How to make welding wire

Wire for semi-automatic welding machine

One of the most famous forms of semi-automatic welding additive is welding wire. This design can completely replace similar electrodes and serve as a surfacing material.

The electrode is used for semi-automatic gas welding and for the electric arc method in a protective environment. A special feature of the material is the lack of coating.

To create a high-quality connection with a semi-automatic device, it is necessary to involve additional protection, which is the use of noble gases.

Wire for semi-automatic welding machine

Types of welding wire

Welding wire is manufactured for semi-automatic machines in the form of coils, which makes it possible to establish a continuous supply of the electrode to the working area. Such electrodes for semiautomatic devices are classified in several ways. There are solid, powder and activated consumables. This typology includes any consumables for a semi-automatic machine: steel, brass, aluminum wires and other types for a semi-automatic machine.

The main composition of metal flux-cored wire for a semi-automatic machine is a tubular electrode consisting of an outer metal shell with a core made of powdered materials. The metal shell can be cobalt, nickel, iron or stainless steel.

The shell conducts electrical current during the welding connection process.

The internal powder composition of metal flux-cored wire for semi-automatic machines consists of both elemental and alloyed (stainless) powders such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum and manganese.

Cored wire

During the electrode manufacturing process, metal strips enter the mill to form an outer metal shell for the powder core. Using a specialized feeding process, the powder enters the casing in exactly the required volume. The consumable material is rolled into a tubular shape and then stretched to a final size ranging from 0.45 to 0.125 diameter.

Some of the advantages of using semi-automatic metal cored welding wires are that under certain conditions (for example for aluminum) higher deposition rates, excellent sidewall adhesion, slag recovery, vapor reduction and application for special alloys can be obtained.

The outer metal sheath of the semi-automatic flux-cored wire conducts electric current for welding.

The internal components of metal cored wire consist primarily of alloys, manganese, silicon, and in some cases nickel, chromium and molybdenum, as well as very small amounts of arc stabilizers such as sodium and potassium, with the balance being iron powder. The electrodes make it possible to have alloy compositions used for specific applications in smaller batches than conventional large solid wire electrodes.

Many alloy compositions using chromium, nickel and molybdenum are now available, including austenitic and ferritic stainless steel alloys.

An electrode made of metal powders practically does not form slag-forming components in the internal filling of the wire.

Similar to solid MIG wire, welds made from metal cored wire will only have small islands of silica from the deoxidized products that appear on the surface of the weld.

Electrode wire for semi-automatic machine is used for connection when protecting carbon dioxide. Such consumables consist of 93% shell, and the rest is powder. The activated version is represented by SV08G2S as the most popular in use, which is produced using alkali metals with a high degree of ionization.

Electrode wire SV08G2S

Such components will increase the stability of the electric arc. Also, this type of wire is more tolerant of mechanical damage. Also, the low thermal conductivity of alkaline elements allows heat to be retained in the welded zone.

Semi-automatic welding of stainless steel parts

This type of semi-automatic permanent connection is the most common method under protective gas conditions in all areas of economic activity. By this method it should be understood that it is a semi-automatic wire, which simultaneously plays the role of an electrode for the electric arc and as a filler metal during melting in the weld pool.

The semi-automatic method means that the welder does not systematically change the electrode, as is the case with the manual method, but the wire is constantly fed into the work area thanks to the automatic mechanism of the semi-automatic machine. Such welding strongly depends on the correct settings of the machine parameters.

The main factors are wire speed, current strength, gas used to protect the seam, and its feed volume.

Semi-automatic welding

A common technique is to combine argon with carbon dioxide. To create the required weld, it is also necessary to take into account the composition of the base metal. There are 3 welding options used in the work:

  1. Short arc connection.
  2. Using jet transfer in the range of 0.8 mm to 3 mm.
  3. Pulse connection method.

Semi-automatic wire welding without gas

Stainless steel wire without gas for semi-automatic machines has also become widespread.
A special type of cored wire provides weld protection and arc stability. This method causes corrosion to form at the joint over time. Advantages of using welding electrodes for semi-automatic machines:

  • High production speed.
  • Minor fumes of gases.

