How to solder for a beginner

Wire soldering technology: execution sequence

Everyone has had to deal with the problem of broken wires in equipment. It’s unreasonable to take such a small thing to a workshop; it’s easier to master the soldering technique, which will help you repair household equipment at home.

The essence of technology

There are several methods for soldering wires, but for beginners, the manual method is recommended. This option is suitable for connecting metal conductors; for propylene and other plastics, a different technology is used.

The soldering process is absolutely accessible and understandable. The connected ends are treated with a special substance and then fixed with solder. The melting point of the solder should be lower than that of the metals used in the conductors. High-quality soldering can withstand a weight exceeding the material of the conductors.

Soldering time is considered to be the period from the heating of the solder until it completely hardens. The total duration of creating one connection is 4-5 minutes.

What you need for soldering

To solder the wires you will need a soldering iron, solder and flux. It is better to carry out work on a wooden stand. For a soldering iron, you need to prepare a stand in advance so that the hot tip does not damage the surface of the table.

Any scraper is suitable for cleaning; you cannot use sandpaper with coarse stones. Before carrying out work, the surfaces need to be degreased, so it is worth preparing another alcohol solution and cotton pads or swabs.

For convenience, you should also prepare tweezers and safety glasses. The first tool will help connect thin elements, and glasses will prevent eye injury. During the soldering process, hot springs or wires may jump off, which will lead to various problems. Protection will ensure the master's safety.

Sequence of soldering wires

The technological process of soldering two thin metal conductors consists of the following steps.

1. Cleaning the surfaces of conductors, removing corrosion and other contaminants. The process is carried out carefully until the metal shines. Any third-party attack will make the connection unreliable.

2. The stripped ends of the conductors are coated with flux. This is a special substance that removes oxide fragments well and also prevents oxidation of wires during operation. When choosing a flux, preference should be given to solid and paste-like substances; liquid is of little use in this matter.

3. Using a soldering iron, the solder is melted and an even thin layer is applied to the ends of the conductors. The solder should bond well to the metal.

4. Connect the wires using temporary twist or tweezers. An alternative is to use a vice.

5. Applying flux to the joint to prevent the formation of rust under the solder.

6. Melt the solder with a soldering iron and distribute the substance around the joined ends of the conductors. If the fixation turns out to be weak, it is recommended to choose a different type of solder.


Soldering iron: what materials and devices are needed, how to solder wires correctly

If we consider soldering methods, then the work done with a soldering iron is the most common and convenient. Despite this, soldering with a soldering iron has two important limitations that should be taken into account when choosing a method. Soldering with a soldering iron should only be done with low-melting solders and it is difficult to perform the necessary manipulations if the parts that need to be soldered are too massive.

The last difficulty can be overcome if you use additional heat sources, such as a gas or electric stove or gas burner. Using these sources, you can achieve the desired result by heating the part to be soldered, although this will complicate the whole process.

To begin the soldering process, you need to prepare the necessary tools and special materials. First of all, of course, you need the soldering iron itself, and it’s clear that you can’t do without flux and solder.

Types of soldering irons

Experts distinguish the following types of soldering tools:

  1. Electric soldering irons that have a ceramic or spiral heater.
  2. Gas soldering irons equipped with a gas burner.
  3. Hot-air soldering irons, in which heat is conducted to the desired location by an air flow.
  4. Hammer soldering irons (which work with an open flame or electric).
  5. Induction soldering irons.

Electric soldering irons are considered the most common devices for soldering , as they are easy to use and easy to purchase. The required soldering tool is selected depending on its power, which shows the level of heat flow directed to the parts being soldered.

It is correct to solder electronic components using a device whose power will not exceed 40 W. If the parts that need to be soldered have walls or wires that do not exceed one millimeter, then it would be appropriate to choose a tool in the range of 80–100 W.

If the wall of the part is two millimeters or more, then the power needed is more than 100 W. Just such powerful tools include hammer soldering irons powered by electricity, which have a power of 250 W and even higher.

Such powerful devices are usually needed for industry where large parts need to be soldered. The price of such non-household appliances is correspondingly high.

The thermal conductivity of the soldered material must also be taken into account when choosing the power of the soldering iron. For example, when soldering steel products, it must be in a less heated state than when working with a copper structure.


For soldering with electric tools, pure tin, tin-lead, tin-silver and other solder options are used.

Lead-containing solders are characterized by their harmfulness, but at the same time, the quality of work when using them is significantly higher than other solders.

If it is necessary to solder utensils used for cooking, then it is correct to use only pure tin.


