How to solder with a gas torch

How to solder aluminum with a gas torch - Technique Expert

Aluminum is a metal that is difficult to solder. This is due to its tendency to form a strong oxide film on the surface of products, which prevents the part from being wetted by molten solder.

Mechanical cleaning of the surface alone does not help, since new oxide is formed instantly after removing the old one. For this reason, special fluxes are used for soldering aluminum and special technology is followed.

Connecting wires

Typically, aluminum soldering is used in cases where the parts to be joined are small enough and the use of argon welding is impossible or absent. One example of the use of soldering is connecting electrical wires made of different materials.

Often in practice it is necessary to connect copper and aluminum wires. Such connections cannot be made by twisting, since this pair of metals forms a source of electrochemical corrosion . In this case, soldering aluminum to copper can be an excellent connection option.

This operation can be performed with ordinary soft lead-tin solder, but you should use a special flux for soldering aluminum. The procedure must be performed in the following sequence:

  • first you need to strip the copper wire and tin it using rosin;
  • to tinning an aluminum wire, after mechanical stripping of the oxide film, it should be coated with a layer of flux for soldering aluminum;
  • for better mechanical strength of the connection, tinned wires can be twisted;
  • By heating the joint with a soldering iron and adding flux, the solder melts and a solder is formed.

The connection obtained in this way can be safely embedded in the wall; it will last for a very long time.

Removing the oxide film

Usually, if you have a good flux specifically designed for soldering aluminum, the use of any special tricks is not required; it is enough to mechanically clean it and moisten the surface to be soldered with flux.

It is also possible to use acid for soldering aluminum. They use hydrochloric acid in which zinc is dissolved (soldering acid), and fluxes based on orthophosphoric acid are also used.

But if such a flux is not available or, due to poor quality, does not provide soldering, you can go another way. There are several ways to remove the oxide film for successful tinning of the workpiece.

In rosin

An aluminum wire or other part can be freed from the oxide film by immersing it in liquid rosin. To do this, you can either melt it or prepare an alcohol solution.

After immersing the part in rosin, use a sharp knife to scrape off the oxide film. The rosin layer prevents the access of air and the formation of new oxide. After this, the part can be tinned using a heated soldering iron with solder.

Abrasive powder

In the absence of flux and rosin, aluminum soldering can be done as follows. A paste is prepared consisting of abrasive powder and transformer oil.

Fine metal filings can also be used as an abrasive. The workpiece is coated with this composition, after which it is rubbed with a hot soldering iron with solder.

As a result of this, the abrasive grains or metal shavings remove the film, and the surface is immediately wetted with solder without access to air. After tinning, the product can be easily soldered.

Chemical cleaning method

In essence, this method is nothing more than copper plating of an aluminum surface. It is performed as follows.

That part of the aluminum billet that is to be coated with a layer of copper is moistened with a solution of copper sulfate. Then take a direct current source with a voltage of 4.5 volts.

This could be a battery or accumulator. The aluminum part is connected to the negative terminal of the power source. A copper wire is connected to the positive terminal, the end of which is entangled in the bristles of a toothbrush.

Next, the brush is moistened with a solution of copper sulfate. The wire located in the bristles must be well moistened. After this, rub the area of ​​the part previously moistened with the solution with a brush.

As a result of the galvanic reaction, the surface of the aluminum is coated with a thin layer of copper, allowing it to be soldered as if it were a copper part.

Warming up the part

When soldering fairly massive parts, the power of a conventional electric soldering iron may not be enough to heat the workpiece to the required temperature.

You can use a gas burner to heat aluminum at home. For this purpose, it is better to use a portable burner powered by a small gas cartridge. In this case, you need to work very carefully. It is unacceptable to overheat the base metal to the point where it begins to melt.

You can also use a combined heating method. For example, place a massive aluminum piece on the burner of a kitchen gas stove and light a small fire. You can use an electric soldering iron at the soldering site.

Everything that has been said about methods for soldering aluminum applies to various alloys based on this metal. Only the topic of silumin soldering is somewhat isolated. This material is an aluminum alloy containing silicon (roughly speaking, sand).

Soldering this alloy presents particular difficulties. Attempts to solder silumin often fail.

Even after seemingly successful soldering, it turns out that the connection does not have the required strength and may break. Experts do not recommend soldering this material. The best way to join this alloy is argon arc welding.

High temperature process

Industrial methods of aluminum soldering are distinguished by the use of harder solders containing aluminum. To use this technology, factory equipment and special fluxes are required.

Thus, heating and soldering of workpieces is carried out in special tunnel-type furnaces. The soldering process is carried out in an environment of inert gases at temperatures reaching 600 ℃. This technology is used in the manufacture of aluminum radiators and heat exchangers of modern cars.


Soldering copper tubes with a gas torch (instructions)

Working with a gas torch and molten solder will make any performer nervous, be it a beginner or a professional. An important point: the consequences of soldering errors practically range from a leaky pipe seam to a real house fire. However, as with most crafts, the key to success in torch soldering copper tubing is practice and planning.

Planning of soldering work with a gas torch

Regardless of the level of complexity of projects, it is imperative to draw up a work plan. This approach not only minimizes the consumption of fittings, but also makes all operations easier and faster.

It is recommended to assemble and solder as many mounting sections as possible on a bench. In this case, you should make sure that all fittings that will be soldered directly at the installation site are accessible for soldering operations with a gas torch.

To avoid eye burns, wear safety glasses. When performing top soldering, it is necessary to avoid positions where the seam to be welded is located directly above the head.

To prevent possible fires, it is necessary to use a special heat shield. When work involves soldering with a torch in close proximity to flammable materials, it is necessary to keep a fire extinguisher nearby.

Tools required for soldering copper pipes with a gas torch:

  • cutter (pipe cutter),
  • pipe expander,
  • wire brush (to fit 12.7 mm or 19 mm fittings),
  • plumber's sanding machine,
  • container for flux and disposable brush,
  • gas-burner,
  • roll of lead-free solder.

Step-by-step instructions for soldering with a gas torch

Cutting and cleaning are critical. It is recommended to cut the pipe evenly and at a right angle. To simulate the strength of the connection, it is worth considering that the end of the pipe is inserted up to the stop (arm) of the fitting.


The procedure for determining the location of the fitting on a copper pipe, marking for visual inspection and cutting the copper pipe using a special device - a pipe cutter

It is highly recommended that you use a pipe cutter rather than a hacksaw to cut the pipe insert for the fitting. After the cutting procedure, the end of the pipe is cleaned - the burrs left by the pipe cutter are removed.

Not only the pipe, but also the fitting needs to be cleaned. Cleaning is done in order to remove the oxide film from the surface of the copper. The oxide film prevents high-quality soldering of copper parts and prevents the uniform flow of solder.

Therefore, it is necessary to polish the outer surface of the copper pipe with sandpaper and clean the inside of the fitting with a wire brush. Cleaning is carried out until both surfaces acquire a clean golden appearance.


Processes for cleaning the surface of copper parts intended for soldering with lead-free solder. The surface of the tube is cleaned with sandpaper, and the inner area of ​​the fitting is cleaned with a special wire brush.