Wire for semi-automatic arc welding has the following disadvantages:

  • Waste for purchasing a protective gas cylinder.
  • Use limited to open space.

Connection materials

To create a seam for welding, you need a semi-automatic machine, a gas cylinder and filler wire for welding stainless metals, in accordance with GOST 2246-70. If the cylinder is not used as an electrode, a powder electrode is used. According to this act, about 76 variants of wire for semi-automatic machines are produced. In addition, there are brands created according to specifications. Welding wire for joining stainless metals semi-automatically is the most used.

How to choose the right material for high-quality welding? Based on the thickness of the workpiece being processed, the welder selects the optimal size of the consumable.

Current value Welding material diameter Metal thickness
65 A 0.08 cm 0.1 cm
130 A 0.08 cm 0.2 cm
210-215 A 0.1 cm 0.3 cm
Up to 280 A 0.12 cm 0.4 cm
Up to 300 A 0.1-0.12 cm 0.5 cm
300 A 0.1-0.12 cm 0.6 cm
300 A 0.12 cm 1.0 cm

What types of steel can be welded to stainless steel? The Mig-Mag welding method is relevant when joining low and high-alloy stainless alloys and aluminum workpieces.

To obtain a high-quality seam when using welding wire, it is recommended to use:

  • combination of gases: 70% welding carbon dioxide and 30% argon;
  • The electrode protrusion during operation should be about 10 mm (no more than 12). Control of the consumption of welding consumables should be within the range of 6-12 m3/min;
  • Reverse polarity is applied during surgery. The direct type of polarity is relevant for connections under a layer of flux.

The tilt of the welding head should be 5-10 degrees. The welder moves from left to right, while the welding electrode is turned back. This method will create deep penetration and reduce the risk of defects.

Welding wire consumption control

Many semi-automatic machines with software have self-regulation of the arc. This is a more convenient option for the welder. You can control the electrode feed rate using the following several methods.

A test weld is made on the working metal. If the arc does not form or is unstable, it is necessary to increase the voltage value, and leave the feed rate the same. Thus, using trial and error, you can find the optimal mode.

Formation of a seam during semi-automatic welding

The electrode output speed of a semi-automatic device is adjusted by rotating the mechanical regulator.

We connect CO² protective gas to the system. The volume of mixture produced should be within 12 l/min. For cored wire, a lower electrode output speed is used.

Modern mechanisms and welding wire feed speed

Semi-automatic welding machines are divided into several categories:

  • for connection with cored wire;
  • to create a seam under a layer of flux;
  • for metal processing with gas protection;
  • universal semi-automatic machines.

Submerged arc welding

Equipment using inert gas is equipped with a special valve that controls the supply of the substance to the working area and automatically closes when the electrode supply ends.

To create a high-quality weld under a layer of flux, a wire with a wider diameter is used. Also, a funnel is attached near the semi-automatic burner to supply the appropriate flux.

Modern semi-automatic welding equipment is divided into:

  • household models;
  • semi-professional;
  • professional;

The classification of a semi-automatic device depends on the current strength and uninterrupted operation capabilities. Portable and stationary forms of equipment are also distinguished. Industrial semi-automatic machines are produced only according to a three-phase circuit, which makes it possible to create a better quality weld in terms of properties and appearance under production conditions.

Semi-automatic device for welding with wire without gas

Modernized modern semi-automatic machines use special roller mechanisms for feeding the electrode, which ensure the absence of mechanical deformation or similar effects. Universal models contain all the parts needed to perform various types of operations.

The wire electrode feeding mechanism includes an electric motor, feed rollers, and a gearbox. In turn, the feeding mechanism is also implemented in various schemes: feeding, pushing, universal.

With a push mechanism, feed rollers pull the welding electrode along the hose.

The speed of movement of welding consumables in semi-automatic machines is adjusted with each material estimate. The main adjustment elements are the gearbox and the gear set. To adjust small cross-section electrodes, DC motors are used, which can be smoothly adjusted by the number of revolutions. In this case, the exit speed of the element can be 150 m/h.