According to experts, materials such as bronze, silver, nickel silver, copper, tin, gold, brass, and lead can be soldered well. is quite acceptable to solder nickel , low-alloy and carbon steels, and zinc.

Materials that are difficult to work with include aluminum, stainless steel, as well as chromium, high-alloy steel, aluminum bronze, cast iron, magnesium, and titanium.

In practice, it can be noted that only an unprepared part or wire, incorrectly selected flux and incorrectly selected processing temperature lead to poor soldering.

So, a correctly selected flux is the key to a perfectly completed job with minimal time and physical costs. It is the flux that is responsible for whether the required metal will be soldered, what the strength of the connection will be, and how difficult it will be to go through the entire process. The whole purpose of the flux is to destroy the oxide film of the metal being soldered.

Soldering acid flux , which is an acidic active flux, must not be used when soldering electronic parts. Due to its aggressiveness, such a flux can cause corrosion. But it is precisely this property that will allow metal parts to be perfectly connected. Thus, the more chemically resistant a metal is, the more active the flux used must be. But we must not forget that what remains of the active fluxes must be removed after the process is completed.

For soldering steel structures, effective fluxes are an aqueous solution of zinc chloride and soldering acids produced on this basis. At the moment, manufacturers have presented a wide range of strong fluxes that can also be used for soldering.

When working with stainless steel, as opposed to low-alloy and carbon steel, you need to use more active fluxes, which will destroy the layer of persistent oxides covering the surface of the stainless steel.

When figuring out how to solder cast iron products with a soldering iron, it is obvious that an electric soldering iron will be unsuitable for these purposes, since it will not be able to complete the task assigned to it. Soldering cast iron can only be done with high-temperature soldering.

To perform high-quality work with stainless steel, it is necessary to use orthophosphoric acid (F-38). Since it best overcomes the resistant oxide film covering this material.

Galvanized iron will easily allow you to solder flux, which includes zinc chloride, ethyl alcohol, ammonium chloride, rosin (LK-2).

Equipment and materials

Not all devices and materials are necessary when carrying out soldering work. But they all simplify and make working with a soldering iron more convenient and comfortable.

A soldering tool stand is needed not only for convenience, but also for safety. To ensure that the heated tip of the device does not touch foreign objects that could be damaged by such contact.

There are three options for obtaining such a necessary device:

  • The stand is sold in a set with a soldering tool.
  • Available for purchase.
  • It is produced independently from a sheet of thin tin.

To remove excess solder, there is a special braid, which is made from fluxed thin copper wires. Its unwound end is applied to the solder, and then pressed on top with a soldering iron. Subsequently, all excess solder with the help of capillary forces can be collected in it, like in a blotter. The used end of the braid, which is already saturated with solder, is cut off and discarded.

When soldering, it will be very appropriate to have a device called a “third hand” . This device, with its clamps, solves the problem of a catastrophic lack of hands during the soldering process, where a soldering iron is held in one hand and solder in the other. In addition, this device can also be equipped with a magnifying glass, which will help you better examine small soldered products or thin wires.

And of course, when carrying out soldering procedures, it is impossible to do without tweezers, clamps, and pliers. After all, the parts can become very hot, and it will be impossible to hold them with your hands.

Soldering iron technique

There are several common ways to work with a soldering iron:

  • Delivery of solder from the tip of the tool directly to the required parts.
  • Supplying solder directly to the pad of the part being soldered.

But before you start soldering, it is necessary to carry out preparatory manipulations with the parts . Preparation consists of securing the parts, heating the soldering iron and wetting the soldering area with flux.

If soldering using the first method, a small amount of solder is melted on a soldering iron and its tip is pressed to the required places on the parts being soldered. The confident movement of the soldering iron tip along the intended seam contributes to the ideal distribution of solder over the soldered surface.

In the second soldering option, you must first heat the required parts with a soldering iron to the required soldering temperature, and then apply solder end-to-end between the required parts or onto the surface to be soldered. The solder, having melted, will fill the space between the parts, which will ensure the desired result.

Wire tinning

Tinning is the process of coating the top layer of metal with solder. This operation is carried out both as a preparatory operation before soldering, and as an independent operation.

The most common area where tinning is used is tinning the ends of electrical wires . Let's look at how to properly solder wires with a soldering iron and tinning to get the desired effect.

Depending on what the wires are made of and their condition at the time of work, the processing to which they must be subjected also differs.

Single-core copper wire is best suited for tinning. The new wire is not protected by oxides, so there is no need to carry out stripping manipulations with it. The process consists of applying flux to the tip of the wire, applying solder to the hot end of the soldering iron, and running the soldering iron along the wire, while trying to rotate the wire.

