down), they do not move relative to each other.


How to properly solder with a soldering iron with solder and rosin

If in Soviet times there was a game for schoolchildren, the essence of which was to solder a radio-electronic microcircuit on their own, which they successfully did, but now the question of how to properly use a soldering iron puts many in a difficult position. Although learning how to solder with a soldering iron is not so difficult, and having mastered the basics for “dummies”, you will be able to carry out simple work on your own without turning to specialists.

Soldering with a soldering iron

In order to start soldering, you need to prepare a workplace and the necessary tools. Regardless of the type of proposed work, the following requirements are imposed on the workplace:

  • The presence of good lighting will allow you not only to work comfortably, but also to notice small flaws in the soldered parts, which is difficult if there is a lack of light;
  • No flammable items;
  • Free working space on which you can easily place the part to be soldered;
  • The presence of ventilation will make work not only more comfortable, but also safer; inhaling molten rosin has a negative effect on the respiratory system;
  • A magnifying glass makes it possible to work even with small parts and thin wires;
  • A simple stand solves the problem of placing a heated soldering iron.

The next stage of preparation will be the choice of tool, and a beginner is always faced with the question of what is needed for soldering with a soldering iron.

Soldering iron selection

The basis of high-quality soldering is heating metal parts to the soldering temperature; accordingly, for each type of work it is recommended to use soldering irons of different capacities:

  • For soldering radio components and microcircuits, it is best to use a soldering iron with a power of no more than 60 Watts, otherwise you can overheat the part or simply melt it;
  • Parts up to 1 mm thick will warm up better when using a tool with a power of 80-100 Watts;
  • Parts with a wall thickness of up to 2 mm require greater power and some experience in operation, so soldering of such parts will not be considered in this article.


Soldering the wire and cable to the board

Soldering is considered a very convenient and well-tested method of connecting conductors and radio components. It can also be used to solder a wire to a board with electrical contacts located on it.

The quality of soldering ultimately determines the reliability of the resulting connection, so before starting work, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the features of this not entirely simple procedure.

General rules

In order to connect a conductor to the board, you will first need a soldering iron with a power that depends on the thickness of the wire itself.

Typically, soldering devices with operating power ranging from 25 to 40 watts are used for these purposes.

In addition, you will need to stock up on a set of consumables that will significantly facilitate soldering conditions (solder, rosin and flux). It is also advisable to prepare a heat dissipation tool, with which you can protect the board itself from severe overheating.

Preparing the wires

To obtain a high-quality connection, it is extremely important to properly prepare the wire for soldering, for which you must perform the following mandatory operations:

  1. First, the working end of the wire is cleared of polyvinyl chloride insulation to a length slightly larger than the size of the future contact.
  2. Then, a tight twist is formed from the exposed stranded end manually or using pliers, which is then tinned in rosin and solder.
  3. Upon completion of this operation, they move on to the board, the contact pad of which should also be carefully tinned.

At this point, the preparation of the wire can be considered complete. But before soldering it to the board, you will need to take into account one more important point.

Heat sink installation

In order not to overheat and damage the contact located on the board, it is recommended to apply some metal object to the soldering point, which in this case acts as a heat sink.

Tweezers are traditionally used as such an auxiliary device, but, in extreme cases, it can be replaced with a powerful metal clip or screwdriver.

To ensure reliable solidification of the molten solder, it is necessary to fix the conductor in the soldering zone for a while (immobilize it). Otherwise, the soldering procedure will have to be repeated.

Once the connection of individual conductors is complete, the temporary heat dissipation device is removed from the work area.

Thus, knowing the soldering procedure, you can repair many electrical appliances, in particular Christmas tree garland, player, LED lamp.

Soldering the cable

Flexible cables made of thin conductors have long been used in modern household equipment. They can be found in a regular mobile phone, as well as in any type of computer equipment that has multi-core connections.

As a rule, the conductor tracks in a cable are very thin and located close to one another, which imposes the following restrictions on soldering work:

  • to solder the cable to the board you will need a soldering iron, the power of which should not exceed 24 watts;
  • when soldering, it is advisable to use a special magnifying lens mounted on a working stand-bracket;
  • To ensure good heat removal from the work area, you will need massive tweezers.

It is often necessary to connect two thin wires together (to eliminate their break in a loop formed from several conductors). In this case, you first need to strip the broken ends and then twist them tightly together.

In order to isolate the connection point, a plastic tube of suitable diameter (cambric) is first pulled onto one of them.

Upon completion of soldering of the twisted area, the insulating tube is moved with slight interference to the connection area.

Is it possible to do without a soldering iron?