Thus, welding wire allows you to establish an uninterrupted process of joining materials, which is successfully used in many areas of industrial activity and for domestic needs.


Production of welding wire by drawing method - Machine tools, welding, metalworking

Drawing, by which wire products are produced, is a simple technological operation. Meanwhile, in order to obtain a high-quality product as a result of such a procedure, it must be carried out in the correct sequence and the appropriate equipment must be used for this.

Wire drawing production line

Main stages

The essence of the technology by which wire drawing is performed is that a metal blank made of steel, copper or aluminum is pulled through a tapering hole - a die.

The tool itself, in which such a hole is made, is called a draw; it is installed on special equipment for drawing wire.

The diameter, cross-section and shape of the finished product are influenced by the parameters of the die.

Metal drawing principle

Drawing, if we compare such a technological operation with rolling, allows us to obtain products characterized by higher surface cleanliness and exceptional accuracy of geometric parameters. Such products can be not only different types of wire (electrical, used for welding, knitting, etc.

), but also shaped profiles, pipes and rods of different diameters. Products obtained using this technology are also distinguished by better mechanical characteristics, since during the process of drawing the metal, hardening is removed from its surface layer.

As for wire production specifically, the drawing method can produce products whose diameter ranges from 1–2 microns to 10 or even more millimeters.

Drawing technology today is already well developed; for its implementation, modern models of drawing machines are used, operating without failures and allowing the technological process to be carried out at a speed of up to 60 meters of the finished product per second. The use of such equipment for drawing, in addition, allows for a significant reduction in the workpiece.

Technological diagram of stainless steel wire drawing

The production of wire using drawing technology includes several stages.

  • The initial workpiece is subjected to an etching procedure, for which a sulfuric acid solution heated to 50 degrees is used. Scale is easily removed from the surface of metal that has undergone this procedure, thereby increasing the service life of the dies of drawing machines.
  • To increase the plasticity of the workpiece being processed, and to bring its internal structure to a fine-grained state, preliminary annealing of the metal is performed.
  • The remains of the etching solution, which is quite aggressive, are neutralized, after which the workpiece is washed.
  • So that the end of the workpiece can be passed into the die, it is sharpened, for which a hammer or forging rolls can be used.
  • After all preparatory operations are completed, the workpiece is passed through wire drawing dies, where the profile and dimensions of the finished product are formed.
  • Wire production is completed by annealing. After drawing, the product is also subjected to a number of additional technological operations - cutting into pieces of the required length, removing ends, straightening, etc.

Features of the procedure

Any wire drawer knows such a drawback of drawing as an insufficiently high degree of deformation of the finished product. This is explained by the fact that when it leaves the processing zone of the drawing machine, it is deformed only to an extent limited by the strength of the end of the workpiece, to which the corresponding force is applied during processing.

The starting material that is processed on drawing machines is metal blanks obtained by continuous casting, pressing and rolling from carbon and alloy steels, as well as non-ferrous alloys. The drawing process is most difficult when a steel alloy is processed.

In such cases, for high-quality drawing it is necessary to bring the microstructure of the metal to the required state. To obtain the optimal internal structure of steel, a technological operation such as patenting was previously used.

This processing method consisted in the fact that the steel was first heated to the austenitization temperature, and then kept in molten lead or salt, heated to a temperature of about 500°.

Drawing methods

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The current level of development of the metallurgical industry, the technologies and equipment used in it for the production of metals and alloys make it possible not to prepare metal for drawing in such a complex and labor-intensive way. The steel billet leaving the rolling mill of a modern metallurgical plant already has an internal structure that is optimally suited for drawing.

The drawing technology itself and the drawing equipment have also been improved over the years. As a result, the wire drawer today has the opportunity to use modern drawing devices, which make it possible to guarantee high-quality products with minimal labor costs.

The quality and accuracy of processing performed on such specialized drawing machines is ensured not only by equipping them with modern working tools, but also by using a combined cooling system for their operation, which uses air and water.

Coming out of such a drawing machine, the finished product has not only the required quality and accuracy of geometric parameters, but also an optimal microstructure.

What equipment is used to draw metals?