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In some cases, when the conductor does not intend to tin, a simple tablet can help. This can happen if the wire is coated with varnish or enamel. In this case, it is necessary an aspirin tablet on the board and, pressing the conductor tightly to its surface, heat it with a soldering iron for several seconds. With such actions, the tablet melts, which causes the destruction of the varnish. After this, you can tinning the wire without any problems.

The fumes from a melted aspirin tablet are harmful to health, so you can use a special flux that removes varnish from the surface of the wires.

If the wires are old, they are usually covered with oxides, which will interfere with the tinning process. The problem can be solved with the help of the already mentioned aspirin. To do this, you need to unravel the conductor, place it on the tablet and heat it with a soldering iron for several seconds, moving the conductor from side to side.

To tinning an aluminum wire, you need to purchase a special flux, for example, “Flux for soldering aluminum” is ideal. It can also be used when soldering metals with a persistent oxide film. The only thing you should not forget when using such flux is cleaning the soldered surface from its residues. If this is not done, corrosion may appear at the soldering site .

To remove the solder residue formed during tinning, you can place the wire vertically and press a hot soldering iron to the excess. All excess will flow onto the soldering iron from the wire.

Using all the knowledge and the necessary materials, you can achieve perfectly completed work when using a soldering iron.


How to solder a wire without a soldering iron - My site

How to solder without a soldering iron if you don’t have this tool at hand, or if the electricity suddenly turns off? There are several ways to connect wires using simple improvised means.

The main components of any soldering are flux and solder. If the latter can still be obtained using an unnecessary old board from any device, then in order to replace the flux with something, you have to use ingenuity and basic knowledge of chemistry.

How to replace a soldering iron

The operating principle of any soldering iron is to heat and constantly maintain the operating temperature of the main component - a metal rod called a tip.

The most common material for making tips is copper, as it has high thermal conductivity, low cost and greatly facilitates the tinning process.

From this we can conclude that for good soldering you need to use a rod or piece of copper wire. There are many “folk” methods of how to solder without a soldering iron. Here are some of the simplest and most effective.

In order to make an improvised soldering iron, you will need two pieces of wire of different diameters - short (10-15 cm, cross-section 3-4 mm) and long (30-40 cm, cross-section 0.5-1 mm). A short piece will be used as a sting.

Its tip must be flattened with a hammer and trimmed with a file to the desired shape. A long piece is wrapped around the tip in the form of a tight spiral and serves to maintain a more or less constant operating temperature.

The end of the spiral should not reach the opposite edge of the tip by 2-3 cm, since it will be necessary to hold the soldering iron being created with pliers. This device should be heated over an open fire or electric stove, and only the area on which the spiral is wound is exposed to temperature.

It will evenly distribute heat along the entire length of the thick wire and will retain it for some time. It should be noted that solder melts at different temperatures, depending on its composition. Soldering may require heating from 180 to 280°C, so thick wire will take longer to heat up, but will work for a fairly long period of time.

To save time, soldering can be done with pre-molten solder, or the solder can be trimmed into shavings with a sharp knife. This will reduce the heat required to melt the material.

If you don’t have copper wire at hand, you can use a regular nail or screwdriver to solder the materials, but they cool very quickly in the air, as a result of which you can only solder for a few seconds, after which heating is required again.

Another very simple method of soldering wires, which can be used even in the field, requires the following materials:

  • a small piece of aluminum foil;
  • rosin or any other flux (options for replacing flux will be discussed below);
  • solder (can be removed from an old non-working device);
  • matches or lighter.

First you need to connect the two wires that need to be soldered in the form of a regular twist. You should take a piece of foil, fold it in half to form a tray, into which you then need to pour flux and small solder shavings in a ratio of 1 to 4.

Then you need to lay the wires on the foil so that the twisted area falls on the backfilled mixture. You can add a little more fluxed solder on top to ensure that the wire is securely soldered. After this, you will need to wrap the foil tightly around the future soldering site and heat it with matches or a lighter. Usually 15-20 seconds are enough to solder the wires to each other.

Flux and its substitutes

Fluxes are substances or mixtures thereof that greatly facilitate the soldering process. They remove the oxide film from the surface of materials, ensure wetting of the metal with solder and improve its spreading. The most common flux is rosin.

It consists of a mixture of organic acids, which, when interacting with oxides, reduce them to metals. In addition to rosin, the following substances can be used as flux:

  • ammonia;
  • borax;
  • orthophosphoric acid;
  • acetylsalicylic acid;
  • glycerol;
  • zinc chloride.