Next, flux is applied to the areas of the stripped metal. Flux coating is carried out evenly over the entire stripping area. The flux additionally removes the smallest traces of the oxide film and shallowly etches the copper layer, which is necessary to increase adhesion to the solder.

When working, you need to ensure that no contamination gets into the flux tube. After each operation with flux, the lid of the tube should be tightly closed. The flux brush should be stored in a plastic bag.


Applying a special paste - flux - to the soldering parts, thanks to which the solder spreads evenly and covers the entire soldering area. A soft brush is used for flux treatment.

Powerful and safe gas burner

Modern lead-free solders require higher temperatures than propane gas torches can produce. Professional craftsmen often use powerful acetylene units.

But acetylene torches are expensive and are characterized by a tool with a high explosion hazard. Therefore, for inexperienced users, MAPP gas seems to be the best alternative.

MAPP gas (a combination of acetylene and propane) burns at a sufficient temperature to be able to solder 19 mm tubing. The popular MAPP gas is sold filled in disposable cylinders similar to those used for propane.


Examples of kits that include a cylinder with MAPP gas and a gas burner. Kits are also sold, complete with solder paste - flux and a roll of lead-free solder.

The MAPP gas cylinder conveniently attaches to a high quality self-igniting torch (such as the SureFire T655 model). The cylinder fastening mechanism ensures safe and convenient operation.

By pressing a button, the gas burner self-ignites. It is also easy to regulate and extinguish the flame. All operations are performed without the need to use your hands again to control the spark igniter or gas supply regulator.

Technology for heating the soldering area of ​​copper parts

The blue flame area should be directed towards the fitting. Specifically, the flame is directed, as a rule, to the middle part of the fitting.

To ensure even heating, the flame should be used in an arcing motion around the circumference of the fitting. The hottest part of the flame (the inner blue cone) should touch the copper.


This shows the optimal location of the gas burner nozzle, which ensures high-quality soldering. The blue flame area is in contact with the surface of the copper fitting

The color and melt of the flux will indicate the soldering time. It is necessary to continue heating until the flux begins to melt and the copper acquires a shiny, iridescent appearance.

At this stage, touch the tip of the solder rod to the junction of the copper parts. When heated sufficiently, the solder will automatically flow around the entire circumference of the fitting. You need to wait until it is completely filled, but not overflowed, and then complete the process.

Soldering is performed with a gas torch from the bottom to the top. First, the lower end of the fitting is soldered, then the upper, because the upper part retains the temperature longer due to the transfer of some of the heat from the lower part.


The soldering procedure involves filling the gap between the wall of the copper tube and the wall of the copper fitting with lead-free solder. When heated sufficiently, the solder spontaneously spreads over the entire soldering area.

Make sure there is enough solder at the soldering point before moving the gas torch to the next joint. If the fitting has cooled, a tip of the flame over the copper is enough to raise the temperature without overheating.

The final result of soldering

Not in favor of a colorful display! Even if the copper tubing is later hidden under drywall, it is recommended to always clean up any remaining solder with a rag before the solder has time to cool. A bright, uniform solder joint between fitting and pipe is proof of a job well done.

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Gas torch for soldering

A gas torch can be used to solder products made of copper or other soft alloys. This device has a fairly large number of features that should be taken into account when choosing the most suitable model. A gas torch for soldering copper or other soft alloys can be portable or stationary. In addition, classification is carried out according to many other criteria. Let's take a closer look at the design of a gas burner and the features of its use.

Gas torch for soldering

Gas burner device

The design of a gas burner may vary significantly. It all depends on the features of a particular model. The features of the created design include the following points:

  1. An important point is how the cylinder is attached. In some cases it is removable, in others it is disposable or stationary. The features of the device’s use largely depend on this.
  2. During operation, it is the gas that burns. It is supplied under pressure from a cylinder. The fuel can be a butane, gas and propane mixture.
  3. Gas is supplied to the nozzle and ignited. As a result, a stream of fire is created that heats the material to the required temperature. The flame temperature can be adjusted by changing the amount of gas supplied.
  4. The flame of a gas burner burns the material, making it softer. Different gases are used to heat the surface for different temperatures.
  5. Some burner designs are designed to adjust the flame length to provide the most favorable operating conditions. The adjustment is quite simple: at a constant pressure, the diameter of the nozzle opening changes, due to which the gas is thrown out to different distances and the length of the flame changes.

Gas burner device

Today, a homemade gas burner has become quite widespread. This is due to the fact that the design is simple; as a rule, there are no problems with its manufacture.

Areas of application

The use of a gas burner is very extensive:

  1. The torch is used for soldering wiring or various cables, and repairing large electronics. Soldering aluminum with a gas torch is carried out quite often, which is due to the low melting point of this material.
  2. The device is used to repair various structural elements of a car. An example is the case when a radiator made of a fusible alloy is damaged. Due to exposure to high temperature, the leak can be eliminated.
  3. Soldering of copper tubes can be done using a gas torch. Repair work is being carried out. The device is also used during the installation of various structures, for example, for tempering metal.
  4. Some alloys have increased fusibility. The joining of metals, for example copper, can be done using a torch. It is enough to heat the metals and connect them mechanically. After the material has cooled, a high-quality connection can be obtained.
  5. The device can be used when you need to spend time outdoors in winter. It can be used to warm up a fire or singe game, warm up tools, or perform other work.

Soldering with an acetylene torch

Despite the fairly wide distribution of the torch, in most cases it is used for soldering various alloys. For example, brass soldering is carried out using a gas torch. It is worth considering that there are quite a large number of types of devices, each with its own specific features.

Types of burners

As previously noted, there are simply a huge number of different versions of the device. For example, a gas burner for soldering copper pipes may be structurally different from other devices. Classification is carried out according to the following criteria:

  1. By the type of nozzle. Gas is supplied through a nozzle, which is shaped like a spear. In addition, there are rotating and replaceable types of nozzles. The choice is made depending on the specific work for which the device is purchased.
  2. By scope. Multifunctional devices are more popular. They can be used to perform various jobs, but in some cases they may not be applicable. In addition, narrow focus devices are available for sale. For example, there are gas torches for jewelry work: they are more accurate and small in size.
  3. The power control method is also important. There are designs with piezo ignition and power control function.

Soldering a copper pipe with a torch

The following types of devices are also distinguished:

  1. The mini gas burner is suitable for fine work. Such a device is characterized by its small size, as well as the ability to accurately regulate power.
  2. A gas burner with a hose is characterized by the fact that it has a separate cylinder, often installed on a special trolley. This design is large, the cylinders are installed away from the work site, and the gas is supplied through hoses.
  3. Recently, designs with disposable cylinders have been encountered. Such design options are characterized by high practicality. However, it is worth considering that the design with disposable cylinders is more expensive to use.
  4. The hand torch is characterized by its small size and ease of use. A similar device is found quite often.

There are designs for hard soldering or heat shrinking. That is why it is recommended to make a choice depending on the area of ​​application and many other characteristics, which we will discuss in more detail later.

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DIY making

A homemade gas burner consists of the following elements:

  1. gearbox;
  2. body made of metal;
  3. head and nozzle;
  4. an element designed to regulate the fuel supply;
  5. a unit designed for fastening and fixing a gas cylinder.

