How to solder metal with tin

Products – Tekhmashholding – group of companies, official website

How to solder metal with tin
Often there is a need to fasten steel parts without drilling and without welding. Soldering steel will help. But how to do it correctly, because there are special nuances here. A few recommendations from experts.

What kind of steel solders well?

Some grades of steel lend themselves well to soldering, while others are soldered with great difficulty and do not want to be combined with any solder or with any flux. As a rule, soft steels "for nails" are easy to solder. At the everyday level, this can also be explained by the fact that the material is dotted with microscopic craters and irregularities. But there are also electrical grades that are especially hard and elastic, and are used for shafts and precision mechanics. Here it depends on your luck. The question is that it is impossible for a home craftsman to determine the brand by eye. You can only find out how well a given part made of steel, or an alloy close to it, is soldered by experimentation.

How to make a tin connection - procedure

It all depends on how successfully the part can be tinned and how strong the contact of the tin solder with the steel is. In order for the contact to be satisfactory, if possible at all, the following must be done:

  • steel stripping, chemical stripping under solder;
  • heating the part to the melting temperature of the solder, keeping the solder on the part under flux for some time in a fluid state.

Cleaning the steel is first done mechanically, using sandpaper, to remove layers of rust and dirt. Then a composition that reacts well with iron oxides is used as a flux.

The most harmless to use, but effective in this case, is orthophosphoric acid, which can be easily purchased at a car store as a “rust cleaner.”

The required power of heating devices depends entirely on the mass of the parts.

The process of soldering two steel parts

If you need to solder two large nails, then the power of one soldering iron 100 W will not be enough. To heat up a large nail or a similar weight steel part clamped in a vice, you need to use a hair dryer. Or a gas burner.

You will also need cotton wool on a stick to supply flux to the heating zone, and a soldering iron of 50 W or more.

  • The sanded steel is heated with a burner.
  • Phosphoric acid is applied to the hot part and molten tin solder is immediately applied with a soldering iron.

As a rule, steel parts that can be soldered develop a very strong bond with tin, i.e. When the metal is coated, it is tinned.

The same is repeated with another detail. Then the two parts located together are heated, and additional solder is applied to the contact area with a soldering iron.

How strong is the soldering of steel, can it be made stronger?

The strength of such a connection will be determined by many factors:

  • strength of bond between solder and metal,
  • connection area,
  • direction of the load in relation to the welded planes.

But in any case, the strength of tin soldering cannot be compared with what is commonly understood as the strength characteristic of steel or “metal welding”.

You can strengthen it by using another solder - special strong and more refractory compounds containing silver, zinc, copper, etc.

Another direction for increasing strength is to cover with solder not only the plane, but also the sidewalls of the part - covering the part with solder. Then the pull-off resistance under multidirectional loads will be greater.

Extra strong soldering, special solders

To use compounds that provide a strong connection with steel, with its own melting point of about 800 - 900 degrees, you need to use a graphite crucible.

The work should only be carried out by specialists in metal smelting. It is necessary to know the basics of metal melting, the procedure for handling melts and safety precautions. In general, soldering of steel with heavy-duty solders is performed at specialized enterprises.

Possible solder composition:

  • 55% zinc, 45% copper, some silicon to increase fluidity.

The composition is melted under a layer of coal in a graphite crucible. Steel parts to be soldered are heated with a gas burner. Phosphoric acid is used as a flux. The melt is fed to the parts. As a rule, tinning and soldering are carried out during one heating of both parts and solder. But such soldering of steel is more complex than simple welding.

But in everyday life, where you need to “patch”, “attach”, “join” two steel parts, you need to use solders with a low melting point, such as lead-tin.

Source: https://pellete.ru/stal/kak-payat-stalnuyu-provoloku-olovom.html

Soldering steel with tin at home

How to solder metal with tin

How to solder stainless steel to stainless steel using tin and rosin? This is a very labor-intensive process, for which you need to know all the subtleties and tricks of soldering work. If you follow the instructions discussed in this article, you will be able to make a reliable connection of stainless steel products.

Process Features

For work with food containers, you can only use lead-free solders (for example, tin and alloys based on it). Soldering stainless steel products is a complex process that requires some knowledge and skills to perform.

The best solder for working with the mentioned metal is tin. Thanks to this material, it will be possible to make a high-quality connection. However, tin is more often used for soldering when small parts need to be attached or small cracks need to be repaired.

Solder is sold in coils or in the form of bars 2–4 mm thick.

In industry, soldering using tin is rarely used. And at home, to repair household items (for example, a stainless steel kettle), they use a soldering iron or a gas burner, as well as the mentioned solder. In this case, the main thing is to prepare the necessary consumables (consumables). But we should not forget: during soldering work, hot objects and toxic substances will be used, so you must follow safety rules.

Why do you need flux?

This substance will ensure uniform spreading of solder over the surface of the soldering zone and create conditions for high-quality adhesion of the material to the metal coating. Fluxes are currently classified according to the degree of impact on the following varieties:

  1. Inactive (neutral), which do not contain acids. In addition, they almost do not conduct electricity.
  2. Active (acid) fluxes.
  3. Protective (anti-corrosion), the purpose of which is to protect the soldering zone of the finished joint from corrosion and destruction.

If the question arises why flux is needed for soldering, then the answer can be this: this substance is necessary to comply with the technology, since it will definitely be needed during soldering work. However, the method of application of the composition depends on its initial state:

  • if the flux is in a solid state, the soldering iron tip must first be dipped into the reagent, and then grab a little solder with it;
  • the finished liquid mixture will have to be applied to the soldering area using a brush;
  • The surface should be treated with a paste-like substance using a regular stick.

In addition, flux is sometimes sold in special tubes.

Necessary equipment

Before you begin repairing the product, you need to prepare the following tools and materials:

  • A simple soldering iron (minimum power - 100 W) or a propane torch.
  • Organic solvent (for example, white spirit or acetone).
  • Tin solder.
  • Rosin or phosphoric acid.
  • Steel rope.
  • Metal brush, file or sandpaper.
  • Clean cloth for wiping.

However, before soldering stainless steel to stainless steel and, accordingly, repairing the part, you should purchase protective equipment: polyurethane gloves, goggles and a respirator.

In addition, to connect large products, a more powerful soldering iron may be required, the tip of which must be fireproof: this will not only increase the service life, but also improve the technical parameters of the tool.

Regarding solder, it should also be said that tin bars are suitable for soldering food utensils or other containers, since they contain fewer harmful impurities.

How to solder with a soldering iron with rosin and tin: technology

When the materials and tools are prepared, you can begin this operation. To solder stainless steel at home, you need to follow these step-by-step instructions:

  1. Use sandpaper or a brush to remove oxide film and other contaminants from the metal surface.
  2. Degrease the part to be repaired with solvent.
  3. Apply flux - rosin or soldering acid - to the surface to be treated. This step does not need to be performed if a combined tin solder is used, which already contains the mentioned substance. Flux must be applied immediately before soldering, since a film forms on the surface of the stainless steel after about 10 seconds.
  4. Heat the soldering area on which the flux is applied with a tinned soldering iron tip.
  5. Add solder if necessary, but most likely you won’t be able to cover the entire surface with tin the first time.
  6. Reapply flux and heat it again with a soldering iron. Repeat this process until the surface of the metal is covered with an even layer of tin. The main thing is that the solder melts not from the tip of the soldering iron, but from the heat stored in the part. In addition, to make the soldering of stainless steel with tin better, you need to add rosin to the joints, which will remove oxides from the solder.
  7. Wash the product from flux residues. To complete this step, you need to prepare a solution consisting of water and detergent and buy metal scrapers. The remains of rosin, according to the masters, can be easily cleaned with cold water, since the substance becomes brittle in it.

Source: https://rem-serv.com/payka-stali-olovom-v-domashnih-usloviyah/

How to solder steel parts

How to solder metal with tin

Often there is a need to fasten steel parts without drilling and without welding. Soldering steel will help. But how to do it correctly, because there are special nuances here. A few recommendations from experts.

How to solder steel with tin - Metalworker's Guide

Soldering stainless steel is a rather labor-intensive procedure, but it will not cause any special problems if you know all the features of its implementation. With significantly less labor, it is possible to solder stainless steel alloys that contain no more than 25% chromium and nickel. Moreover, soldering stainless steel with such a chemical composition allows you to obtain reliable connections of products from dissimilar metals, excluding alloys with magnesium and aluminum.