For cases when you urgently need to solder a pair of wires together, but rosin is not available, flux can be bought at a regular pharmacy or taken from a home medicine cabinet, since acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin, is an excellent substitute for rosin.

In addition to aspirin, you can use any other acid as a flux, for example, citric acid. Regular glycerin, which is sold at the pharmacy, or thin soap shavings are also suitable, since they also contain glycerin.

After using such improvised fluxes, the surface of the soldering site should be cleaned of their excess. A baking soda solution is used for this, but some parts, especially electronics, cannot be treated this way. Therefore, in order to avoid further corrosion, re-soldering should be done at the first opportunity using specialized tools.

I also recommend reading:

How to properly tin a soldering iron: useful tips

How to assemble a soldering gun with your own hands

How to solder plastic pipes correctly

How to solder a wire without a soldering iron?

Modern technologies simplify our life: you can even use technology such as soldering wires without a soldering iron. It appeared recently, but has already become indispensable: its use is often easier than working with a real device.

Soldering is one of the types of joining metal parts, applied to unloaded products. Connects non-ferrous metals of small sizes, connection in another way, which is impossible.

Used in electrical engineering to work with low- and medium-current wires.

The soldering method involves connecting metal surfaces by applying a low-melting metal that has a high coefficient of adhesion to the surfaces being connected and good conductivity.

The tool itself - the soldering iron - determines the method of applying the connecting substance. But there are methods that explain how to solder a wire without a soldering iron in extreme conditions where there is no electricity.

Example of soldering wires without a soldering iron

Materials for soldering wires without a soldering iron

The difference between the methods is the shape and temperature of the solder applied. In this case, the shape of the material with which you can solder the wire without a soldering iron becomes decisive. This is solder, which can come in various forms:

  • the familiar composition of rosin, tin or a tin-lead mixture in ingots;
  • the same solder, rolled into thin foil, 0.5-0.7 mm wide;
  • paste, where solder is a mixture made from powders and an acid solution of various metals and rosin;


How to learn to solder with a soldering iron?

Radio amateurs sooner or later encounter soldering. This is a responsible process, which must be carried out with special care in order to achieve a truly high-quality result.

Soldering is a skill in which skill comes with experience, and here you need not only to know the basics, but also to practice making various connections. The work will be more difficult if it is carried out with thin connections.

When considering the method of “how to learn to solder with a soldering iron,” start with the simplest methods.

Preparation for soldering

To prepare for the process, buy all the necessary materials that will be useful in the future. Each individual soldering will require its own set of tools and consumables. It is not recommended to take too expensive things for training. Standard solders and ordinary tools are enough to master the basics of this business. If you look at the lessons “how to learn to solder with a soldering iron from scratch,” everything will be explained there using extremely simple and publicly available materials.

The crucial point for both amateur and professional soldering is the preparation of materials. The soldering iron tip must be cleaned of traces of previous use, and it must also have a suitable shape. If these conditions are not met, the quality of the connection will suffer greatly, not to mention the fact that it will not be possible to solder the parts at all.

Selecting a soldering iron and cleaning the tip

Cleaning the soldering area and treating areas from oxidation are important elements of preparation.

Although this is not directly related to the technology of “how to properly solder wires with rosin with a soldering iron,” without preliminary preparation it will not be possible to achieve even satisfactory results.

If we talk about more complex connections, all the accompanying processes will take longer and will be more important than the soldering itself. The main task of the preparatory process is to create conditions in which nothing unnecessary will interfere with the connection.

Minimum soldering kit

The main tool here is a soldering iron. More advanced craftsmen can use soldering stations, but this does not change the principle of the procedure. Almost any model of sufficient power is suitable for training. If the tool has the ability to adjust the temperature, this will be an additional advantage. Otherwise, you need to select a suitable soldering iron with a rated power.

Minimum kit for soldering microcircuits

The second required element of the minimum set is solder. Considering the simplest lessons on the topic “how to learn to solder with a soldering iron for dummies,” you can note instructions on choosing solder and tips on how to handle it. There are many universal options on the market that are suitable for beginners.

They are not very expensive, so you can immediately grab a few to try. Sometimes you have to comprehend everything from your own experience, and not from selection tables. Solder is used to directly connect wires. It is melted and applied to the desired area. After cooling, a strong permanent connection is formed.

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Advice for beginning radio amateurs. Secrets of soldering. | Master Vintik. Everything with your own hands!

As with other work, soldering parts has its own secrets and features. Some people think: everything is simple - turn on the soldering iron, take solder, rosin and solder as much as you like!