The equipment that a wire drawer uses in his professional activities is called a mill. A mandatory element of equipping a specialized drawing machine is the “eye” - the die. The diameter of the die, of course, should always be smaller than the cross-sectional dimensions of the workpiece pulled through it.

Ratios of initial and final wire diameters for different types of drawing

Today, manufacturing enterprises use specialized drawing machines of two main types, which differ from each other in the design of the pulling mechanism. So, they distinguish:

  • machines in which the finished product is wound on a drum, which provides pulling force;
  • equipment with linear movement of finished wire.

Programmable continuous flow drawing machine

On devices of the second type, in particular, they perform drawing of pipes and other products that do not require winding on coils. It is wire, as well as small-diameter tubular products, that are produced mainly on machines equipped with a drum mechanism. Depending on the design, such machines can be:

  • one-time;
  • multiple, working with or without sliding, as well as those that use the principle of counter-tensioning of workpieces.

Multi-filament drawing machine has higher productivity and is beneficial in large enterprises

The single-shot drawing machine has the simplest design. By manipulating such equipment, the wire drawer draws the wire in one pass.

On a multiple-type drawing device, which operates in a continuous circuit, the formation of the finished product is carried out in 2–3 passes.

The main working body of any drawing machine, as mentioned above, is a die, for the manufacture of which hard metal-ceramic alloys are used - boron, molybdenum, titanium carbides, thermocorundum, etc.

The distinctive characteristics of such materials are increased hardness, exceptional abrasion resistance, and low viscosity.

In some cases, when it is necessary to make very thin wire from steel, the die can be made from industrial diamonds.

Drawing machine dies

The die is installed in a strong and tough steel cage. This is the so-called drawing board. Due to its plasticity, such a holder does not exert significant pressure on the die and at the same time reduces the tensile stresses that arise in it.

In modern enterprises, metal drawing is often carried out using prefabricated dies, which allow this process to be carried out efficiently even under conditions of increased hydrodynamic friction. In addition, the use of such a tool reduces energy consumption and increases equipment productivity by 20–30%.

Preparation of metal blanks

A wire drawer, using specialized equipment, will only be able to achieve a high-quality final result if the surface of the workpiece is properly prepared. Such preparation consists of removing scale, for which the following methods can be used:

  • mechanical;
  • chemical;
  • electrochemical.

A simpler and more cost-effective method is the mechanical descaling method, which is used for carbon steel workpieces. When performing such cleaning, the workpiece is simply bent in different directions, and then its surface is treated with metal brushes.

Descaler operating technology

More complex and expensive is chemical descaling, which is performed using solutions of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid.

A specialist performing such a complex and rather dangerous operation must be well prepared and strictly follow all safety rules for working with aggressive solutions.

A chemical cleaning method is indispensable if the wire must be made from blanks made of stainless and other types of high-alloy steels. It should be borne in mind that immediately after chemical cleaning, the surface of the workpiece should be thoroughly rinsed with hot and then cold water.

The electrochemical method of descaling is based on the method of etching in an electrolytic solution. Depending on the implementation features, this method can be anodic or cathodic.

Copper wire drawing

To become more familiar with drawing technology, you can consider it using the example of how copper wire is made. Blanks for performing this operation are obtained by casting, after which they are alloyed together and rolled. In order for copper wire drawing to be carried out with the highest quality, it is necessary to remove the oxide film from the surface of the workpiece, for which it is treated with an acid solution.

Winding finished wire onto a drum

The drawing process itself is not much different from the production of welding wire (or any other). In this case, the wire mill pulls the workpiece, passing it through die holes of a certain diameter. To produce copper wire of very small diameter (up to 10 microns), its formation can be carried out in a special lubricant composition (immersion method). In particular, the following can be used as such compositions:

  • complex solutions;
  • special emulsions;
  • complex substances.

The use of such compositions, through which the wire passes during its formation, makes it possible to obtain products whose outer surface is characterized by maximum cleanliness.


Everything you need to know about welding wire

Reading time: ≈7 minutes

In some welding technologies, welding wire is often used as a filler material instead of conventional electrodes. It is used in combination with or without shielding gas in automatic or semi-automatic welding. Welding wire is sold in reels and may vary in diameter and properties.