Soldering wires to a board without a soldering iron is a completely doable task. To do this, take a small metal container (like a bowl) and fill it with finely chopped soft solder mixed with carefully crushed rosin. For these purposes, it is most convenient to use a metal lid from a standard coffee can.

Then the container with the solid solder mixture is heated by any available method until it passes into the liquid phase. All subsequent operations must be performed very quickly to prevent the finished composition from cooling.

You need to dip the end of the soldered conductor into the molten solder, and then carefully drop the liquid composition onto the board contact. Quickly press the end of the wire to a drop of molten solder that has not yet solidified, and wait for the connection area to cool.

In conclusion of the review, we note that in modern electronic devices, a broken conductor at the contact point of the board is the most common malfunction.

So, after mastering the technique of connecting them without a soldering iron, you can easily restore any damaged electronic product (such as, for example, a personal computer keyboard).


How to solder wire to wire with a soldering iron correctly?

In order to solder a wire to a wire, you need to purchase several tools and materials at once, such as:

  1. Flux – a means for cleaning the surface of oxidized metal. There are:
    • acidic;
    • anti-corrosion;
    • acid-free;
    • activated;
  2. Solder is an alloy of tin and lead.
  3. Workplace (clean, spacious table, metal sheets or wooden boards can be used as a lining).
  4. Soldering iron (the tip must be clean, without any residue of old rosin)
  5. A rag or sponge to clean the tip.

When soldering wires, you should follow a number of rules that will help you solder wires correctly and quickly:

  1. You need to work in a well-lit room with a desk lamp that runs from external power sources.
  2. You should only work with voltage-free wires.
  3. There are a number of connection types , each suitable for a different soldering category.
  4. In addition, there are a number of metals that are not suitable for soldering. These include rusty metal (it does not connect well when soldered, and a wire with such a core has a high probability of burning), aluminum (after the process of stripping the wire is completed, there is a possibility of the formation of a so-called oxide film on it). This problem is typical for aluminum: when melting this metal, an oxide film is formed in 100% of cases. This film can be removed by chemical or mechanical means, which will be selected based on the soldering method. In order to avoid its formation, you need to use flux, which is designed for soldering the materials you need, chrome-plated parts, parts made under high pressure (do not melt or fuse with solder).
  5. Metals that are suitable for soldering: tin, silver, copper, brass, zinc, nickel, iron, stainless steel.

If all the rules are followed and the tools are collected, then you can proceed to the preparation process:

  1. Heating the soldering iron - the soldering iron must be heated to a temperature that will exceed the temperature of the solder.
  2. Preparing the soldering iron - the soldering iron tip must be cleaned and then dipped in flux. Flux is rosin or other substance that helps clean metal. After that, you need to heat the solder and apply it to the tip.
  3. Expose the wires. This procedure is quite simple to perform. There are 2 types of wires - single-core and stranded. In both cases, it is necessary to strip the wires of insulation, after which the wires need to be cleaned of various contaminants. If you need to clean wires that have limited access, you can use cotton swabs.

Step-by-step instructions for the soldering process

tinned soldering iron tip

Let's look at the instructions for the soldering process using the example of fastening 2 copper wires.

If all preparation steps have been completed, then you can proceed directly to the soldering process:

  1. The first thing to do is tin the wires. When tinning multi-core wires, you need to twist them first, then the process will happen much faster.
  2. To tinning wires , you need to take a bare wire, put it on rosin or treat it with another flux, after which you need to carefully pour solder on top of it.
  3. Fix the wires - sometimes special machines are used for this, sometimes home-made structures. If you incorrectly fixed the wires, the soldering process may not end well.
  4. Connection – at this stage we connect 2 pre-treated wires and coat them with solder. In order to carry out this process, you need to melt a little solder with the heated part of the soldering tool, and then carefully apply it to the connection of the two wires.
  5. Cleaning the connection - at the end of the soldering process, it is necessary to clean the junction of the wires; this can be done with sandpaper or a file. A very important process, since if there is oxidation at this location, the wires may burn.
  6. Insulation winding - most often insulating tape is used for these purposes; it is the most versatile option. Its advantages are that it is easily accessible, can be purchased at any store, is easy to use, there is nothing difficult in wrapping the wire with electrical tape, it is durable, you can not change it for a long time.'

if the wire is clean and made of copper, then tinning will occur instantly

How to unsolder the wire?