But if you look at everything in order, it turns out that it is not so simple. Knowing how to solder correctly is a kind of art and experience comes with time. In order to solder well and efficiently, you need to know some basic soldering secrets, which will be discussed in this article.

Of course, the first thing you need is a soldering iron . There are many different cheap soldering irons on the market today. Most of them operate from a ~ 220V network and do not control the heating temperature of the tip. On more expensive ones there is a regulator, when the soldering iron gets hot, the voltage decreases and the temperature of the soldering iron is maintained the same.

There are many circuits for regulating the temperature of a soldering iron, so you can use a simple regular soldering iron through a voltage regulation circuit.

One of the secrets of high-quality soldering is the cleanliness of the soldering iron tip and its heating . If the tip is dirty, it will be difficult for them to work - the solder will melt, but will not stick to the surface of the tip. The tip must be cleaned and tinned - covered with a thin layer of solder. They do it like this.

Warm up the soldering iron and clean its tip with a file or sandpaper. Dip the tip into the rosin and then touch it to a piece of solder. In a layer of molten solder, move the tip along a wooden stick (or along a stand) so that its entire surface is covered with a layer of solder.

Over time, the tip will become covered with a dark oxide coating, which interferes with soldering. Then tin him again.

For fine work, you need a soldering iron with a thin tip, especially if you are working with surface-mounted SMD components.

Usually a soldering iron with a power of 30 to 40 W is enough for general work. You should hold the soldering iron for about 3 - 4 seconds when soldering to avoid overheating of the radio elements.

Additional tools and accessories

Besides the soldering iron, there are a few other things that I consider necessary for good soldering. Of course, one of which is solder . Solder is a low-melting metal alloy that is used to solder wires and leads of parts.

For radio installation, tin-lead solders, which are an alloy of tin and lead, are more often used. The melting point of solder is 180 - 200 ° C. They are designated by three letters - POS (tin-lead solder), for example: POS-40, POS-60 numbers are the tin content as a percentage.

I prefer POS-60 (60/40) solder - this is the most common solder. It is composed of 60% tin and 40% lead with flux in the center of the solder.

Fluxes are antioxidant substances. They are used to ensure that parts or conductors prepared for soldering do not oxidize during soldering. Without flux, solder may not stick to the metal surface. Solder comes in a variety of diameters and you can use whichever you prefer depending on what you are soldering. Personally, I like thin things 0.

56mm for most jobs. To be able to solder in hard-to-reach places, it’s a good idea to stock up on the liquid flux mentioned above. You can prepare the flux yourself: to do this, grind rosin into powder and add it to boric alcohol or glycerin. While stirring the solution with a stick, add rosin until a thick paste is obtained.

This rosin is applied to the areas to be soldered with a thin stick or brush.

Be sure to follow safety rules when working with solder: wash your hands after soldering with warm water and soap, do not inhale the steam from the molten solder! This rule applies to all types of solder!

Remember that soldering releases harmful tin and lead fumes. Under no circumstances should you lean over the soldering area and inhale fumes. In summer, try to solder near an open window; in winter, ventilate the room more often. It would be nice to have a hood above the workplace!

Soldering iron holder

You should have a convenient holder for your soldering iron. There are stands along with cleaning the soldering iron tip.

Another tool I use often is a vacuum solder sucker. I find this to be one of the cheapest and best ways to de-solder a part.

Of course, there are other things that will help with soldering, such as a well-lit work area, snap-on tweezers, etc. I have some grooves and holes drilled into a piece of wood to allow for example a potentiometer shaft to be pressed down and held while soldering, and also for soldering wires etc.

Useful tips for good soldering

For example, I solder a part and then cut off their protruding leads. Of course, some will first cut to size and then solder the parts, and this may look neater and more convenient. But I think trimming after soldering is faster and easier. Use good sharp nippers for this so as not to damage the tracks.

If you are soldering radio components that are sensitive to overheating, use a heat sink. This could be regular tweezers, duckbills, or pliers. Hold the leg of the radio component while soldering. If you need to solder the ends of two tinned conductors, press them tightly together and apply a soldering iron with a drop of solder at the end of the tip to the point of contact. As soon as the soldering area warms up, the solder will spread and fill the gaps between the conductors.

Using a smooth movement of the soldering iron, distribute the solder evenly over the entire soldering area. The duration of soldering should not exceed 3-5 s, especially for radio components that are sensitive to overheating (transistors, microcircuits, diodes, zener diodes), after which the soldering iron is removed. The solder will quickly harden and firmly hold the parts together; at this time, you must ensure that the parts or conductors do not move for 10 s.