The simple design means that you can create it yourself from scrap materials.

A gas torch for soldering with your own hands can be created as follows:

  1. It is recommended to start work by making the burner handle. A variety of materials can be used to make this structural element. If possible, you can remove an already made handle from another device.
  2. The gas supply tube must be made exclusively of high quality steel. This is due to the fact that such a material can withstand high temperatures.
  3. When creating a device, you should pay attention to the dimensions of all parts. The diameter of the tube duct should not be more than 1 centimeter. Only in this case it is possible to ensure high pressure under which the gas will be supplied. The wall thickness of the tube used is from 2 to 2.5 millimeters. Only in this case can the tube withstand strong impact.
  4. The handle is attached to the tube using glue or other high-quality material.
  5. The body can be made of steel. Many experts recommend using a brass rod, the width of which should be no more than 2 centimeters. The divider is also made of this material.
  6. Several holes are created that allow oxygen to circulate. This is due to the fact that fire cannot occur without oxygen. It is recommended to create about 4 holes, the diameter of which is 1 millimeter.
  7. The next step is to press the divider into the body of the manufactured device. The flange is installed with a certain clearance. Due to the created gap, it is possible to slow down the flow of a huge gas flow that approaches the igniter.
  8. The nozzle is designed to supply gas from a cylinder. You can make it yourself, using a special rod. You can form a blind hole in the nozzle by drilling; the diameter should be 2 millimeters. The bridge is created using a 4 mm drill.
  9. To supply fuel, a hose is installed at the end of the tube. It is worth considering that gas supply requires a hose made of special fabric and rubber.

Using a gas burner at home

After creating the design, the pressure in the cylinder should be optimized. There should be no air in the hose at the time of operation, as it makes the fire less stable. The flame length with proper pressure adjustment is approximately 40-50 mm.

The tools for the job are quite simple to use; you can make a gas torch for soldering metal quite quickly. However, mistakes made can cause unstable operation of the structure.

Therefore, you should pay attention to how the gas burner works.

On sale you can find simply a huge number of different versions of gas burners. There are also quite a lot of manufacturers; most attention is paid to the products of the Rems and Rothenberger brands. The price range is quite wide, it all depends on the features of a particular model.

Some models of torches are designed not only for soldering, but also for cutting metal and defrosting, as well as treating surfaces at high temperatures. The device is selected according to the following criteria:

  1. What kind of material requires processing. Each metal has a specific melting point. Some alloys, such as copper or aluminum, should be heated to a lower temperature. Other alloys are much more difficult to process. Some burner devices can heat the surface to high temperatures and can be used for a long period.
  2. It should be remembered that a gas torch designed for melting metal and subsequent soldering will not perform well when cutting. That is why the choice is made according to purpose.
  3. A wide variety of gases are used as fuel. Let's use propane or acetylene as an example. It is worth considering that some models can be used with other gases. It is recommended to use a tool that runs on one type of fuel. The propane torch used in industry has become widespread.
  4. There are two types of design: injection and non-injection. This structural element is designed to mix fuel with oxygen.
  5. The power of the device can vary over a fairly wide range. It should be taken into account that as the power indicator increases, the efficiency of the device also increases. Powerful gas burners are used to work with thick-walled pipes that are difficult to process.
  6. You should decide how often the work will be carried out. If soldering will be carried out frequently, then it is best to pay attention to a model from a well-known manufacturer with high reliability.

When soldering copper pipes, certain safety precautions must be observed. This requires:

  1. Protective gloves. The surface can heat up to a very high temperature and you can get burned if you touch it. In order to eliminate the possibility of burns on your hands, you should use gloves with thick fabric.
  2. It is recommended to carry out work exclusively in a ventilated area with good ventilation. This is due to the fact that gases and other combustion products may appear. In addition, do not forget that the gas used is explosive. That is why the appearance of even a small leak can lead to an increase in gas concentration.
  3. Before checking the quality of the connection, make sure that it has cooled down. This is due to the fact that the surface can heat up to a fairly high temperature.

In conclusion, we note that gas burners should be used in compliance with safety precautions. Homemade designs must be tested before use. As for purchasing ready-made burners, you should immediately decide on your budget.


Features of soldering brass at home: solder and equipment

Soldering brass is a popular technology characterized by its universality of approach. As a working tool, you can use either a soldering iron or a gas torch. The process is not particularly complicated or has strict requirements. Having studied the features of the technology, the connection of brass products can be done even at home.

The essence of technology and its features

First of all, you need to familiarize yourself with the features of the soldering procedure. This technology, as a method of creating permanent connections, is not as popular as welding, since the strength of soldering is somewhat lower.

The formation of a weld occurs when a filler material called solder melts. After crystallization, the frozen composition reliably connects the workpieces.

A distinctive feature of soldering is the approach of impact on the working surface . When choosing solder, the main indicator is the melting temperature, which should be lower than that of the base metal. It does not change its state of aggregation, the properties remain unchanged. This allows you to connect workpieces with heterogeneous composition.

This is the difference between welding and soldering. When carrying out work, the weld pool includes the base metal and filler material. Together they form a seam, which invariably affects the quality of the metal that has been exposed to temperature. It is not without reason that when building a strip foundation, the frame is secured using wire rather than welding. Soldering does not affect the parameters of the base metal, which distinguishes it favorably from other joining technologies.

Let us highlight the main features of soldering:

  • solder is used as a filler material;
  • the products being connected do not melt;
  • materials do not interact with each other;
  • Suitable for connecting miniature elements.

The method is widely in demand in the field of high technology , due to the low temperature effect on the surface, which is the main indicator for temperature-sensitive components of boards and electronic circuits. Requirements for the quality of work are set out in GOST 17325-79.

Types of brass

There are two types of brass, differing in chemical composition:

  1. Double. As the name suggests, the alloy consists of two elements - zinc and copper in varying proportions. Moreover, zinc plays the role of an alloying element. According to technical requirements, such compositions have special markings indicating the type of alloy and the percentage of elements. For example, L 63 is a two-component composition, with a copper mass fraction of 63%. zinc does not exceed 37%.
  2. Multicomponent . Special formulations containing many impurities, the composition of which depends on the application. It is very difficult to select the optimal brass solder for such alloys, especially without knowing the exact ratio of the chemical elements in the composition.


A competent choice of flux is the key to a quality connection. It cleans the surface of traces of oil, dirt and oxides and prepares it for soldering. Due to the characteristics of the material in question, it is not advisable to use neutral compounds based on alcohol and rosin. Experts recommend using active flux to effectively remove the oxide film.

An important factor is the chemical composition of the alloy . For the classic two-component material L 63, it is enough to use a solution of zinc chloride in boric acid. For multi-component alloys, it is better to purchase a universal flux for working with brass - PV 209 and PV 209X. When choosing a ready-made composition, you should carefully study the instructions with recommendations for use.


Beginning craftsmen do not know which brass solder to choose to achieve the best results.