Solder repaired bicycle frame

Soldering stainless steel, which contains a significant amount of nickel, can be difficult. This is due to the fact that in such alloys, when heated to a temperature of 500–700°, carbide compounds appear. The intensity of the formation of such connections depends on the duration of heating, so soldering should be performed as quickly as possible.

To minimize the risk of the formation of carbide compounds in the stainless steel structure during soldering, titanium is added to the alloy composition, and after the joint is formed, the product is subjected to heat treatment.

You should be very careful when soldering cold-worked stainless steels, the surface of which may become cracked under the influence of heated solder. To avoid such consequences, it is necessary to eliminate the load on the parts being connected during the soldering process.

In addition, it is possible to pre-anneal the products being joined.

Use a gas torch for annealing.

The choice of solder with which to solder stainless steel is influenced by both the chemical composition of the alloy and the process conditions. So, if this process is carried out at high ambient humidity, then silver alloys should be used, which contain a small amount of nickel. Soldering in an oven, as well as in a relatively dry atmosphere, is performed using chromium-nickel and silver-manganese solders.

The most common type of flux used when soldering stainless steel is borax, applied to the future joint in the form of a paste or powder.

Melting borax on the surface of the parts being joined contributes to uniform and most accurate heating of the area of ​​the future seam to the required temperature - 850°.

Only after the required heating temperature has been reached, which can be determined by the color change of the future joint to light red, is solder introduced into the joint between the parts.

The flux is applied in an even layer over the entire surface, which must first be cleaned.

After soldering is completed, flux residues are present at the joint, which are removed by washing with water or sandblasting. To perform this procedure, you cannot use nitric or hydrochloric acids, which, although they effectively clean the flux remaining on the surface of the parts, have a negative effect on both the base metal and the used solder.

How to do soldering at home

Problems such as joining stainless steel parts using soldering and soldering stainless steel to copper are often encountered at home.

Products made of stainless steel have been actively used in everyday life for many years, therefore, when for some reason they become unusable, any home craftsman has a natural desire to repair them himself.

It should be said right away that soldering stainless steel parts is not so difficult, the main thing is to strictly adhere to the technology, as well as stock up on the appropriate tools and consumables.

Master the soldering technique on simple connections, and then try working with more critical parts

Before you start soldering stainless steel, it is very advisable not only to study the theoretical material on this issue, but also to become more familiar with the rules for its implementation using training videos.

To solder stainless steel products, you will need the following tools and consumables:

  • a soldering iron powered by electricity with a power of at least 100 W;
  • special soldering acid, which will be used as a flux;
  • file or sandpaper;
  • solder, specially designed for joining steel parts, based on tin and lead;
  • cable made of steel;
  • metal tube.

Soldering materials and tools

When choosing a soldering iron for working with stainless steel, you should opt for a tool with a power of 100 W. Using a more powerful device to perform such work is simply not practical.

The process of soldering stainless steel parts is carried out according to the following algorithm.

  1. First of all, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the area of ​​the future connection, for which sandpaper or a file is used.
  2. After preparing the surfaces of the parts to be joined, it is necessary to apply flux to them, which, as mentioned above, uses soldering acid. The main task of the flux is to ensure high-quality tinning of the parts to be joined.
  3. After the surfaces of the parts to be joined are treated with flux, it is necessary to tinning them, which consists of applying a thin layer of solder consisting of tin and lead to them. If tinning was not successful the first time, then it is necessary to repeat this procedure, preheating the parts to be joined.
  4. Even after heating the products and re-processing them with flux, tinning may not be successful - the solder will simply roll off the surface of the parts, rather than lie on them as a thin film. In this case, you need to use a brush with metal wires, which can be easily made from a tube and steel cable. Before using such a brush, it is also necessary to apply flux (soldering acid) to the surface of the parts and only then, heating the future joint with a soldering iron, clean it with a metal brush. This simple technique allows you to effectively clean the surface of a stainless steel from an oxide film, which, as a rule, is the main obstacle to high-quality tinning.
  5. Once a thin layer of tin has been applied to the products to be joined, you can begin to solder them. This procedure is performed using a soldering iron and solder, which is used to fill the joint between the parts.

Solder Types

Stainless steel products can be soldered with both soft solders made on the basis of tin and lead, and hard types of filler material, which includes more refractory metals.

Soft solder, due to the fact that it is based on tin, is a low-melting material characterized by high ductility and fluidity in the molten state. What is especially important when soldering stainless steel products is that it has good deoxidizing ability.

Properties of soft solders

More reliable connections both in production and at home can be achieved by soldering using hard solders. The metals from which they are made melt at a higher temperature than tin, which makes it possible to obtain reliable and durable connections with their help. Very often, materials of this type are produced on the basis of technical silver, which can contain up to 30% in their composition.

Main brands of silver solders

One of the popular types of hard solder is the HTS-528 material, which is successfully used for soldering not only stainless steel, but also copper, brass, bronze, nickel and other metals. Conveniently, it is produced in the form of a rod, the surface of which is already covered with a layer of flux. When working with such solder in a production environment or at home, you should keep in mind that its melting point is 760°.

  Is it possible to harden steel 3

HTS-528 solder is a rod coated with red flux. In addition to stainless steel, it is suitable for cast iron and non-ferrous metals

Flux preparation

When soldering stainless steel, you should be very careful about choosing a ready-made flux or the recipe for making it yourself. The classic flux composition, which can be prepared at home, includes the following components:

  • borax (70%);
  • boric acid (20%);
  • calcium fluoride (10%).

For soldering small-sized products, you can prepare a flux that will consist only of borax and boric acid mixed in equal proportions. Having mixed the components of the flux in dry form, it must be diluted with water and treated with the resulting solution at the site of the future connection.

Useful tips

To perform stainless steel soldering efficiently, you should use the recommendations of experienced specialists.

  • The power of a soldering iron, which must effectively heat the metal being joined, is in the range of 60–100 W, but it is better to opt for a 100-watt device. To solder large parts, such as stainless steel pipes, you will need a gas torch rather than an electric soldering iron.
  • When choosing an electric soldering iron, it is better to opt for models equipped with tips that do not burn.
  • The most economical and universal type of solder, which makes it possible to obtain high-quality connections for stainless steel products, is tin-lead rods. If you are soldering dishes that will come into contact with food or liquids, it is better to use pure tin as solder, which does not contain harmful impurities.
  • The room in which soldering work is carried out must be well ventilated.
  • When performing soldering, be sure to use personal protective equipment so as not to harm your health.

What else you should know about soldering stainless steel

In cases where special requirements are imposed on soldered joints of stainless steel products, special grades of solders can be used, which include materials based on nickel and phosphorus, as well as nickel, chromium and manganese.

Solders of the second group are used, in particular, in cases where soldering is performed in a protective gas environment consisting of a mixture of argon and boron trifluoride.

When performing soldering using this technology, pure copper can be used as solder, which wets the metal well and forms a reliable connection.

Nickel-based solders make it possible to obtain joints with high strength. However, such materials also have disadvantages, which include low ductility.

That is why such filler material is not used to connect stainless steel structural elements that will be subject to shock and vibration loads during their operation. In addition, a soldered seam made of such a material is very critical to low temperatures.

Soldering with nickel group solders, which melt at temperatures exceeding 1000°, can be performed in dry hydrogen, argon and vacuum.

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Thus, soldering stainless steel products (large pipes operated under pressure, dishes, pieces of furniture or interior design) has its own nuances, which must be taken into account when choosing both soldering modes and consumables. There are many reference books, guided by which, you can optimally select all the necessary materials and obtain a high-quality, reliable and beautiful soldered connection.

Source: https://ssk2121.com/kak-payat-stal-olovom/

Source: https://homius.ru/kak-pajat-med.html

How to tin metal correctly

How to tin metal correctly

How to tin metal correctly

How to tin metal correctly

> Electrician's tips > How to properly solder with a soldering iron with acid

Most often, for soldering printed circuit boards in radio engineering products and household appliances, they prefer to use ordinary pine resin rosin, but it can be replaced with other components. When molten, it promotes the spreading of tin solder along the copper traces of the board.

This allows you to reliably solder the legs of radio components and the ends of connecting wires. Rosin allows you to effectively solder copper, tin and silver products.