To speed up the cooling, you can blow, at the same time we will blow the solder fumes away from us.

Board mounting features

During the installation of structures, it is necessary to resolder conductors or replace parts. This must be taken into account during installation. Thus, the ends of parts connected according to the diagram with a common conductor should be soldered not at one point, but at some distance from each other. It is not recommended to twist the ends of the parts around the conductor.

If you are making a board with a large number of components, first think about the order so that all the radio components fit on it. Consider the size of the parts as well as the heat generated during operation. Do not place other components, especially electrolytic capacitors, close to heated radio elements. If necessary, leave space for the radiator.

Soldering wires

If you are soldering a stranded wire, first remove the required piece of insulation from it, twist the wire strands, and then tin the solder.

If you will be tinning varnished wire (PEL, PEV), clean this area with sandpaper or a pocket knife and apply a piece of rosin. Using a smooth movement of the soldering iron, distribute the solder evenly over the surface to be tinned.

Places of conductors and parts intended for soldering must be cleaned to a shine. The thoroughly stripped conductor is placed on a piece of rosin and heated well with a soldering iron. The rosin will quickly melt, and the solder on the soldering iron will spread over the conductor. By turning the conductor and slowly moving the soldering iron tip along it, achieve uniform distribution of solder over the surface of the conductor.

I could add a few more tips, but I hope that you found something useful for yourself and will soon be giving useful advice to beginners yourself.


How to solder correctly with a soldering iron: video instructions on how a soldering iron works, soldering wires

To effectively join metal surfaces, it is best to resort to temperature effects. The simplest and most common method is soldering with a soldering iron. In this case, metal materials are joined under the influence of a local increase in temperature and welding at a lower temperature.

In order to correctly connect metal parts using a soldering iron, you need to know the main points that characterize the soldering process. To do this, it will be enough to read the article, watch the video lesson and try to master the technology in practice.

How does a soldering iron work?

Soldering devices that produce heat are called soldering irons. Depending on the heating method, they can be electric, gas, hot air, induction . Most often, electrical devices are used, the power of which is selected for soldering certain materials:

  • to connect electronic components, the power of the soldering iron must be up to 40 V;
  • for parts with thin walls up to 1 mm, a power of 80-100 W is required;
  • workpieces with wall thicknesses of 2 mm or more require a device power above 100 W.

The most energy-intensive soldering irons include hammer devices , the power of which can reach up to 550 W. They can heat up to temperatures of 600C. Hammer soldering irons are used to connect massive parts.

small acoustic soldering iron The device has a low heat capacity, so it is used for fine soldering work.

In addition to the massiveness of metal products, the required power of a soldering iron is influenced by the thermal conductivity of the material being processed. For example, for copper products the device should be heated much more than for working with steel parts.

The optimal required temperature of the tip of the soldering device can be maintained either manually or automatically. Thyristor regulators are used for this.

Preparation for the soldering process

Before starting work, you need to prepare a soldering iron, materials, tools and workplace.

It is recommended to equip the work area with:

  1. A stand on which the heated device will be placed. On it you will need to place flux, “crocodile” and pieces of foam rubber, which are needed to clean the tip.

  2. A tripod on which will be placed: a holder for a soldering iron, a bath of rosin, clamps.

The set of necessary tools includes:

  • files;
  • round nose pliers;
  • wire cutters;
  • pliers;
  • tweezers;
  • sandpaper;
  • knife.

Preparing the soldering iron

Before working with a soldering iron, its tip is given a certain shape . This is done using a file. The most used shapes are cut and corner. The knife type is used for soldering connector pins or several contacts of microcircuits.

The tip of the working tool must be evenly covered with solder . It will be difficult to solder with a “dirty” tip. Therefore, a cold soldering iron with a file must be cleaned down to the copper from which the tip is made.

After this, the device should be heated and sequentially touch the rosin and then the solder. This should be done several times, ensuring that the tip is evenly covered with solder. After this, you can begin to connect metal parts by soldering.

Flux preparation

Choosing the right flux is the solution to one of the important problems of soldering. It is necessary so that the soldered surfaces do not oxidize during heating. Otherwise, the joint will turn out unstable and loose. It can be damaged very easily. Therefore, the quality of the flux determines the difficulty or ease of the soldering process, and how firmly the material being processed will be connected.

Fluxes must be selected for the material prepared for soldering:

  1. to connect wires and microcircuits . Externally, this crystalline transparent substance of a red-brown, red, yellow or orange hue is similar to amber.