Let's look at the main brands:

  1. For soldering brass and copper, experts recommend using solders of the copper-zinc group. When choosing, you should pay attention to the melting point. For example, for PMC-48 it is 880 Cº.
  2. Copper-phosphorus solders of the MF group are distinguished by their affordable price. Performance characteristics are slightly lower than those of compositions with the addition of silver.
  3. The PSR group of silver solders belongs to the hard grades. The resulting connection is highly resistant to mechanical and vibration loads.

When soldering steel with brass, the L-63 alloy is used, which has proven itself best . Release form: brass wire for soldering. It is used exclusively for working with hard-melting materials.

Brass solders with flux deserve attention. Their cost is higher than that of classic compositions, but the price is compensated by ease of use and a reduction in the number of defects in work.

DIY cooking

Many craftsmen prefer to prepare solder with their own hands at home. A mixture of two parts silver and one part copper has proven to work best .

After taking measurements, the metal is melted in a crucible and by stirring it is achieved to obtain a homogeneous mass. Cooling takes place in cold water.

The finished solder is given the desired shape, after which it is cleaned using a large file.

Soldering iron

The main difficulty in working with brass, as opposed to soldering other non-ferrous metals with a torch or soldering iron, is the oxide film that forms during the evaporation of zinc after heating the brass.

alloy using a soldering iron, you need a high-quality device with a power of at least 1000 W. This requirement is due to the high melting point of brass and the solders used. The exception is copper and brass alloys, whose melting point is much lower.

The best choice is a soldering station with a function for adjusting temperature parameters. The use of such equipment makes it easy to select optimal operating parameters without the risk of surface overheating.

Using the burner

A gas torch can be used to solder brass . Special requirements are placed on the placement of the workpiece - it must be placed on a surface made of heat-resistant material.

The preparatory stage does not differ from a similar procedure before soldering with an electric soldering iron.

The process begins with gradual heating of the surface in order to increase the wetting properties of the solder. After this, the workpiece is heated to operating parameters, the achievement of which is characterized by the appearance of a characteristic red tint on the surface.

The use of flammable gas does not have any particular advantages over electrical power sources.

Stages of work

Step-by-step instructions for the process of soldering brass at home are as follows:

  1. Cleaning and degreasing the joint.
  2. Surface treatment with flux.
  3. After completing the preparatory procedures, add solder, crushed to the state of chips, into the heating zone.
  4. We begin gradual heating of the surface. It is important that the flame constantly moves to avoid overheating.
  5. After forming the seam, we stop processing the workpiece and wait for it to cool under natural conditions.
  6. Wash off the remaining flux.

The quality characteristics of a weld depend on the correct choice of consumables and filler materials, as well as compliance with the requirements for the technological process.


To obtain a high-quality connection, it is necessary to determine the composition of the brass. Based on the data obtained, he selects flux and solder for soldering. The work can be performed either with an electric soldering iron or with a gas torch.


Soldering steel at home with a gas torch - Metalworker's Guide

Soldering is one of the methods of joining two parts, in which only the connecting material is melted, and the surfaces of the elements themselves are completely preserved. Using this method, you can connect dissimilar materials, rather small elements, fragile microcircuits, connect or grow wires, attach hard alloy plates, and carry out anti-corrosion treatment.

Most often, alloying is done using brass, which is an alloy of zinc and copper. Therefore, before starting work with a soldering iron, you should study the features of using this material.

Soldering brass - some features

Most often, brass soldering is performed with a gas torch, and borax, tin or other similar materials are used as solder. At home, you can use a soldering iron or a special graphite electrode for this work.

In principle, soldering brass is similar to processing cast iron, copper, and steel. However, it has its own subtleties and features that must be taken into account.

  • When soldering brass, it is very important to choose a flux . During the joining process, the oxide film must be removed from the surface of the alloy being processed. An ordinary rosin-alcohol flux is not capable of doing this, so it is necessary to use more active components containing zinc chloride as a base.

  • Solder for soldering brass should be selected especially carefully . To work with an alloy that has a high copper content, copper-phosphorus and silver components are excellent. You can use brass itself, but you need to take into account that its melting point as a solder should be lower than that of the base alloy. Quite often, brass is joined using hard solder, for example, L - CuP 6. Such joints are very strong.

  • Brass soldering process

    For maximum efficiency of work, it is necessary to prepare the following materials and tools:

    • gas burner;
    • copper;
    • graphite crucible;
    • silver;
    • asbestos base;
    • boric acid.

    In some cases bronze may be needed.

    Solder preparation

    First of all, it is necessary to prepare tenol, which will contain two parts of silver and one part of copper. To do this, using a gas burner, copper and silver will need to be melted and the required amount of material weighed out. Next, the alloys are placed in a crucible and heated with the same gas burner.

    Molten copper and silver are mixed using a wire, and the crucible is placed in cold water. The solidified solder is flattened and cut. Then shavings are rubbed from it with a large file.

    The dimensions of the graphite crucible should be approximately 20x20 millimeters. It can be made from graphite coals (contact trolleybus elements).

    Flux preparation

    To do this, take 20 grams of borax powder and 20 grams of boric acid powder. The ingredients are thoroughly mixed and poured with 250 milliliters of water . The resulting mixture is then boiled and cooled.

    Ready-made compounds can also be used to connect brass parts. Among the domestic ones, the following fluxes have proven themselves well:

    Among the imported ones, we can mention flux pastes from the German manufacturer Chemet.

    The solder and flux are ready, now you can proceed directly to soldering. To do this, the prepared parts must be carefully placed on an asbestos base and begin the soldering process.

  • the surface of the parts to be joined with flux and very carefully sprinkle with solder shavings.
  • Now the elements to be soldered need to be warmed up slowly . This should be done slowly and carefully so that they do not overheat and become deformed.
  • First, you need to heat it up a little so that the solder melts a little and grabs the parts . Then up to about 700 degrees. Solder will flow into the cracks and solder the elements tightly. At this stage, special attention must be paid to the melting point. The melting difference between brass parts and solder is only 50 degrees, so care must be taken not to overheat the materials being processed. Otherwise, you can get one large ingot.
  • The resulting seam should have the same color as the material being soldered . This happens due to the diffusion of the base metal into the solder.
  • The last stage is cleaning the resulting product from flux residues in the form of sagging and glassy drops. To get rid of them, the product must be washed in three percent hot sulfuric acid. To do this, the elements should be immersed in it for a short time and then rinsed thoroughly with running water. You can heat sulfuric acid in a quartz glass test tube by placing it on a gas stove. In order not to interact with the acid, it is recommended to tie the treated parts to something before cleaning.
  • If we compare this soldering method with connecting elements using tin, then it is no different in simplicity. But the time will not be wasted, since the connection will have increased reliability and strength.

    Brass - soldering with a soldering iron

    Brass and copper, or brass and copper-containing materials, can be joined by low-temperature soldering using a 100-watt soldering iron.

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    The solder must be tin-lead alloy POS60 or higher. Phosphoric or soldering acid can serve as a flux.

    Before working with brass, remove the oxide film and degrease the surface. Soldering should be done with the soldering iron well heated.

    In addition, before soldering, it is necessary to pay careful attention to surface treatment with flux, which is carried out immediately before bringing a heated soldering iron with solder.