But these are just the basics. In this article, we will detail everything you need to know about welding wire. You will learn what types of welding wire exist and what marking is.

general information

So what is welding wire? Often this is a metal rod wound into a bobbin. The reel is inserted into the feed mechanism and the wire is directed into the welding zone in automatic mode or in a mode set by the welder. The wire can also be fed manually by simply unwinding the reel.

The wire can be solid, hollow or interspersed. But we will talk about this later. Made from various metals. For example, steel, aluminum, brass and so on. The wire material must be identical to the metal you are welding. That is, if you are working with an aluminum part, then the wire should also be aluminum.

What to pay attention to

We would like to draw your attention to the fact that it is not enough to simply select the type of wire and start welding. You need to know in advance what type of work you will be doing. Because each wire is designed to perform a specific job.

Agree, semi-automatic welding wire is unlikely to be suitable for cutting. Also, the wire can have different diameters. It is selected based on the thickness of the metal being welded. The greater the thickness, the larger the diameter of the wire. The diameter can be from 0.8 to 12 millimeters.

The most popular is 3 millimeters.

As we wrote above, the wire can be intended for welding various metals. Wire can also be classified according to this criterion. For example, the store sells titanium welding wire, which is used for welding titanium.

Also, before welding, you need to familiarize yourself with the composition. After all, welding wire also differs in its filling, as well as alloying. That is why, in order to correctly select the filler material, you need to know the composition of the welding wire.

A separate topic is the marking of welding wire. We'll talk about this later.

Wire marking

Marking is a set of letters and numbers in which the main characteristics of the wire are encrypted. Absolutely all wire is marked, regardless of its type or purpose. Within the framework of this article, we will not be able to list all the brands of welding wire, since there are more than 70 of them. But we will tell you how to decipher the brands yourself.

For example, the wire grade Sv-06Х19Н9Т was chosen. It is often used in electric welding, so it is very popular.

Let's start with the letters "St". “SV” means that this wire is intended for welding only. Not for cutting or any other work. Based on this, we understand that the first two letters describe the purpose of the additive. There is also the designation “Np”. It means it is a surfacing wire. Flux cored wire is designated "PP".

After this, a number describing the carbon content is indicated. In our example it is 06, which means 0.06% carbon of the total mass of the filler material. Following carbon, it is indicated which metals are present in the wire and in what quantities. In our example, this is chromium (“X”) in the amount of 19% (“X19”), nickel (“H”) in the amount of 9% (“H9”0 and titanium (“T”). If the metal content is less than 1% , then the quantity is not indicated, as is the case with titanium in our example.

But what if the welding wire contains other letters? For example, Yu or D. It is enough to remember what they mean. “M” is molybdenum, “C” is silicon, “F” is vanadium, “C” is zirconium, “D” is copper, “G” is manganese, “U” is aluminum.

Popular brands

We said above that there are more than 70 brands of filler wire. They are not easy for beginners to understand, so we will list the most popular brands. Suddenly you will find among them exactly the one you need.

Let's start with the Sv-10G1SN brand. This brand is one of the most frequently used. This wire is widely used in gas shielded welding. Low alloy structural steels can be welded. The brand is used in many areas of industry: from mining to oil refining.


Flux-cored welding wire: application, characteristics, features, pros and cons

Welding wire is an important part of any metalworking work. If we are talking about semi-automatic welding, then welding is impossible without this accessory.

To improve the quality of work, there are several types of wire. It is needed for many types of metal. The wire is made of copper, aluminum or steel.

Powder stands out significantly from the rest. It is possible to work without using gas. At the same time, metal processing is possible in different locations.

In our article we will talk about what powder-based wires can be. We will talk about the advantages of working with such material in metalworking.

Total information

The core cable is considered an empty tunnel that is produced from metal. There may be flux inside it, which is combined with metal powder. You can work with this type of wire if we are talking about semi-automatic equipment without using gas.

If the wire is made in the CIS countries, it is needed for a certain steel. We are talking about durable black metal and low carbon options. There are fewer other types.