  2. For soldering hard-to-reach or inconveniently located parts, rosin-alcohol flux is used. To obtain it, rosin must be crushed to the state of sand and dissolved in denatured alcohol or technical alcohol. It is applied to the workpiece with a brush and stored in a tightly closed container.

  3. For galvanized iron, flux LK-2 is used, which consists of ammonium chloride, zinc chloride, ethyl alcohol and rosin.

  4. For stainless steel, phosphoric acid is used.

  5. Active acid fluxes based on zinc chloride prepare the surface of resistant metals

  6. For soldering steel, soldering acids and aqueous solutions based on zinc chloride are considered effective fluxes.

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You should know that for soldering stainless steels, more active fluxes are required than for processing low-alloy and carbon materials. Cast iron must be soldered with high-temperature soldering, so an electric soldering iron will not cope with it.

Soldering alloys

Low-melting tin-lead alloys are used for electrical soldering and radio installation work. The most popular solders are POS-61, POS-50, POS-40, PSr-2, PSr-2.5.

It is very expensive to connect parts using pure tin, since this is a valuable material, so it is used quite rarely.

The best soldering quality is obtained after using solders that contain lead. However, this material is harmful.

To avoid holding hot solder in your hand while working, hold it with pliers or place it on a special device.

How to solder correctly with a soldering iron - tips, video

Before soldering, the surfaces of the parts to be processed are cleaned with sandpaper and degreased with gasoline or acetone. Then they need to be installed and secured in their original position. After this, you can warm up the soldering iron and start soldering in one of two main ways.

  1. When applying solder to parts from a soldering iron , you first need to melt a certain amount of solder on the device, and then bring the tip to the connecting workpieces and press it. At this time, the flux should begin to boil and evaporate. At this time, use the tip of the device to distribute the solder along the joint.

  2. When applying solder to the parts to be joined , first the workpieces themselves are heated using a soldering iron. Once they reach the required temperature, you will need to apply solder to the joint between the part and the soldering iron or onto the part. The melting solder will begin to fill the joint.

The choice of connection method depends on the nature of the work being performed. The first method is suitable for soldering small parts, and the second for connecting large products.

When working with a soldering iron, you must comply with some requirements:

  1. It is good to warm up the device and the parts to be connected. If the solder smears and does not flow, then you need to increase the heating temperature of the soldering iron.
  2. Residues of acid fluxes must be washed off after soldering. Otherwise, after some time the connection may be destroyed by corrosion. Alkaline substances can be used as a detergent.
  3. Do not add too much solder during the soldering process. The seam should be slightly concave. Excess solder is removed by braiding or suction. If the tip of the device has acquired a metallic shine, then there is enough solder. The fact that there is a lot of solder is indicated by the changed shape of the tip.

A high-quality solder should shine brightly . Burnt solder looks dull, but in some cases it is acceptable. The spongy granular structure of the junction indicates insufficient temperature and an obvious defect.

How to solder wires

At the preparatory stage, the wires should be stripped, twisted and tinned:

  • the wire is lowered into a bath of rosin;
  • a drop of solder is distributed over the copper wires using a soldering iron;
  • In order for the coating to be on all sides, during the tinning process the wire must be rotated and heated;
  • The tinned end of the wire is dipped into heated solder, the excess of which is removed.

Single-core wires are cleaned to a shine before soldering. After this, they need to be dipped in rosin, connected, heated for a few seconds and solder applied. To ensure reliable insulation, a heat-shrinkable tube is placed on the exposed wire, which should be of a larger diameter. When exposed to high temperatures, it will shrink and form wire insulation.

If, due to the presence of enamel or varnish, the conductor does not want to tin, then regular aspirin can be used. To do this, you need to place the tablet on a plate and, pressing the conductor to it, warm it up for a few seconds. The tablet should begin to melt, and the acid released will destroy the varnish.

The oxides with which they are coated can prevent tinning on old wires The same aspirin tablet will help to cope with them.

To tinning an aluminum wire, you need “Flux for soldering aluminum.” It is universal, so it can be used to join metals with a chemically resistant oxide film. At the same time, in order to avoid corrosion, do not forget to clean the products from flux residues after soldering.

You should know that it is unacceptable to twist aluminum and copper wires together . They can only be fixed through an intermediate element, which can be another metal, a terminal clamp, or separation with washers.

Proper soldering with a soldering iron requires careful preparation of parts and tools. During the process itself, the solder layer must always be protected with flux. For various materials, a device of appropriate power and the required shape of the tip are selected. If the optimal temperature conditions are maintained and the parts are connected correctly, the soldering will be reliable and will serve for a long time.