    Using a soldering iron, you can join brass using silver solders (PSr40 and higher) . However, the power of the soldering iron should be from 0.5 to 1 kW, and the heating temperature should be from 500C. It is recommended to use a borax-based flux, or you can use concentrated phosphoric acid.

    In this way, you can fill various defects formed in solid brass products (radiators).

    Brass soldering

    Brass alloys as solder are quite often used in construction when working with most metals. With their help, you can connect parts made of copper, steel and even cast iron.

    For example, cast iron elements are quite difficult to weld, since this requires a special electrode, flux and serious heating . At the same time, they can be joined quite easily using brass solder.

    A very common method is brass soldering when connecting pipes end-to-end, where it is very important that their internal cross-section remains constant. After using this method, the external dimensions remain practically unchanged, the internal cross-section is preserved, and the joint is reliably sealed.

    Using brass solder, you can connect various parts of cooling systems in electronic devices, copper tubes of a liquid cooling system in powerful servers.

    However, it should be borne in mind that brass seams are inferior in strength to welded joints, so they should be treated with care.

    In some cases, tinning or brazing steel is used. It is used to apply an anti-corrosion coating to the surface of steel parts . Tinning is most often suitable for processing small individual products; it is practically not used on an industrial scale.

    When joining parts made of low-alloy and carbon steels, hard soldering is sometimes used, where the brass solder must have a melting point above 450 degrees.

    When soldering brass alloys, it should be borne in mind that zinc fumes, which are toxic to humans, may be released. Therefore, there must be good ventilation in the room where work will be carried out.

    If you have all the necessary materials and tools and strictly follow the recommendations, the results of brass soldering will be the most positive. You can do all the work yourself, without resorting to the help of specialists, which is very expensive.


    Principles of soldering copper tubes with a gas torch

    Copper is highly resistant to moisture, acid and alkaline solutions, and wear and tear. Copper piping and fittings last significantly longer than similar steel products. When soldering copper tubes with a gas torch, the high electrical conductivity and heat transfer of the material should be taken into account.

    Externally, a copper pipeline with connection fittings resembles plastic pipes. The process of creating a sealed connection is much more complex. The metal is covered with a film of oxides with a high melting point. It is impossible to connect it with heat and pressure. A special soldering technology has been created for copper and its alloys.

    Soldering copper tubes with a gas torch

    Soldering technology

    Copper parts must be firmly connected, excluding destruction from external influences. The technology for soldering copper parts involves heating them and connecting them together with a fastening agent. Solder has a melting point lower than the base metal. It easily penetrates into the space between parts and fills capillaries. After cooling, a strong connection of materials is formed at the level of the crystal lattice.

    Flux dissolves the oxide film, allowing the heated solder to bond with the copper. Solder is brought to the junction of well-heated parts. Its melting point is lower. The solder melts and flows into all capillaries, evenly around the entire circumference. When the metals cool, they form a strong bond.

    Soldering components

    Copper pipelines are made for water supply and heating systems. You should start by drawing up a drawing. It is used to calculate the quantity of all necessary components:

    • pipe length;
    • number of fittings;
    • consumption of flux and solder.

    To create bends in pipes, fittings in the form of angles and tees are needed. It is more convenient to build up using couplings. Soldering of copper is carried out by inserting one part into another.

    Solder selection

    The strength and tightness of the connection depends on the melting temperatures of the material. There are two types of solders:

    Soft solder is used to connect water pipes in private homes. It consists of tin or lead with additional elements that improve fluidity. Metals have a low melting point.

    Hard solder is used to connect copper parts at heating temperatures above 450⁰. It contains silver or copper. Connections with refractory consumables are used for heating systems and steam pipelines with high pressure and temperatures over 130⁰.

    Flux selection

    The flux should dissolve oxides and promote the spreading of solder. Low-temperature compounds intended for soldering irons are suitable for copper:

    • sodium salt;
    • rosin;
    • petrolatum;
    • boric acid.

    All materials are easy to buy in the store. They are safe and do not emit harmful substances when melted.

    For high-temperature soldering, mixtures based on phosphorus and salicylic acid are suitable.

    Soldering tool

    For a tight and durable connection, you must have equipment for soldering copper products:

    • pipe cutter;
    • chamfer;
    • sandpaper;
    • metal brush;
    • brush;
    • gas burner.

    For marking you will need a tape measure and a pencil or marker. If the pipeline will be extended without adapters, a pipe expander will be needed. With its help, the end of one pipe is heated and expanded and a second one is inserted into it, by analogy with plastic connections.

    The chamfer provides smooth edges without burrs. It can be replaced with medium-grit sandpaper.

    The metal brush should go inside the pipe and clean off dirt and remove the oxide film. The brush is used to apply flux to the surfaces to be joined.

    Selecting a gas burner

    A gas burner for copper soldering is selected with a narrow nozzle, household. The width of the flame should not exceed the diameter of the pipe. The design of the tool is determined by the gas on which it operates:

    • MAPP gas consists of methyl acetylene propadeine and natural liquefied gas;
    • propane;
    • acetylene-oxygen.

    MAPP gas provides fast heating and is used by professionals for soldering refrigerators.

    Propane torches are suitable for use in small workshops. They can be turned on by a piezoelectric element when you press the gas start button.

    Acetylene-oxygen torches work with disposable small cylinders in confined spaces and with stationary gas containers.

    When choosing a burner, you should pay attention to the presence of an injector. The power should be sufficient to heat the pipe to the specified temperature in a couple of minutes. The purpose of the tool in the data sheet is for soldering. Among the materials that the burner can work with should be copper and its alloys.

    Acetylene-oxygen torch for soldering copper tubes

    Assembling a homemade gas burner

    A properly assembled homemade gas burner can replace a purchased one for small amounts of work. To make a tool with your own hands, you need the following parts:

    • brass tube Ø 15 mm;
    • wooden blocks for the handle;
    • a piece of brass for the nozzle;
    • control valve.

    The brass tube should be inserted into the handle perpendicularly if it is level. The bent one is mounted in the same axis with the handle. The drill must have a diameter of Ø 15 mm. They drill a hole in a piece of wood, insert the tube and fix it with epoxy resin.

    The nozzle hole should be 0.1 mm. It should be drilled with a 0.2–0.3 mm drill. Then the part is clamped in a vice, and the end is riveted with light blows until the hole is narrowed to the desired size. On the other side, a thread is cut for screwing into the tube.

    An adjusting screw is installed on the tube, near the handle. A thread is cut at the end to attach a fitting or hose to a gas cylinder.

    The nozzle can be made from a regular injection needle. It is made of high-alloy stainless steel and will withstand high temperatures. You need to make an adapter to attach the needle to the tube. Grind off the beveled tip and make it even so that the flame burns straight.

    Stages of soldering copper pipes

    The process of soldering copper pipes is simple, but requires precise execution of all operations. Before work, you should choose a method for connecting the pipes. You should prepare all the parts and tools in advance. Then soldering is carried out:

    1. Cutting the pipe to the required size, taking into account its entry into the fitting. Cleaning the ends.
    2. The surface of the copper pipe and the hole in the connecting part should be thoroughly degreased and cleaned with a brush and sandpaper. The metal should become shiny and clean.
    3. Lubricate the surfaces to be joined with a thin layer of flux.
    4. Insert the pipe into the fitting until it stops.
    5. Heat the connection using a torch flame. The copper should turn red.
    6. Apply solder to the end of the fitting and melt it.