In order to solder galvanized and stainless iron, radiators, buckets, pans, various alloys, brass and other metals, you can use acid solutions.

Bottle with acid solution for soldering metals

Acidic solutions

How to solder tin to steel?

How to solder tin to steel?

How to solder tin to steel?

Soldering is a process that creates a connection between metal parts due to a chemical reaction that occurs between the metal and molten solder. In this case, there is no mechanical damage to the crystalline structure of the material of the connected parts.

What can you solder to what?

Learn to solder

Learn to solder

Learn to solder

Solder is an alloy of tin and lead. Soldering is the process of creating an electrical or mechanical connection between 2 metal parts using a chemical reaction that occurs between molten solder and the metal without damaging the parts being soldered.

Soldering process

Soldering iron with tin solder

Soldering iron with tin solder

Soldering iron with tin solder

The soldering process is the chemical joining of two metals using solder. Moreover, the crystal structure of the metal does not change. That is, the connected parts remain with their technical characteristics.

The connection itself is quite reliable, but much will depend on the type of solder and soldering technology. In addition, it should be noted that not all metals can be joined by this process. Basic metals, especially steel (iron), can be soldered together.

Three technologies

How to solder steel with tin?

How to solder steel with tin?

How to solder steel with tin?

Soldering stainless steel is a rather labor-intensive procedure, but it will not cause any special problems if you know all the features of its implementation.

With significantly less labor, it is possible to solder stainless steel alloys that contain no more than 25% chromium and nickel.

Moreover, soldering stainless steel with such a chemical composition allows you to obtain reliable connections of products from dissimilar metals, excluding alloys with magnesium and aluminum.

Solder repaired bicycle frame

Soldering stainless steel, which contains a significant amount of nickel, can be difficult. This is due to the fact that in such alloys, when heated to a temperature of 500–700°, carbide compounds appear. The intensity of the formation of such connections depends on the duration of heating, so soldering should be performed as quickly as possible.

To minimize the risk of the formation of carbide compounds in the stainless steel structure during soldering, titanium is added to the alloy composition, and after the joint is formed, the product is subjected to heat treatment.

You should be very careful when soldering cold-worked stainless steels, the surface of which may become cracked under the influence of heated solder. To avoid such consequences, it is necessary to eliminate the load on the parts being connected during the soldering process.

In addition, it is possible to pre-anneal the products being joined.

Use a gas torch for annealing.

The choice of solder with which to solder stainless steel is influenced by both the chemical composition of the alloy and the process conditions.

So, if this process is carried out at high ambient humidity, then silver alloys should be used, which contain a small amount of nickel.

Soldering in an oven, as well as in a relatively dry atmosphere, is performed using chromium-nickel and silver-manganese solders.

The most common type of flux used when soldering stainless steel is borax, applied to the future joint in the form of a paste or powder.

Melting borax on the surface of the parts being joined contributes to uniform and most accurate heating of the area of ​​the future seam to the required temperature - 850°.

Only after the required heating temperature has been reached, which can be determined by the color change of the future joint to light red, is solder introduced into the joint between the parts.

The flux is applied in an even layer over the entire surface, which must first be cleaned.

After soldering is completed, flux residues are present at the joint, which are removed by washing with water or sandblasting. To perform this procedure, you cannot use nitric or hydrochloric acids, which, although they effectively clean the flux remaining on the surface of the parts, have a negative effect on both the base metal and the used solder.

How to do soldering at home

Products – Tekhmashholding – group of companies, official website

How to solder metal with tin

    How to solder steel parts

    Often there is a need to fasten steel parts without drilling and without welding. Soldering steel will help. But how to do it correctly, because there are special nuances here. A few recommendations from experts.

    What kind of steel solders well?

    Some grades of steel lend themselves well to soldering, while others are soldered with great difficulty and do not want to be combined with any solder or with any flux. As a rule, soft steels "for nails" are easy to solder. At the everyday level, this can also be explained by the fact that the material is dotted with microscopic craters and irregularities. But there are also electrical grades that are especially hard and elastic, and are used for shafts and precision mechanics. Here it depends on your luck. The question is that it is impossible for a home craftsman to determine the brand by eye. You can only find out how well a given part made of steel, or an alloy close to it, is soldered by experimentation.

    How to make a tin connection - procedure

    It all depends on how successfully the part can be tinned and how strong the contact of the tin solder with the steel is. In order for the contact to be satisfactory, if possible at all, the following must be done:

    • steel stripping, chemical stripping under solder;
    • heating the part to the melting temperature of the solder, keeping the solder on the part under flux for some time in a fluid state.

    Cleaning the steel is first done mechanically, using sandpaper, to remove layers of rust and dirt. Then a composition that reacts well with iron oxides is used as a flux.

    The most harmless to use, but effective in this case, is orthophosphoric acid, which can be easily purchased at a car store as a “rust cleaner.”

    The required power of heating devices depends entirely on the mass of the parts.

    The process of soldering two steel parts

    If you need to solder two large nails, then the power of one soldering iron 100 W will not be enough. To heat up a large nail or a similar weight steel part clamped in a vice, you need to use a hair dryer. Or a gas burner.

    You will also need cotton wool on a stick to supply flux to the heating zone, and a soldering iron of 50 W or more.

    • The sanded steel is heated with a burner.
    • Phosphoric acid is applied to the hot part and molten tin solder is immediately applied with a soldering iron.

    As a rule, steel parts that can be soldered develop a very strong bond with tin, i.e. When the metal is coated, it is tinned.

    The same is repeated with another detail. Then the two parts located together are heated, and additional solder is applied to the contact area with a soldering iron.

    How strong is the soldering of steel, can it be made stronger?

    The strength of such a connection will be determined by many factors:

    • strength of bond between solder and metal,
    • connection area,
    • direction of the load in relation to the welded planes.

    But in any case, the strength of tin soldering cannot be compared with what is commonly understood as the strength characteristic of steel or “metal welding”.

    You can strengthen it by using another solder - special strong and more refractory compounds containing silver, zinc, copper, etc.

    Another direction for increasing strength is to cover with solder not only the plane, but also the sidewalls of the part - covering the part with solder. Then the pull-off resistance under multidirectional loads will be greater.

    Extra strong soldering, special solders

    To use compounds that provide a strong connection with steel, with its own melting point of about 800 - 900 degrees, you need to use a graphite crucible.

    The work should only be carried out by specialists in metal smelting. It is necessary to know the basics of metal melting, the procedure for handling melts and safety precautions. In general, soldering of steel with heavy-duty solders is performed at specialized enterprises.

    Possible solder composition:

    • 55% zinc, 45% copper, some silicon to increase fluidity.

    The composition is melted under a layer of coal in a graphite crucible. Steel parts to be soldered are heated with a gas burner. Phosphoric acid is used as a flux. The melt is fed to the parts. As a rule, tinning and soldering are carried out during one heating of both parts and solder. But such soldering of steel is more complex than simple welding.

    But in everyday life, where you need to “patch”, “attach”, “join” two steel parts, you need to use solders with a low melting point, such as lead-tin.

    Source: https://pellete.ru/stal/kak-payat-stalnuyu-provoloku-olovom.html

    Soldering steel with tin at home

    How to solder metal with tin

    How to solder stainless steel to stainless steel using tin and rosin? This is a very labor-intensive process, for which you need to know all the subtleties and tricks of soldering work. If you follow the instructions discussed in this article, you will be able to make a reliable connection of stainless steel products.

    Process Features

    For work with food containers, you can only use lead-free solders (for example, tin and alloys based on it). Soldering stainless steel products is a complex process that requires some knowledge and skills to perform.

    The best solder for working with the mentioned metal is tin. Thanks to this material, it will be possible to make a high-quality connection. However, tin is more often used for soldering when small parts need to be attached or small cracks need to be repaired.

    Solder is sold in coils or in the form of bars 2–4 mm thick.

    In industry, soldering using tin is rarely used. And at home, to repair household items (for example, a stainless steel kettle), they use a soldering iron or a gas burner, as well as the mentioned solder. In this case, the main thing is to prepare the necessary consumables (consumables). But we should not forget: during soldering work, hot objects and toxic substances will be used, so you must follow safety rules.

    Why do you need flux?