  1. First you need to prepare a soldering iron. It is necessary to warm up the tool, then treat it with flux, and then carefully melt a small amount of solder.
  2. After this, strip the required part of the wire of insulation and clean it of mechanical contaminants.
  3. Wire tinning – it is necessary to apply flux to the wire and remove all oxidation.
  4. Secure the wire.
  5. Mark the desoldering area - use a file to cut out a small strip along which the tip will move.
  6. Carefully move the sting along the marked line several times until you achieve the result.
  7. Wait until the wire cools to room temperature.
  8. Apply insulation.

This process does not involve any difficulties, the only thing required is to follow the instructions, the desoldering process is not much different from the process of soldering two wires.

Purpose and classification of wires

A wire is an electrical product that consists of 2 or more metal wires covered with a winding of some non-metallic fabric. Serves to connect the current source with the consumer.

The wire consists of 2 parts. The first is the core - the part that conducts current. The second part is insulation, that is, what protects the core from external irritants. Copper and aluminum wire is usually used as a core; the insulation is made of paper, rubber, or varnish.

There is a certain classification of wires:

  • winding;
  • copper;
  • high resistance wires;
  • installation connecting;
  • output;
  • wires for rolling stock;
  • insulated for overhead lines;
  • non-insulated;
  • wires for geophysical work;
  • heat resistant;
  • thermoelectrode;
  • warm-up;
  • automobile;
  • aviation;
  • installation;
  • communication wires;


  1. Use special clothing. When working with a soldering iron, it is better to always wear protective clothing, such as gloves, a special apron, and glasses. This will help avoid burns and injuries during work. In addition, sometimes it is necessary to use a mask to avoid toxic fumes entering the respiratory tract.
  2. Do not leave the soldering iron dry when heating. You should always wet your soldering iron with rosin to help prevent oxidation.
  3. to choose a soldering iron with a replaceable tip in order to use different shapes.
  4. It is better to use different temperatures for different types of alloys. This way you can make the soldering much better and longer lasting.
  5. Use reliable lighting. Use table lamps and flashlights with external power sources. This will help keep things running in the event of a power outage.


Soldering wires to the board

The success of the soldering operation depends on the cleanliness of the tip. Before the first use, the tip must be sharpened, giving it the desired shape depending on the nature of the work ahead. This operation can be carried out with various tools, but a file is most often used.

The second necessary operation is to remove the soldering iron tip, that is, remove the oxide film and cover the surface of the working part with a stable layer of solder. This is done by immersing the tip in rosin during the first heating, after which, immediately wipe the tip on a wooden surface or a special sponge. Then, the tip needs to be coated with solder by immersing it in melted (with a soldering iron) solder.

To connect wires in this way, you need to perform the following operations:

  1. Remove the ends of the wires from insulation , if any. This operation is best performed with a special tool called a crimper; when stripping with a knife, there is a danger of damaging the wire, which will negatively affect the connection - its durability and the characteristics of the network with such a connection.
  2. Tin the bare ends, while:
  3. Strip the wire from the varnish coating (if any).
  4. Place the bare end of the wire on a piece of rosin and heat it with a soldering iron until the flux melts, carefully remove the tip out and let it cool.
  5. Place a drop of solder on the tip of the soldering iron and apply it to the wire, ensuring an even coating of the wire with solder.
  6. Repeat the operation with the second end of the wire.
  7. Place the ends to be soldered together , take a drop of solder onto the tip of the soldering iron and apply it to the joint, achieving a uniform monolithic layer.
  8. In some cases , it is better and more reliable to twist the wires being connected, which will increase the strength of the soldered joint.

To the board

When performing this operation, preparing the end of the wire for soldering is the same as in the examples described above. The peculiarity of this operation is that the conductor on the board must not be overheated; it may burn out.

Therefore, a heat sink must be installed near the soldering point. As such, you can use tweezers, which can be used to hold the soldered end with emphasis on the conductor on the board. The soldering area must be immobilized until the solder has completely hardened.

To LED strip

A very important operation is cleaning the contacts on the LED strip. They are coated with silicone, and the slightest residue of it on the tape can lead to irreparable consequences. Clean the contacts on the wires briefly and tin them.

Separate the wires from each other, cutting the insulation by about 1.5-2 cm. Place a heat-shrinkable tube on the cable that matches the size of the LED strip. Place tubes of smaller diameter onto the cut ends.

To the speaker

The peculiarity of this operation is that the speaker lead wires are very thin and operate under constant vibration conditions. In addition, they are glued to the membrane. Before soldering, you need to carefully separate the wire, strip the end, and tin it. Find a similar wire and solder it to the broken end. Solder the other end to the speaker terminal, leaving a small loop. Glue the finished conductor to the membrane with Supermoment glue.

Required materials and tools

The main tool for soldering is a soldering iron.

There are many varieties of them and they are used depending on the nature of the connection being made by soldering:

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