    After cooling under natural conditions, slag, flux and solder residues are removed from the connection.

    Soldering copper pipes is available at home.
    Beginners are advised to first practice on scraps to learn to feel the heating temperature and the moment when to apply solder. Soldering copper pipes - master class


    How to solder wires with a gas torch?

    Connecting wires is a necessary operation when carrying out electrical work. Each method of connecting electrical wiring (crimping, twisting, soldering) has its own conditions for use. Soldering copper wires and soldering aluminum wires is the most reliable method of contact connection; in terms of strength, it competes only with welding.

    What is the process of soldering wires?

    Soldering differs from welding in that during the work it is not the ends of the metal wires being connected that are melted, but only the solder. Soldering must be done with a soldering iron and flux. An alloy of metals (tin, lead, antimony, silver) that melt at a lower temperature is used as solder.

    Solder melted with a soldering iron spreads, fills the gap between the metal wires and hardens, forming a strong, unbreakable connection. Soldering is reliable not only from a mechanical point of view, but also from an electrical point of view: the contact resistance of the conductors in the junction box depends on the contact area of ​​the parts being connected - the larger it is, the lower the resistance.

    This means that the wires heat up less and the connection is better.

    Considering that a fire can be a consequence of poor contact, in hard-to-reach places it is more advisable to connect the wires by soldering, thereby eliminating the possibility of their disconnection. It is appropriate to solder conductors in the distribution box even if it is located above a suspended or suspended ceiling.

    What is needed for soldering

    To solder copper conductors, you will need the following devices, materials and tools:

    • Electric soldering iron with a power of 80 watts or more
    • Solder
    • Flux
    • Flux remover (neutralizer)
    • Pliers
    • Flux brush
    • PVC electrical tape
    • Heat shrink tube of suitable diameter
    • Hairdryer

    You can solder copper wires not only with an electric soldering iron, but also with other equipment: a propane torch for soldering copper pipes, a mini gas torch, or a gas soldering iron with a torch attachment.

    A burner with a small torch is convenient in that it provides local heating of the twist without damaging the conductor insulation.
    Before using an electric soldering iron, its tip must be cleaned from oxides with a file or sandpaper. It is recommended to use POS-60 or analogues with a melting point of 190°C as a solder for copper.

    Flux removes metal oxides, promotes better adhesion of solder and its uniform spreading over the surface. It is better to use water-based flux - it does not contain alcohol or acid, so it does not require subsequent removal. If you use orthophosphoric acid, liquid rosin or LTI-120 for this purpose, then the products must be removed from the surface after work - otherwise they will destroy copper parts over time.

    Soldering procedure

    Soldering copper wires is technologically simple; copper can be processed well without losing its conductive properties, while the joints are strong. Soldering of copper wires located in the junction box occurs in the following sequence.

    1. The wires in the junction box are cut to the required length - 20–25 cm and correctly distributed by color: yellow-green is grounding, blue is zero, white (brown, red or black) is phase. Using special pullers, the insulation is removed from them, leaving bare ends 4.5–5 cm long.
    2. Connect the wires crosswise - this is necessary to ensure that the twisting is uniform and tight. To make the twist correctly, one wire is placed on top of the other; to connect three conductors, the first is placed on top of the other two. They twist it, then crimp it using pliers, cut off the excess tails and crimp it again.
    3. Before soldering, the twist is generously moistened with flux or placed in it.
    4. To solder the wires correctly, the twist is heated with a soldering iron or torch until the flux begins to boil. As soon as the flux begins to boil, solder is placed on top of the twist. For soldering copper, use POS-60 solder or analogues. When using a soldering iron to connect wires, its tip is located at the bottom of the twist.
    5. When the solder melts, it will spread under the action of tension forces and fill the twist, forming a reliable connection. The reddish copper color of the wires will take on a silver tint.
    6. The last step is to isolate the junction. To do this, the soldered area is wrapped with PVC electrical tape, starting from the insulation that has not been removed. The adhesive layer of the electrical tape dries out over time, and the tape itself can unwind. Therefore, a heat-shrinkable tube of suitable diameter is put on top of it, which is heated with a hairdryer until it shrinks in size. It presses the electrical tape tightly and provides additional insulation.
    7. Further soldering of wires in the distribution box - phase and neutral - is carried out in the same way.
    8. After soldering and insulating the twists, the wires are carefully placed in the junction box and closed.

    Specifics of connecting aluminum wires

    The sequence of actions when working with aluminum wires is similar to that described above, but there are specific nuances that need to be taken into account.

    Soldering aluminum conductors is technically more difficult due to the characteristics of the metal. The connection point is less durable than its copper counterparts.

    Aluminum instantly oxidizes strongly, forming a non-conducting film. Oxides must be removed, otherwise the metal will not be able to be soldered. To remove oxides, use zinc-vaseline pastes. To solder the cores, you need aluminum solder, and it is more refractory than tin, so the heating temperature must be higher. When molten, aluminum solder is more fluid than tin solder. To work, you will need a chemically active flux F-34 or F-64, which can cope with oxides.

    Since aluminum is a brittle metal, to ensure a reliable connection, it is better to solder it to a copper wire of the same cross-section. In this case, the too brittle and brittle aluminum conductor, together with flexible and durable copper wire, produces a strong connection that can withstand loads of up to 2 kW. The connection is reliable, soft and unbreakable. To solder aluminum and copper, it is better to use F-64 flux - it is stronger and even solders oxidized aluminum.

    If the requirements and technical conditions are met, the soldered connection of copper or aluminum wires will last for decades without reducing contact or overheating of the soldering area.


    Gas torch for aluminum soldering: propane portable soldering irons with disposable cylinders

    A gas soldering torch is used to control the mixing of oxygen and gas. Its main purpose is to obtain a stable flame of a given power. This tool has a wide range of applications, ranging from soldering small products to roofing work.

    The stores offer a wide range of different gas burners. They have high reliability and safety. At the same time, choosing the right model from a huge variety is not so easy. This review may help resolve this issue.

    Application of gas burners

    Soldering copper pipes is a popular method of connecting such products to organize water supply to a house or apartment. This technology for joining pipes dates back to the times of Ancient Egypt. Despite this, this method has begun to develop rapidly recently.

    The water supply system with soldering at the joints is capable of withstanding high thermal and hydraulic loads.

    Copper pipes are expensive. This is perhaps their only big drawback. But the advantages more than justify their price.

    They are widely used due to the following properties:

    • high corrosion resistance to external influences;
    • long service life exceeding tens of years;
    • resistance to temperature changes;
    • high plasticity, which allows the production of pipes of complex shapes;
    • ability to withstand significant pressure.

    When installing any pipeline, the most important thing is a reliable and tight connection of all its parts. When working with copper pipes, there are two main working methods: pressing and soldering. The second option is more reliable. It guarantees high quality connections and their durability.

    Gas torch for soldering.