    This substance will ensure uniform spreading of solder over the surface of the soldering zone and create conditions for high-quality adhesion of the material to the metal coating. Fluxes are currently classified according to the degree of impact on the following varieties:

    1. Inactive (neutral), which do not contain acids. In addition, they almost do not conduct electricity.
    2. Active (acid) fluxes.
    3. Protective (anti-corrosion), the purpose of which is to protect the soldering zone of the finished joint from corrosion and destruction.

    If the question arises why flux is needed for soldering, then the answer can be this: this substance is necessary to comply with the technology, since it will definitely be needed during soldering work. However, the method of application of the composition depends on its initial state:

    • if the flux is in a solid state, the soldering iron tip must first be dipped into the reagent, and then grab a little solder with it;
    • the finished liquid mixture will have to be applied to the soldering area using a brush;
    • The surface should be treated with a paste-like substance using a regular stick.

    In addition, flux is sometimes sold in special tubes.

    Necessary equipment

    Before you begin repairing the product, you need to prepare the following tools and materials:

    • A simple soldering iron (minimum power - 100 W) or a propane torch.
    • Organic solvent (for example, white spirit or acetone).
    • Tin solder.
    • Rosin or phosphoric acid.
    • Steel rope.
    • Metal brush, file or sandpaper.
    • Clean cloth for wiping.

    However, before soldering stainless steel to stainless steel and, accordingly, repairing the part, you should purchase protective equipment: polyurethane gloves, goggles and a respirator.

    In addition, to connect large products, a more powerful soldering iron may be required, the tip of which must be fireproof: this will not only increase the service life, but also improve the technical parameters of the tool.

    Regarding solder, it should also be said that tin bars are suitable for soldering food utensils or other containers, since they contain fewer harmful impurities.

    How to solder with a soldering iron with rosin and tin: technology

    When the materials and tools are prepared, you can begin this operation. To solder stainless steel at home, you need to follow these step-by-step instructions:

    1. Use sandpaper or a brush to remove oxide film and other contaminants from the metal surface.
    2. Degrease the part to be repaired with solvent.
    3. Apply flux - rosin or soldering acid - to the surface to be treated. This step does not need to be performed if a combined tin solder is used, which already contains the mentioned substance. Flux must be applied immediately before soldering, since a film forms on the surface of the stainless steel after about 10 seconds.
    4. Heat the soldering area on which the flux is applied with a tinned soldering iron tip.
    5. Add solder if necessary, but most likely you won’t be able to cover the entire surface with tin the first time.
    6. Reapply flux and heat it again with a soldering iron. Repeat this process until the surface of the metal is covered with an even layer of tin. The main thing is that the solder melts not from the tip of the soldering iron, but from the heat stored in the part. In addition, to make the soldering of stainless steel with tin better, you need to add rosin to the joints, which will remove oxides from the solder.
    7. Wash the product from flux residues. To complete this step, you need to prepare a solution consisting of water and detergent and buy metal scrapers. The remains of rosin, according to the masters, can be easily cleaned with cold water, since the substance becomes brittle in it.

    Source: https://rem-serv.com/payka-stali-olovom-v-domashnih-usloviyah/

    How to solder steel parts

    How to solder metal with tin

    Often there is a need to fasten steel parts without drilling and without welding. Soldering steel will help. But how to do it correctly, because there are special nuances here. A few recommendations from experts.

    How to solder steel with tin - Metalworker's Guide

    Soldering stainless steel is a rather labor-intensive procedure, but it will not cause any special problems if you know all the features of its implementation. With significantly less labor, it is possible to solder stainless steel alloys that contain no more than 25% chromium and nickel. Moreover, soldering stainless steel with such a chemical composition allows you to obtain reliable connections of products from dissimilar metals, excluding alloys with magnesium and aluminum.

    Solder repaired bicycle frame

    Soldering stainless steel, which contains a significant amount of nickel, can be difficult. This is due to the fact that in such alloys, when heated to a temperature of 500–700°, carbide compounds appear. The intensity of the formation of such connections depends on the duration of heating, so soldering should be performed as quickly as possible.

    To minimize the risk of the formation of carbide compounds in the stainless steel structure during soldering, titanium is added to the alloy composition, and after the joint is formed, the product is subjected to heat treatment.

    You should be very careful when soldering cold-worked stainless steels, the surface of which may become cracked under the influence of heated solder. To avoid such consequences, it is necessary to eliminate the load on the parts being connected during the soldering process.

    In addition, it is possible to pre-anneal the products being joined.

    Use a gas torch for annealing.

    The choice of solder with which to solder stainless steel is influenced by both the chemical composition of the alloy and the process conditions. So, if this process is carried out at high ambient humidity, then silver alloys should be used, which contain a small amount of nickel. Soldering in an oven, as well as in a relatively dry atmosphere, is performed using chromium-nickel and silver-manganese solders.

    The most common type of flux used when soldering stainless steel is borax, applied to the future joint in the form of a paste or powder.

    Melting borax on the surface of the parts being joined contributes to uniform and most accurate heating of the area of ​​the future seam to the required temperature - 850°.

    Only after the required heating temperature has been reached, which can be determined by the color change of the future joint to light red, is solder introduced into the joint between the parts.

    The flux is applied in an even layer over the entire surface, which must first be cleaned.

    After soldering is completed, flux residues are present at the joint, which are removed by washing with water or sandblasting. To perform this procedure, you cannot use nitric or hydrochloric acids, which, although they effectively clean the flux remaining on the surface of the parts, have a negative effect on both the base metal and the used solder.

    How to do soldering at home

    Problems such as joining stainless steel parts using soldering and soldering stainless steel to copper are often encountered at home.

    Products made of stainless steel have been actively used in everyday life for many years, therefore, when for some reason they become unusable, any home craftsman has a natural desire to repair them himself.

    It should be said right away that soldering stainless steel parts is not so difficult, the main thing is to strictly adhere to the technology, as well as stock up on the appropriate tools and consumables.

    Master the soldering technique on simple connections, and then try working with more critical parts

    Before you start soldering stainless steel, it is very advisable not only to study the theoretical material on this issue, but also to become more familiar with the rules for its implementation using training videos.

    To solder stainless steel products, you will need the following tools and consumables:

    • a soldering iron powered by electricity with a power of at least 100 W;
    • special soldering acid, which will be used as a flux;
    • file or sandpaper;
    • solder, specially designed for joining steel parts, based on tin and lead;
    • cable made of steel;
    • metal tube.

    Soldering materials and tools

    When choosing a soldering iron for working with stainless steel, you should opt for a tool with a power of 100 W. Using a more powerful device to perform such work is simply not practical.

    The process of soldering stainless steel parts is carried out according to the following algorithm.

    1. First of all, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the area of ​​the future connection, for which sandpaper or a file is used.
    2. After preparing the surfaces of the parts to be joined, it is necessary to apply flux to them, which, as mentioned above, uses soldering acid. The main task of the flux is to ensure high-quality tinning of the parts to be joined.
    3. After the surfaces of the parts to be joined are treated with flux, it is necessary to tinning them, which consists of applying a thin layer of solder consisting of tin and lead to them. If tinning was not successful the first time, then it is necessary to repeat this procedure, preheating the parts to be joined.
    4. Even after heating the products and re-processing them with flux, tinning may not be successful - the solder will simply roll off the surface of the parts, rather than lie on them as a thin film. In this case, you need to use a brush with metal wires, which can be easily made from a tube and steel cable. Before using such a brush, it is also necessary to apply flux (soldering acid) to the surface of the parts and only then, heating the future joint with a soldering iron, clean it with a metal brush. This simple technique allows you to effectively clean the surface of a stainless steel from an oxide film, which, as a rule, is the main obstacle to high-quality tinning.
    5. Once a thin layer of tin has been applied to the products to be joined, you can begin to solder them. This procedure is performed using a soldering iron and solder, which is used to fill the joint between the parts.

    Solder Types

    Stainless steel products can be soldered with both soft solders made on the basis of tin and lead, and hard types of filler material, which includes more refractory metals.

    Soft solder, due to the fact that it is based on tin, is a low-melting material characterized by high ductility and fluidity in the molten state. What is especially important when soldering stainless steel products is that it has good deoxidizing ability.

    Properties of soft solders

    More reliable connections both in production and at home can be achieved by soldering using hard solders. The metals from which they are made melt at a higher temperature than tin, which makes it possible to obtain reliable and durable connections with their help. Very often, materials of this type are produced on the basis of technical silver, which can contain up to 30% in their composition.