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How to learn to solder. I decided to prepare just such a small special lesson, not directly related to the main topic, for those who not only have to solder cords, sockets, plugs, but anything else in general. So, let's begin

What do we need for soldering?

Of course, a soldering iron (ideally a soldering station), tin solder, rosin, ideally solder wire, which is a long, thin tin tube wound on a reel, similar to a wire, in the cavity of which there is rosin. Those. when soldering, in this case, we do not need, as in the old fashioned way, to lower the tip of the soldering iron, now into the rosin, now into the solder, but all this happens simultaneously at one point. More on this below

You can purchase all the necessary components at your nearest radio store.

If you do not have a soldering station, which is initially ready for soldering immediately after switching on, but a regular soldering iron, then before work (especially if it is new) you need to prepare it in a special way - tin it, otherwise it will not solder. Now let’s look at what “tinning” means.

How to tin a soldering iron?

Take a file and apply it flat to the cut of the soldering iron tip. Now we sharpen in the same plane, periodically looking at the tip, until it becomes flat, smooth and shiny.

After this, we lower the heated tip into rosin and immediately into solder (into tin). There will be almost no solder sticking to the tip, so immediately after this procedure we apply the tip to a small board, preferably of natural origin (not chipboard), preferably spruce or cedar (resinous), but in principle, any will do, you’ll just have to mess around longer.

So, we repeat this procedure (rosin → solder → board) until the cut of the tip, prepared in advance with a file, made of yellow-gray heated copper, becomes silvery and shiny from the solder evenly covering it. This is what is called “tinning”, in this case a soldering iron.

This is what a tinned soldering iron tip should look like.

Now we will learn to solder wires (after tinning it) to a brass tin, also tinning it from the beginning.

We dip the soldering iron tip into rosin, then into solder, and immediately, with the plane of the tip parallel to the plane, we bring it close to our brass test subject, without allowing the rosin to evaporate, we press it, then we rub it in, we grind, in general, we tin. If the rosin has evaporated or spread, we repeat the process, and gradually, gradually our tin is covered with high-quality solder adhering to it. If the material is clean or without strong oxides, then such tinning occurs quickly.

If solder wire is used, then we lean the tip of the soldering iron against the tin, and bring the tip of the solder wire to the point of their contact, trying to touch more of the tinned part of the soldering iron, and rub it against this part so that the tin and rosin enrich the contact point.

How to tin a wire?

Now let's tinker with the wiring. Carefully remove the insulation just enough so that we have enough space for soldering, and for the location of the heat-shrink tube (or other insulator) so that later there are no short circuits (short circuits)

It is easier to tin the wire, because Usually, the metal under the insulation is clean, not oxidized. We dip it in rosin, placing the tip of a heated soldering iron on top of it and slowly pull the wire out from under the soldering iron after the rosin melts and starts smoking. This is done, as you probably understood, so that the molten rosin envelops the contact part of the wire. Now we enrich the soldering iron tip with solder, touching the tin, and bring the tip to the rosin adhering to the wiring.

If the wire is copper and clean, tinning will occur immediately.

If not, you may have to repeat the operation or use solder paste instead of rosin - a special chemical (like soldering acid, if anyone is familiar) that allows you to tin, for example, even iron.

This is what solder paste looks like.

How to solder a wire?

We have a tinned experimental brass tin and a tinned wire, which we now have to connect, seal with heated solder and then cool in order to forever maintain their electrical connection, which we do by bringing the tinned part of the wire to the tinned part of the tin.

We bring the soldering iron tip enriched with solder to the place of their contact so that the solder covers the tinned parts of the soldered parts well. This will be facilitated by the rosin involved in the process. If something doesn’t go well, dip into it. Once the parts are in the molten solder, try not to move them anymore. You can lightly blow on the solder area until the shine of the solder darkens slightly, indicating that the solder has hardened.

That's it, congratulations! You did it.

How to unsolder the wire?

You can unsolder wires and various soldered joints using the reverse method - by heating the soldering area (tinned and dipped in rosin, heated) with a soldering iron tip until the solder melts.

And probably the final touch - you can also dip a small paint brush into the solvent and wash off the remaining rosin in the soldering areas.

What can you solder?

More precisely, what metals are good to solder? In the first place, this is, of course, copper, brass, gold, silver, lead, and, of course, tin. It is worse to solder (tin) iron, steel, zinc. To tin the latter, you will have to use a special solder paste (see figure above). There are also metals that cannot be soldered at all, for example aluminum.


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Metals and their processing
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