    To join pipes using this method, you need a specialized soldering tool. For these purposes, a gas torch is mainly used for soldering copper.

    It is easy to use, economical and safe. In addition, you will also need: a pipe cutter, a chamfer, an expander, a hammer and a tape measure.

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    Burners may vary in fuel used, power and efficiency. Large enterprises and construction sites use devices with a stationary gas cylinder.

    For small volumes of work or for home purposes, it is advisable to use manual devices with a disposable cylinder.

    When choosing a tool, it is important to pay attention to its power. Its value is determined by the melting temperature of the solder that is planned to be used.

    Another widely used material is aluminum. It is used both in industry and at home. For reliable and high-quality connection of individual aluminum parts, soldering is used.

    It is not possible to weld this material. This is due to a change in its structure when heated.

    The torch for soldering aluminum copes with the task perfectly. Unlike other methods, soldering aluminum is not as convenient. However, it turns out to be the most preferable in many cases. Soldering can be carried out using a gas-air hot air gun.

    Soldering with a torch is more convenient compared to using an electric soldering iron. This is due to the ability to control the flame temperature, which allows you to work with both large and small parts.

    To obtain high-quality soldering, flux is used. When working at home, preheating the metal, as well as melting additional consumables, is easier.

    Burner design

    The operating principle of a gas burner used for soldering metals is quite simple. This requires a source of fuel; in this case, a cylinder with a liquefied propane-butane mixture is used. From it, through the reducer, the fuel flows to the built-in fitting on the base of the soldering tool.

    For home use, there are models with disposable cylinders. This is an excellent tool option for doing small jobs.

    Even in everyday life you may encounter the need to connect aluminum parts. Welding does not solve this problem. But soldering aluminum with a gas torch is quite possible.

    The gas then flows through a vertical channel to the nozzle. It has a built-in needle that allows you to adjust the intensity of the flame. The incoming gas flows at high speed. Due to its increase, the air required for the combustion process is enriched with the help of an air spool.

    A special spool sleeve allows you to regulate the amount of air entering the gas. By adjusting air volumes and gas supply speed, you can obtain a flame of the required quality and size.

    Gas burner for soldering, assembled.

    The device of a propane burner is:

    • needle for controlling fuel supply;
    • handle for changing the position of the needle;
    • jet body;
    • ejector;
    • spool;
    • divider;
    • radiator.

    The best materials from which all of the listed structural elements should be made are brass and bronze. They are characterized by high thermal conductivity and strength.

    These alloys are resistant to external influences and corrosion, which ensures a long service life of the soldering tool.

    There are also gasoline torches, which are also used for soldering. Their main difference is the formation of a fuel-air mixture.

    This tool is often used due to its advantages:

    • small dimensions and portability;
    • light weight;
    • ease of use;
    • ability to perform high-quality soldering.

    The design of such devices is as follows:

    • container for gasoline;
    • compressor for air supply;
    • hoses resistant to gasoline;
    • burner.

    Soldering rules and techniques

    A professional gas torch is best suited for soldering work. For soldering small-sized parts, it is advisable to use devices operating on lamp gas or acetylene.

    The results obtained when operating burners using lamp gas are of better quality. This type of fuel is also cheaper.

    When soldering parts in small quantities, it is advisable to preheat the parts. This will save time and ensure uniform heating of all elements of the assembly. As a result, warping and other defects will be avoided.

    Soldering torch drawing.

    Before starting work, the parts must be fixed in such a way that they do not have to be moved during soldering. This can be done on a workbench or a special device.

    Before soldering, a layer of flux is applied to the joints. If it is necessary to add flux during operation, the hot end of the solder rod is immersed in it.

    When soldering parts made of different materials, the flame must be directed to the one that has higher thermal conductivity. You need to be careful when working with elements of different sizes.

    It is important that all components are heated to the same temperature. In this regard, thick parts need to be heated longer.

    Do not melt solder in a tool flame. In this case, it may drip down. Melting occurs directly when the wire comes into contact with the parts being soldered.

    Solder will flow into hotter solder areas. Based on this, the flame must be directed before soldering. If it does not flow into the seam, this means that the part has not warmed up to the required temperature.

    You should not heat the solder joints for too long, as this can lead to a change in the composition of the solder, that is, to its burnout, and a decrease in the effectiveness of the flux.

    Features of choosing gas burners

    The range of available soldering torches is very large. The stores offer numerous options that differ from each other: power, design, size, fuel source, etc.

    As a result, choosing a gas burner is not an easy task. To solve it, you need to decide on the type of work for which you plan to use it.

    To join copper pipes, it is better to use gas-air burners. Stores offer various options for such a tool. They can be equipped with additional elements: adapters, tips, etc.

    Depending on the mixture they work on, there are:

    • propane;
    • acetylene-oxygen;
    • based on MAPP gas.

    The first version of the device can be multi-purpose or special-purpose. They provide a mixture saving mode and auto-ignition.

    The second option allows you to ensure reliable solder seams. Such a device is sold at reasonable prices with a stationary or disposable gas cylinder. These devices are for soldering highways and various elements of metal structures with refractory and soft solder.

    For home purposes or minor work, portable gas soldering irons are suitable. They can use different types of mixtures.

    Nozzle for a gas cylinder for soldering.

    The advantages of these tools for soldering copper pipes are as follows:

    • no need to connect to the mains and use cords, wires and cables;
    • versatility;
    • possibility of flame adjustment;
    • high security;
    • good quality seams.

    They provide a quality connection. This is especially true for instruments with a stationary cylinder. These burners are capable of melting almost any metal.

    When choosing soldering equipment, it is important to pay attention to their functions. The stores offer a large selection from various manufacturers. The cost of tools also varies widely and depends on the design features, additional accessories and kit.

    The torch can not only solder parts, but also perform cutting, processing at high temperatures, heating and defrosting. A propane torch will be convenient for working in the open wind. Acetylene will provide higher temperatures.

    The choice must be made based on the tasks to be solved.

    You can be guided by the following data:

    • burner type – injection or non-injector;
    • efficiency - small-sized models are suitable for soldering small parts, and large ones are suitable for working with massive metal structures;
    • type of gas mixture;
    • product material.

    There are options for tools that run on different types of fuel. It is still recommended to give preference to a burner that operates on only one type of fuel.

    When soldering is completed, you must wait until the product has cooled before starting inspection.

    Bottom line

    Gas soldering torches are an effective tool that will help with various installation work, roofing, soldering copper pipes and aluminum structures.

    The advantages of soldering with a gas torch are high safety, no melting, and low heating. This allows this method to be used for working with aluminum, since its structure can change at high temperatures.

    This technology provides reliable, high quality connections.


    How to solder copper pipes

    Among products made from non-ferrous metals, a special place is occupied by copper pipes, which are not afraid of corrosion and perfectly withstand aggressive environments. With their help, you can solve specific problems that are beyond the power of any other material. High responsibility is placed on the quality of the connection of products of this type with each other, for which several technologies are used.

    Areas of use

    Most often, copper pipes are used for gas transportation and as water pipes. The production of gas equipment, brake and hydraulic systems, car air conditioners and heat exchangers cannot be imagined without copper pipe rolling.