    Main brands of silver solders

    One of the popular types of hard solder is the HTS-528 material, which is successfully used for soldering not only stainless steel, but also copper, brass, bronze, nickel and other metals. Conveniently, it is produced in the form of a rod, the surface of which is already covered with a layer of flux. When working with such solder in a production environment or at home, you should keep in mind that its melting point is 760°.

      Is it possible to harden steel 3

    HTS-528 solder is a rod coated with red flux. In addition to stainless steel, it is suitable for cast iron and non-ferrous metals

    Flux preparation

    When soldering stainless steel, you should be very careful about choosing a ready-made flux or the recipe for making it yourself. The classic flux composition, which can be prepared at home, includes the following components:

    • borax (70%);
    • boric acid (20%);
    • calcium fluoride (10%).

    For soldering small-sized products, you can prepare a flux that will consist only of borax and boric acid mixed in equal proportions. Having mixed the components of the flux in dry form, it must be diluted with water and treated with the resulting solution at the site of the future connection.

    Useful tips

    To perform stainless steel soldering efficiently, you should use the recommendations of experienced specialists.

    • The power of a soldering iron, which must effectively heat the metal being joined, is in the range of 60–100 W, but it is better to opt for a 100-watt device. To solder large parts, such as stainless steel pipes, you will need a gas torch rather than an electric soldering iron.
    • When choosing an electric soldering iron, it is better to opt for models equipped with tips that do not burn.
    • The most economical and universal type of solder, which makes it possible to obtain high-quality connections for stainless steel products, is tin-lead rods. If you are soldering dishes that will come into contact with food or liquids, it is better to use pure tin as solder, which does not contain harmful impurities.
    • The room in which soldering work is carried out must be well ventilated.
    • When performing soldering, be sure to use personal protective equipment so as not to harm your health.

    What else you should know about soldering stainless steel

    In cases where special requirements are imposed on soldered joints of stainless steel products, special grades of solders can be used, which include materials based on nickel and phosphorus, as well as nickel, chromium and manganese.

    Solders of the second group are used, in particular, in cases where soldering is performed in a protective gas environment consisting of a mixture of argon and boron trifluoride.

    When performing soldering using this technology, pure copper can be used as solder, which wets the metal well and forms a reliable connection.

    Nickel-based solders make it possible to obtain joints with high strength. However, such materials also have disadvantages, which include low ductility.

    That is why such filler material is not used to connect stainless steel structural elements that will be subject to shock and vibration loads during their operation. In addition, a soldered seam made of such a material is very critical to low temperatures.

    Soldering with nickel group solders, which melt at temperatures exceeding 1000°, can be performed in dry hydrogen, argon and vacuum.

    Thus, soldering stainless steel products (large pipes operated under pressure, dishes, pieces of furniture or interior design) has its own nuances, which must be taken into account when choosing both soldering modes and consumables. There are many reference books, guided by which, you can optimally select all the necessary materials and obtain a high-quality, reliable and beautiful soldered connection.

    Source: https://ssk2121.com/kak-payat-stal-olovom/

    Source: https://homius.ru/kak-pajat-med.html

    How to tin metal correctly

    How to tin metal correctly

    > Electrician's tips > How to properly solder with a soldering iron with acid

    Most often, for soldering printed circuit boards in radio engineering products and household appliances, they prefer to use ordinary pine resin rosin, but it can be replaced with other components. When molten, it promotes the spreading of tin solder along the copper traces of the board.

    This allows you to reliably solder the legs of radio components and the ends of connecting wires. Rosin allows you to effectively solder copper, tin and silver products.

    In order to solder galvanized and stainless iron, radiators, buckets, pans, various alloys, brass and other metals, you can use acid solutions.

    Bottle with acid solution for soldering metals

    Acidic solutions

    Acidic solutions

    It is important to choose the right acid solution. It depends on the type of metal from which the parts are made. This could be an aluminum or copper radiator, a kettle that needs to be soldered, copper, brass or roofing iron:

    1. Galvanized iron. Places where it is necessary to solder are treated with an acid solution, correctly called (zinc chlorate). This composition can be bought in specialized stores; the easiest way is to prepare it yourself.

    To do this, it is enough to throw pieces of zinc into 100 ml of hydrochloric acid, which can be removed from the body of AA batteries. After the chemical reaction is completed, the zinc will dissolve, releasing a large amount of hydrogen.

    It is correct to carry out the process in a well-ventilated area, in the absence of open flame.

    After the solution has cooled and settled, the upper transparent yellow part is poured into a clean glass container. The sediment is poured into the ground; it is not recommended to drain into sewers with metal pipes. Acid can damage pipes and seals. The remaining part of the solution is ready for processing galvanized iron roofing.

    How to solder sheets of roofing iron

    1. Stainless steel. Before soldering, the surface is cleaned and treated with phosphoric acid, which contains the following elements:
    • up to 50% zinc chloride;
    • ammonia up to 0.5%;
    • dissolves in water with a pH concentration of 2.9%.

    Phosphoric acid is used for soldering as a flux and for cleaning metal from rust.

    The solution can be transparent, light yellow or colorless; when heated to 213ºC, it is converted into H4P2O7 (pyrophosphoric acid), which degreases the surface of metals. The composition dissolves the oxide film on various metals and alloys:

    • stainless steel;
    • brass;
    • Nickel alloys;
    • copper alloys;
    • alloys of carbon metals and low-alloy steel.

    Application of acids

    Application of acids

    To solder metal products (pipes, radiators, buckets, pans), the surface of the elements is thoroughly cleaned, using a file or sandpaper. An acid solution is applied to the cleaned areas with a brush, after which solder is melted to a liquid state on the surface with a soldering iron.

    How to solder correctly with a soldering iron

    Liquid solder tins the cleaned areas; when boiling, the acid flux comes to the surface. When the solder hardens, the soldered elements are securely and hermetically fixed.

    You can solder with a powerful soldering iron or an open flame from a gas burner. Various heat sources can be used depending on the surface area to be heated and the melting point of the solder.

    Remains of acid flux are washed off with water, preferably a soapy, alkaline solution, this will prevent further corrosion of the metal.

    Machined and brazed stainless steel elements

    Acid can damage skin and muscle tissue, and inhaling vapors can damage the respiratory organs. When contacting air, hydrochloric acid enters into a chemical reaction, and smoke is visible above the open container. To work correctly in these conditions, wear safety glasses, rubber gloves, a gas mask, or a respirator.

    If the solution gets on the skin, wash this area of ​​the body with a 6% alkaline solution or plain soap. It is not recommended to solder radio circuit boards with fluxes containing acid. The acidic components are difficult to wash off and contribute to the breakdown of copper tracks. It is better to replace them; there is a special paste for this.

    Soldering acid solutions should be stored correctly in containers made of the following materials:

    • glass;
    • ceramics;
    • porcelain;
    • fluoroplastic

    Such dishes do not react with acid; the prepared composition can be stored in it for a long time.

    Soldering without a soldering iron

    Soldering without a soldering iron

    At home, if you don’t have a soldering iron, you can solder copper wires with a diameter of up to 2 mm. For soldering radiators and utensils, special solder, blowtorches, and gas torches are used, since the copper rod of the soldering iron is not able to heat a large surface area. There are several ways:

    1. Tinning and soldering wires in molten solder . The wire is first heated, applied to a piece of rosin, it melts and spreads evenly over the surface of the connection. The wire is twisted and lowered into molten solder in a tin can over a fire; it can be heated with a blowtorch. In order to solder the twist, it is advisable to hold it in boiling tin for up to 1 minute. The copper wires will heat up and the alloy will fill all the gaps between the twisted wires. In this way you can solder small parts made of copper, brass and other alloys.

    Tinned and soldered copper wire

    1. Soldering wires in the trench . The stripped and twisted wires are laid in a 2-3 cm piece of aluminum tube, 0.5-1 cm in diameter, sawn lengthwise. The top is filled with a mixture of fine shavings of solder and rosin dust, and from the bottom this structure is heated with a lighter, candle or small blowtorch.

    Heating the solder with a blowtorch (torch)

    The mixture melts and thoroughly envelops all wire connections. After hardening, the aluminum gutter is removed and the joint is insulated.

    Solder shavings can be sharpened with a coarse file.

    1. A thin copper wire up to 0.75 mm can be laid on aluminum foil, sprinkled with a mixture of rosin and tin shavings, wrapped tightly and heated for 3-4 minutes. The solder will evenly fill all the elements at the soldering site; after cooling, the foil can be removed and discarded.

    How to prepare solder paste

    How to prepare solder paste

    Soldering paste is sold in radio parts stores, but you can prepare it yourself. To 32 ml of hydrochloric acid add 12 ml of ordinary water, then pieces of zinc - 8.1 g. For this, enamel dishes are used.

    https://youtube.com/watch?v=mezhsU5kAGw

    How to tin a soldering iron: preparation and care of the soldering iron

    After the dissolution reaction is completed, tin – 8.7 g is added to the composition. When the second dissolution reaction is completed, the water is evaporated to a paste-like consistency of the solution. The paste is transferred to a porcelain container, where powder is poured, which contains:

    • lead – 7.4 g;
    • tin – 14.8 g;
    • dry ammonia – 7.5 g;
    • zinc – 29.6 g;
    • rosin – 9.4 g.

    This paste is mixed with 10 ml of glycerin, heated and stirred.

    How to solder correctly, sequence of actions:

    • The parts at the soldering site are cleaned, the wires are twisted;
    • the paste is applied with a brush in a thin layer;
    • the surface for soldering is heated with a plasma lighter, torch, candle or alcohol tablet, or even with matches or over a fire until the paste melts;
    • After melting, the soldering elements are removed from the heat source, and the solder hardens.

    The paste is very effective when it is necessary to solder copper wire, small parts made of alloys based on copper, brass, such as radiators, samovars and other products.

    Soldering utensils

    Soldering utensils

    How to install a socket with your own hands correctly

    Buckets and pans with holes no more than 5-7 mm in diameter are recommended to be soldered without using a soldering iron with POS-60 solder. Leaky places on the dishes can be reliably soldered. To do this, the holes are carefully cleaned with sandpaper from the inside of the container. The hole along the edges is given a conical shape, the cleaned areas are treated with a solution of soldering acid with a brush.

    In order to prevent solder leakage from the outside, all bottoms or individual places where holes need to be soldered are covered with thin tin plates. Powdered solder and rosin are poured into the cleaned holes from the inside. The soldering areas are heated over an open fire until the solder melts and fills all the cracks.

    For radiators, stripping and soldering are carried out from the outside. To prevent solder from leaking inside, the hole is covered with a plate of tin, galvanized iron, or can be replaced with copper or brass. The choice depends on the material from which the radiator is made. Homogeneous metals and alloys that are similar in composition are easier to solder.

    After completing the soldering process of radiators, the internal and external surfaces are thoroughly washed with an alkaline, soapy solution in order to prevent the effect of acidic components on the metal.

    Bottle with flux for soldering aluminum

    When it is necessary to solder aluminum parts, special solders are used:

    • 4:1 mixture of tin and zinc;
    • 30:1 mixture of tin and bismuth;
    • 99:1 tin and aluminum powder.

    The sequence of surface treatment is the same as for preparing iron utensils. In order to properly solder aluminum, rosin is added to the powder, but the melting point must be above 500ºC. It is recommended to stir the solder in the hole, using a thin copper soldering iron tip.

    PCB soldering paste

    PCB soldering paste

    The composition is not much different from the paste that is used to solder without a soldering iron; the powder includes the following components:

    • tin – 14.8 g;
    • rosin – 4 g;
    • zinc dust – 738 g;
    • lead powder – 7.4 g.

    For a paste-like consistency, add diethyl ether - 10 ml, it can be replaced, use glycerin - 14 ml.

    Soldering sequence:

    • the legs and tracks of the printed circuit board are cleaned;
    • in order to solder, the legs of the parts are inserted into the holes of the board;
    • places where it is necessary to solder on the board are lubricated with paste;
    • the paste is heated with a soldering iron until it melts;
    • The solder spreads and hardens, providing reliable electrical contact between the parts and the traces of the printed circuit boards.

    Soldering lessons.

    Soldering lessons.

    You can learn how to solder correctly by watching this video.

    From the above information it follows that, if desired, and if certain materials are available at home, you can solder in various ways, achieving high-quality fastening of parts and tightness of containers.

    Soldering copper pipes using a torch

    You can solder with or without a soldering iron almost all metals, alloys, aluminum, brass, copper, electrical circuit wires for various purposes, metal utensils, radiator housings and other pieces of equipment.

    Source: https://ooo-asteko.ru/kak-pravilno-ludit-metall/

    How to solder tin to steel?

    How to solder tin to steel?

    Soldering is a process that creates a connection between metal parts due to a chemical reaction that occurs between the metal and molten solder. In this case, there is no mechanical damage to the crystalline structure of the material of the connected parts.

    What can you solder to what?

    What can you solder to what?

    It will not be possible to solder aluminum or rusty metal, chrome-plated objects, since an oxide film will form on the surface of the elements, which will interfere with the joining process. You can solder prepared surfaces from:

    • iron and stainless steel;
    • copper, tin and brass;
    • zinc and nickel;
    • silver

    How is steel soldered?

    How is steel soldered?

    The process of any soldering is carried out in three stages: cleaning the surfaces to be joined from oxide films, heating the solder to the melting temperature, applying solder (soldering).

    So how do you solder tin to steel? To perform steel soldering, you must perform the following steps:

    • Remove foreign materials and shavings from the surface of the parts to be joined. To do this, you can use a wire brush or sandpaper.
    • In the joint area, on the surfaces of the parts, it is necessary to apply flux (for example, BS-35, when soldering ordinary steel, and BS-45, when soldering stainless steel).
    • Heat the parts to the required temperature, connect and apply solder.
    • Use water or a special chemical cleaner to remove flux residues. If this is not done, then rust will appear at the soldering site, since the flux contains chloride.

    Heater types

    Heater types

    The choice of heater type depends on the size and thickness of the steel elements being sealed.

    If you need to solder steel wire or thin sheets, you can use a soldering iron with a chromium-nickel or ceramic heater, selecting the appropriate power, or a soldering iron without a heater, which can be heated with a torch or on a regular gas stove.

    If you need to solder thick sheets of steel, you will have to use a gas or gasoline burner for heating. During operation of the soldering iron, oxidation will form on the tip, which will reduce the temperature of the soldering iron.

    For cleaning, you can use either simple sandpaper or a special cleaner, such as ST-40. Coating the soldering iron tip with solder will provide a wider heat transfer range and improve soldering efficiency.

    Solder selection

    Solder selection

    Solder is an alloy of tin and lead in a certain ratio. The ratio of alloy proportions determines the melting point and viscosity of the resulting alloy. Solder is selected according to the required characteristics of the connection and the types of materials being joined. When soldering steel, flux-free solders should be used, and the flux should be applied separately.

    Source: https://olovok.com/kak-k-stali-pripayat-olovo/

    Learn to solder

    Learn to solder

    Solder is an alloy of tin and lead. Soldering is the process of creating an electrical or mechanical connection between 2 metal parts using a chemical reaction that occurs between molten solder and the metal without damaging the parts being soldered.

    Soldering process

    Soldering process

    Printed circuit boards

    Printed circuit boards

    1. Touch the soldering iron to the parts to be soldered for a few seconds.
    2. Once they are hot, apply solder.
    3. Make sure there is enough solder, but not too much.
    4. Once the solder has spread, remove it and the soldering iron. Do not touch the elements until the solder has hardened.

    Thin sheet steel

    Thin sheet steel

    1. Remove chips and foreign materials using sandpaper or a wire brush.
    2. Use goot BS-35 (for sheet steel) or goot BS-45 (for stainless steel) flux.
    3. While heating the parts with a soldering iron, apply solder.
    4. Rinse the connection thoroughly with water to remove any remaining flux*

    *Flux contains chloride. If the flux is not washed off with water, then rust will form at the soldering site.

    What metals can be soldered?

    What metals can be soldered?

    Metals that can be soldered (in order of increasing difficulty of soldering):

    Metals that can be soldered (in order of increasing difficulty of soldering):

    1. Tin
    2. Silver
    3. Copper
    4. Brass
    5. Zinc
    6. Nickel
    7. Iron
    8. Stainless steel

    Metals that cannot be soldered:

    Metals that cannot be soldered:

    1. Rusty metal
    2. Aluminum
    3. Chrome objects
    4. Die cast parts

    SOLDERING: 3 STEPS

    SOLDERING: 3 STEPS

    1. Cleaning:

    1. Cleaning:

    Remove the oxide film from the part:

    • Mechanical method. Polish the part using a file or sandpaper.
    • Chemical method. Apply flux.