    The fact that copper pipes can be reliably joined without welding makes them an attractive option for creating transport routes for viscous flammable media. However, we are not just talking about household systems. For example, fuel lines for cars are often made from copper.

    Copper is very convenient for arranging water pipes, as it is not afraid of corrosion with constant contact with moisture. Such systems are characterized by a significant service life, without the need for repair measures.

    It should also be noted that copper pipes are resistant to increased pressure (up to 230 atm) compared to products made of plastic or steel. Their ability to tolerate freezing well is especially valued. The products tolerate chlorine well and have antiseptic properties.

    Connection methods

    To connect copper pipes to each other, several methods can be used, depending on the location of the work and the requirements for the pipeline (it can be monolithic or collapsible).

    Connection installation options:

    Welding of copper pipes is carried out using graphite, tungsten, copper or carbon electrodes. To organize appropriate conditions, the presence of nitrogen, argon or helium will be required. The work is carried out using a DC welding machine or a special torch.

    This method has one serious drawback, which is the significant difference in the characteristics of the welding joint and the pipe material. This applies to both the chemical composition and molecular structure, as well as the ability to conduct electricity and heat.

    This work should only be entrusted to a qualified specialist, since any mistake can lead to seam divergence.

    Instead of welding, which is quite difficult to implement, under normal conditions, soldering of copper pipes is practiced. For this, a gas burner or blowtorch is used. There is low-temperature and high-temperature soldering, which differ in the type of solder and implementation mode.

    Press couplings and crimp fittings are also used to create a permanent connection of copper pipes. The solder here is replaced by an adapter ring.

    In the first case, special pliers are used for crimping; in the second, union nuts are used (they are clamped with a wrench). When tightening the nuts, it is necessary to ensure that the ends of the copper tubes meet each other.

    By grinding the metal, a tight and durable connection is achieved. If you put the coupling on correctly, the connection will not leak for a long time.

    More about capillary soldering

    Most often, in domestic conditions, copper pipelines are organized using capillary soldering. The essence of this method is the so-called capillary effect, which provides for the possibility of raising liquid (liquid solder) using adhesion. The main condition is that the wetted walls are separated by a short distance.

    The organization of a connecting point for copper pipes in domestic conditions is carried out using special fittings for soldering or bell-shaped thickenings. The socket method is considered more reliable, since in this case we are talking about creating only one joint. Based on this, if possible, it is recommended to use socket connections instead of fittings.

    The procedure for preparing sockets

    Pipe cutting to size is carried out using a rolling pipe cutter. It is important to achieve strict perpendicularity of the end cuts relative to the central axis.

    Next, chamfer both ends. To do this, you will need a special device - a chamfer remover. Further cleaning of the internal and external surfaces of the connected pipes is carried out with a copper brush.

    Having inserted one of the pipe sections into a vice, it is flared in order to achieve free immersion of the second section into it. For this purpose, a special pipe expander of the appropriate diameter is used.

    The result of flaring is the arrangement of a socket at one end of the copper pipe. Testing the level of its readiness during the procedure is carried out by periodically immersing the other, smooth end.

    Soldering machine application

    In addition to the already mentioned pipe cutter, chamfer and pipe expander, some other tools will be required to solder copper pipes. First of all, we are talking about a soldering iron. Thanks to this device, a high-temperature zone is created in the joined area for heating the pipes and solder.

    As a rule, the function of a soldering iron is performed by a special gas burner.

    For procedures where soft solder is used, a compact hand-held device powered by propane is quite suitable. As a rule, such devices are equipped with disposable gas cylinders attached to the handle. Despite their small dimensions, burners of this type are capable of providing heating up to +1100 degrees: this is quite enough for working with soft solder. When purchasing, it is recommended to choose models with piezo ignition, which significantly simplifies soldering.

    Manual gas burner holders are equipped with an adjustment valve that allows you to adjust the flame length. The same valve allows you to stop the gas supply at the end of work. The purpose of the check valve is to shut off the fuel supply if the flame goes out.

    Other required materials

    Solder is sold in rods or wire with a lower melting point compared to copper. This makes it possible to connect copper pipes using the melting method.

    For soldering you will need a steel bristle brush. With its help, pipes and fittings are cleaned for subsequent connection. The brush can be replaced with fine-grained sandpaper.

    You cannot do without soldering flux and a brush (to apply the flux). You will also need a fireproof gasket, a hammer, a vice, and a tape measure.

    Fluxes and solders

    Good switching quality can be achieved with both soft and hard solders for copper pipes.

    When using low-temperature materials, the strength of the connecting seams is somewhat reduced, but the temperature regime used does not violate the integrity of the copper. Typically, these solders are 95% tin. Substances containing a certain proportion of silver are especially in demand.

    High-temperature soldering is carried out using solid copper-phosphorus solder (the proportion of phosphorus is approximately 6%), sold in the form of rods.

    Flux refers to a special composition in the form of a liquid or paste, due to which the molten material flows into the joint. This is achieved by improving the adhesion of the solder to the pipe and creating protection for the connecting seam from the penetration of air bubbles into it. In this case, the use of any flux for copper is permitted. They are usually made from zinc chloride or borax.

    Features of working with soft solder

    Using the low-temperature method, they install water pipes and heating systems, as well as solder pipes for air conditioners and refrigerators, the ambient temperature of which does not exceed +130 degrees. In this way, you can connect pipes with a cross-section of no more than 10 cm. As work progresses, copper products are rolled, cleaned, treated with flux and inserted into each other. The connecting section must be heated to +200-250 degrees, followed by applying solder to the joining edges.

    When using a burner, it is important not to overdo it, as its temperature sometimes rises to +1000 degrees. Therefore, it is recommended to heat the bonded surfaces in series of 15-20 seconds, constantly moving the flame.

    The guideline for the heating level is usually the color of the flux (it should darken). Next, soft solder is introduced into the working area: upon contact with the copper base, tin melts and flows along the flux into the seam.

    It is necessary to ensure that the space from the socket to the pipe is completely filled with heated material.

    Working with hard solder

    It is recommended to solder copper communications with hard solder in cases where they are planned to be used for operation at temperatures exceeding +110 degrees. In this case, the gas-flame method is suitable for creating temperatures above 00 degrees. In this case, it is necessary to anneal the copper to soften it.

    Thanks to the use of copper-phosphorus solder, flux can be omitted: the main thing is to achieve uniform heating of the switched edges. As for the stages of work, they are the same as when working with soft solder.

    What to pay attention to

    When soldering copper pipes with your own hands, you should remember the typical mistakes made by novice craftsmen:

    • weak heating of the pipe or solder. The result of this will be a lack of softening of the solder wire, causing it to stick to the flux only in fragments. The very first switching on of the pipeline may cause the seam to spread;
    • insufficient flux application. You need to spread the paste very carefully, without leaving any gaps. Otherwise, the solder will either not stick at all, or will fall off after hardening;
    • pipe overheating. This leads to flux burnout.

    When soldering at home, you must carefully follow safety rules, since we are talking about the use of open flames and chemicals. You need to work in glasses, gloves and an apron. It is advisable that the workplace be equipped with a good exhaust hood.


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