    2. Heating:

    2. Heating:

    Heat the material to a temperature above the melting point of the solder.

    3. Soldering:

    3. Soldering:

    When the material reaches a temperature above the melting point of rippoy, apply it.

    BASICS

    BASICS

    Soldering is a simple procedure. Simply select the elements that suit your task:

    Soldering irons

    Soldering irons

    A soldering iron is a tool used to heat the base and solder. There are a large number of different soldering irons. It is very important to choose a soldering iron that is suitable for your task.

    Recommended soldering irons, depending on the purpose of use:

    • KS-30R: for amateur use (nickel-chromium heater)
    • CXR-31: For amateur and precision soldering (ceramic heater)
    • RX-802AS: For precision soldering (temperature control)

    Heater types

    For soldering, two types of heaters are used:

    • Nickel-chrome heater (20-300W) consists of a tip wrapped with nickel-chrome wire for external heating. They are used for low budget production or amateur purposes.
    • The ceramic heater (15-50W) has excellent insulation thanks to the tungsten heater installed in the ceramic base. It heats up much faster than nickel chrome heaters. Excellent temperature recovery and fast heating make it suitable for soldering microchips or electrical components.

    Temperature Controlled Soldering Irons 1

    With this type of soldering iron, you can control the temperature of the tip during soldering using a sensor built into the tip. Fast heating and instant temperature stabilization at the soldering site. Suitable for soldering printed circuit boards and electrical chips.

    Temperature Controlled Soldering Irons 2

    The heater temperature is controlled by a highly sensitive sensor built into the soldering iron tip. These soldering stations are designed for lead-free soldering.

    Tips
    Select a tip shape that suits the parts being soldered. There are two types of stings: copper and durable.

    Copper tips
    Copper tips must be filed with a file, since they deteriorate under the influence of solder and oxidize.

    Long-Lasting Tips
    Coating copper with iron slows erosion caused by solder, extending tip life.

    Care

    Care

    Remove oxidation during operation. Use ST-40 cleaner. To remove excess oxidation from the tip, use sandpaper (#600) after the tip has cooled. After removing the oxides, dip the tip into the solder.

    Also, after use, do not forget to cover the tip with solder (tin it). This will protect the sting. Solder-coated tips have a wider range of heat transfer, which increases the efficiency of the device.

    Traditional solders (Lead)

    Traditional solders (Lead)

    Traditional solder is an alloy of tin and lead. Viscosity and melting point depend on the proportions of the alloy. Select your solder depending on the work to be done.

    Tin (Sn) % Lead (Pb) % Melting point Purpose Viscosity
    63% 37% 183 Accuracy Low High
    60% 40% 183..190 PCB
    50% 50% 183..215 Electronic parts
    45% 55% 183..227 Sheet steel
    40% 60% 183..238 Sheet steel(welding)

    There are two types of solder wire: with and without flux. For sheet steel, flux-free solder should be used. The flux used for soldering sheet steel should be used separately.

    Special solders

    Special solders

    In some cases, solder may contain some metal other than tin and lead.

    For example: Solder containing copper

    When soldering copper wire, the tin contained in the solder can damage the copper and cause the wire to break. The copper contained in the solder, when combined with the contact copper, slows down deterioration and increases the reliability of the wire.

    Lead-free solder

    Lead-free solder

    Lead-free solder is solder that does not contain lead (Pb).

    RoHS directives apply to the European Union and other countries to protect the environment. These guidelines ban the use of lead in electrical appliances because illegal disposal of household appliances has been linked to lead contamination of water supplies, according to studies.

    Flux

    Flux

    If the surface of the metal is contaminated or oxidized, the wettability of the metal is reduced and it is no longer a reliable soldering material. To solve this problem, flux is used.

    Flux categories

    Flux categories

    There are 3 categories of fluxes.

    Flux categories Activation level Residual material Application Moisture absorption Corrosion Cleaning
    Inorganic Strong Application High Necessary Sheet steel
    Organic Average Less inorganic Short Required, depending on application PCB
    Resin Weak
    1. Fluxes remove grease, foreign elements and oxidation. Flux improves soldering by removing oxidation that appears on the metal and solder.
    2. Flux prevents re-oxidation. When a metal is heated and exposed to air, it oxidizes at an accelerated rate. Flux coats and protects the joint from air, thereby preventing oxidation.
    3. Flux increases wettability*. Reduces the surface tension of the solder.

    *Wettability is the level of uniform distribution of solder over the surface.

    Source: https://masteram.com.ua/ru/articles-and-video/soldering/

    Soldering iron with tin solder

    Soldering iron with tin solder

    The soldering process is the chemical joining of two metals using solder. Moreover, the crystal structure of the metal does not change. That is, the connected parts remain with their technical characteristics.

    The connection itself is quite reliable, but much will depend on the type of solder and soldering technology. In addition, it should be noted that not all metals can be joined by this process. Basic metals, especially steel (iron), can be soldered together.

    Three technologies

    Three technologies

    There are three technologies for soldering iron with tin:

    1. soldering iron To do this, you will have to use soft solders with a high lead content;
    2. blowtorch. This will require hard solders with a high tin content;
    3. electrical soldering of iron.

    The first method is used if the iron will not be subjected to heavy loads during operation. The second is tinning of iron with tin, when tin solder is applied to the surface of a metal product and rubbed over its entire plane in a thin layer.

    This technology requires soldering flux. The third option is used on a production scale, for which special equipment is used.

    Soldering sheet metal

    Soldering sheet metal

    Soldering tin (thin sheet iron) is a common process in the manufacture of metal containers. But often, even at home, it is necessary to fasten sheets of iron together, assembling sealed structures. Therefore, before soldering one sheet to another, you need to prepare everything you need.

    For the process of soldering iron with tin, you will need solder with a small concentration of tin, for example, POS-40, flux, a soldering iron and an awl.

    In the process of soldering iron, flux acts as a solvent and an oxidizing agent at the same time. That is, the metal is immediately wetted and protected from oxidative processes. Rosin and hydrochloric acid or zinc chloride and boric acid are used as fluxes.

    As for the soldering iron, for high-quality tin soldering it is better to choose an electric tool with a power of more than 40 W. The old soldering tool, which is heated by the flame of a fire, is practically not used today, even at home.

    Sequencing

    Sequencing

    Here are the main stages of this process:

    • cleaning of joined sheets;
    • applying flux;
    • heating up the soldering iron and tinning;
    • soldering with tin;
    • cleaning the joint with gasoline.

    Cleaning is carried out mechanically with sandpaper. If the contamination is large, you will have to treat it with a solvent. If it is not possible to clean it using this method, then etching is carried out with sulfuric acid.

    Two pieces of sheet iron are brought to each other at a distance of 0.3 mm. Their edges are treated with paste-like flux using a brush. The soldering iron tip is cleaned with sandpaper, and the tool itself is plugged into the electrical network through an outlet. To check whether it has heated up well, you need to place its tip in the ammonia mixture, which should boil.

    Now the stage of tinning the iron is carried out. That is, using solder made of tin or its alloy, the edges of two sheets of tin are processed in order to cover them with a tin layer, which will perform protective functions against metal corrosion.

    Everything is ready, all that remains is to solder the two ends of the sheets. The soldering iron tip is brought to the joint along with the tin solder, and they both move smoothly along the joint boundary.

    In this case, the tip must be pressed not with a sharp end, but with a flat edge, due to which the parts being connected will warm up at the same time, which will affect the high quality of the iron soldering..

    Features of working with galvanized products

    Features of working with galvanized products

    Soldering galvanized tin in a purely technological process is no different from the previous one. But the technology has its own subtle nuances that affect the quality of the final result.

    You cannot solder galvanized steel with solders that contain large amounts of antimony. This substance, when in contact with zinc coating, creates a weak seam.

    It is better to use boric acid and zinc chloride as flux. If the products themselves have already been tinned with tin during the production process, then rosin can be used as a flux.

    When a connection is made between galvanized iron (sheet) and wire, the latter must be bent at a right angle to increase the contact area of ​​the two products.

    The rest of the process is carried out exactly the same. By the way, it doesn’t matter whether the wire was made of galvanized or ordinary steel.

    There are several more important points that must be taken into account in the process of soldering galvanized products. If solder rods based on tin and lead are used for soldering iron, then it is better to add flux based on zinc chloride and ammonium chloride. The ratio is 5:1 respectively.

    Tin and cadmium based solder requires caustic soda as a flux additive.

    If galvanized iron products, the protective layer of which contains more than 2% aluminum, are connected to each other, then solder based on tin and zinc is used. And hydrochloric acid and petroleum jelly (stearin) are used as flux.

    Regardless of which parts or assemblies are connected by soldering, it is necessary, after the process is completed and the seam has cooled, to rinse the joint with water to remove any remaining flux.

    Safety precautions

    Safety precautions

    Soldering iron with tin is an unsafe process. Therefore, precautions must be strictly observed. Protective gloves are put on your hands, and a stand must be installed under the soldering iron so that the heated tip does not touch the table and available materials. And the procedure itself must be carried out carefully.

    Despite the apparent simplicity of the soldering operation, it is actually a serious procedure. And you need to treat it with great attention. Something was missed, they were even applied incorrectly, and we can assume that the quality of the joint has dropped sharply. Therefore, it is important to approach each stage responsibly, especially when it comes to cleaning two joined iron products.

    Source: https://svaring.com/soldering/tehnologii/pajka-zheleza-olovom

    How to solder steel with tin?

    How to solder steel with tin?

    Soldering stainless steel is a rather labor-intensive procedure, but it will not cause any special problems if you know all the features of its implementation.

    With significantly less labor, it is possible to solder stainless steel alloys that contain no more than 25% chromium and nickel.

    Moreover, soldering stainless steel with such a chemical composition allows you to obtain reliable connections of products from dissimilar metals, excluding alloys with magnesium and aluminum.

    Solder repaired bicycle frame

    Soldering stainless steel, which contains a significant amount of nickel, can be difficult. This is due to the fact that in such alloys, when heated to a temperature of 500–700°, carbide compounds appear. The intensity of the formation of such connections depends on the duration of heating, so soldering should be performed as quickly as possible.

    To minimize the risk of the formation of carbide compounds in the stainless steel structure during soldering, titanium is added to the alloy composition, and after the joint is formed, the product is subjected to heat treatment.

    You should be very careful when soldering cold-worked stainless steels, the surface of which may become cracked under the influence of heated solder. To avoid such consequences, it is necessary to eliminate the load on the parts being connected during the soldering process.

    In addition, it is possible to pre-anneal the products being joined.

    Use a gas torch for annealing.

    The choice of solder with which to solder stainless steel is influenced by both the chemical composition of the alloy and the process conditions.

    So, if this process is carried out at high ambient humidity, then silver alloys should be used, which contain a small amount of nickel.

    Soldering in an oven, as well as in a relatively dry atmosphere, is performed using chromium-nickel and silver-manganese solders.

    The most common type of flux used when soldering stainless steel is borax, applied to the future joint in the form of a paste or powder.

    Melting borax on the surface of the parts being joined contributes to uniform and most accurate heating of the area of ​​the future seam to the required temperature - 850°.

    Only after the required heating temperature has been reached, which can be determined by the color change of the future joint to light red, is solder introduced into the joint between the parts.

    The flux is applied in an even layer over the entire surface, which must first be cleaned.

    After soldering is completed, flux residues are present at the joint, which are removed by washing with water or sandblasting. To perform this procedure, you cannot use nitric or hydrochloric acids, which, although they effectively clean the flux remaining on the surface of the parts, have a negative effect on both the base metal and the used solder.

    How to do soldering at home

    How to do soldering at home

    Problems such as joining stainless steel parts using soldering and soldering stainless steel to copper are often encountered at home.

    Products made of stainless steel have been actively used in everyday life for many years, therefore, when for some reason they become unusable, any home craftsman has a natural desire to repair them himself.

    It should be said right away that soldering stainless steel parts is not so difficult, the main thing is to strictly adhere to the technology, as well as stock up on the appropriate tools and consumables.

    Master the soldering technique on simple connections, and then try working with more critical parts

    Before you start soldering stainless steel, it is very advisable not only to study the theoretical material on this issue, but also to become more familiar with the rules for its implementation using training videos.

    To solder stainless steel products, you will need the following tools and consumables:

    • a soldering iron powered by electricity with a power of at least 100 W;
    • special soldering acid, which will be used as a flux;
    • file or sandpaper;
    • solder, specially designed for joining steel parts, based on tin and lead;
    • cable made of steel;
    • metal tube.

    Soldering materials and tools

    When choosing a soldering iron for working with stainless steel, you should opt for a tool with a power of 100 W. Using a more powerful device to perform such work is simply not practical.

    The process of soldering stainless steel parts is carried out according to the following algorithm.

    1. First of all, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the area of ​​the future connection, for which sandpaper or a file is used.
    2. After preparing the surfaces of the parts to be joined, it is necessary to apply flux to them, which, as mentioned above, uses soldering acid. The main task of the flux is to ensure high-quality tinning of the parts to be joined.
    3. After the surfaces of the parts to be joined are treated with flux, it is necessary to tinning them, which consists of applying a thin layer of solder consisting of tin and lead to them. If tinning was not successful the first time, then it is necessary to repeat this procedure, preheating the parts to be joined.
    4. Even after heating the products and re-processing them with flux, tinning may not be successful - the solder will simply roll off the surface of the parts, rather than lie on them as a thin film. In this case, you need to use a brush with metal wires, which can be easily made from a tube and steel cable. Before using such a brush, it is also necessary to apply flux (soldering acid) to the surface of the parts and only then, heating the future joint with a soldering iron, clean it with a metal brush. This simple technique allows you to effectively clean the surface of a stainless steel from an oxide film, which, as a rule, is the main obstacle to high-quality tinning.
    5. Once a thin layer of tin has been applied to the products to be joined, you can begin to solder them. This procedure is performed using a soldering iron and solder, which is used to fill the joint between the parts.

    Solder Types

    Solder Types

    Stainless steel products can be soldered with both soft solders made on the basis of tin and lead, and hard types of filler material, which includes more refractory metals.

    Soft solder, due to the fact that it is based on tin, is a low-melting material characterized by high ductility and fluidity in the molten state. What is especially important when soldering stainless steel products is that it has good deoxidizing ability.

    Properties of soft solders

    More reliable connections both in production and at home can be achieved by soldering using hard solders.

    The metals from which they are made melt at a higher temperature than tin, which makes it possible to obtain reliable and durable connections with their help.

    Very often, materials of this type are produced on the basis of technical silver, which can contain up to 30% in their composition.

    Main brands of silver solders

    One of the popular types of hard solder is the HTS-528 material, which is successfully used for soldering not only stainless steel, but also copper, brass, bronze, nickel and other metals. Conveniently, it is produced in the form of a rod, the surface of which is already covered with a layer of flux. When working with such solder in a production environment or at home, you should keep in mind that its melting point is 760°.

    HTS-528 solder is a rod coated with red flux. In addition to stainless steel, it is suitable for cast iron and non-ferrous metals

    Flux preparation

    Flux preparation

    When soldering stainless steel, you should be very careful about choosing a ready-made flux or the recipe for making it yourself. The classic flux composition, which can be prepared at home, includes the following components:

    • borax (70%);
    • boric acid (20%);
    • calcium fluoride (10%).

      Steel 092gs characteristics

    For soldering small-sized products, you can prepare a flux that will consist only of borax and boric acid mixed in equal proportions. Having mixed the components of the flux in dry form, it must be diluted with water and treated with the resulting solution at the site of the future connection.

    Useful tips

    Useful tips

    To perform stainless steel soldering efficiently, you should use the recommendations of experienced specialists.

    • The power of a soldering iron, which must effectively heat the metal being joined, is in the range of 60–100 W, but it is better to opt for a 100-watt device. To solder large parts, such as stainless steel pipes, you will need a gas torch rather than an electric soldering iron.
    • When choosing an electric soldering iron, it is better to opt for models equipped with tips that do not burn.
    • The most economical and universal type of solder, which makes it possible to obtain high-quality connections for stainless steel products, is tin-lead rods. If you are soldering dishes that will come into contact with food or liquids, it is better to use pure tin as solder, which does not contain harmful impurities.
    • The room in which soldering work is carried out must be well ventilated.
    • When performing soldering, be sure to use personal protective equipment so as not to harm your health.

    What else you should know about soldering stainless steel

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