The cable may have a specific function, or be ordinary. Wire is an impurity matter. You can work with them when there is metalworking in any workshop type of welding. Common wires are used in factories and for everyday purposes.

The cored wire works so that the arch ignites easily and burns stably. In this case, the cables melt slowly and there is no spattering.

Slag separation occurs in the inner part of the wire. It comes off easily when you need to clean the surface. To do this, it is important to reduce the temperature of the part. The connection will be smooth if you already have experience working with a welding inverter.

Pros of work

The first thing you need to know is that you can operate a semi-automatic without using gas. A cylinder operating on a gas installation is not needed. The wire is intended for metalworking without gas.

It contains fluxes in its interior. When the wire burns, it comes out into the outer part of the apparatus. In this case, a cloud appears that has the characteristics of gas compounds.

With this technology, metal processing is possible in any location, even in hard-to-reach ones. Do not transport heavy cylinders. The only thing you need to do is thread the wire into the machine and feed it into the weld pool yourself.

You need your other hand to guide the torch. The connection will be visible. You will be able to watch how it is formed.

Self-shielding wires intended for metalworking are used in industry for surfacing purposes. The use of cored wires helps in obtaining metal with a similar composition of parts.

You need to buy wire, which consists of flux and metal powder. The wire is selected based on what metal is used in the work.

Disadvantages of work

Flux cored wire has disadvantages. They can be both important and secondary in metalworking. But you still need to pay attention to them.

Craftsmen note the fragility of the wire, which is intended for arched metalworking. We are talking specifically about powder types. If it is tucked into the mechanism and a lot of force is applied, it may break.

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Another disadvantage when working is the limited placement. You can do metalworking vertically or from below.

This state of affairs is explained by the relative size of the bath during metalworking. Slag will appear at the top of the metal, which plays a negative role in this matter.

Vertical metalworking can be difficult. The issue will not be resolved even if you reduce the current strength.

This is due to the diameter of the cored wires and their output from 2.5 mm. In order for such a wire to function correctly, high current levels must be used. The cable will melt without interruption.

Craftsmen also say that the connections are of poor quality. Powder core cables have a void inside. It is impossible to place the flux inside so that it fits tightly to the structure.

There are large pores. Beginners who do not have much experience in welding face significant difficulties.

How to use cored wire

If you have once worked with natural welding using electrodes, then the new method will not bring difficulties for you. Powder additive is similar to conventional metalworking using electrodes. In this case, flux is used.

You can work in several ways. It is possible to feed wires independently, as well as to hold them in your hands. Another option is that you place the wires in the device and make the process simple.

9 times out of 10, when working with cored wires, you need to use static current and the opposite polarity. Certain cable models require the use of active current.

This happens in rare cases. This happens because direct current creates strong welds. In this case, the metal does not splash.

You need to watch how the cable flies out. The indicator should be from one and a half to two centimeters. You will find the exact figure in the instructions for the device.

It must be remembered that the burner must comply with the parameters. The hole at the outlet should be larger in diameter than the wire. The end of the light should be copper or one that consists of a copper alloy.

When making a connection, do not make any sudden movements with the torch. Everything should happen smoothly and using small fluctuations. Remember how the wire should be lit.

Before metalworking is carried out, it is heated in a furnace or using a torch. The outlet temperature should be 250 degrees.

The impurity material is heated for 120 minutes or more. The wire should not be heated if it consists of organic elements.

Let's sum it up

The wires used for semi-automatic welding are made of metal if we are talking about shielding gas. They can be made of flux, which will work in a similar way to gas.

The use of such wires will result in poor-quality seams. But sometimes powder additives are indispensable in work.

In many cases, the technician is unable to move the large device. If metalworking is carried out in a difficult location, then cored cables will be indispensable.

Even though there are pros and cons to this wire, sometimes they are not comparable to other materials. If you have had experience working with such wire, then write about it in the comments. We wish you success in your work!


Welding wire

Many types of fusion welding use a special wire called a welding wire. It is used in the manufacture of electrodes in the most common types of welding - manual arc, gas and using semi-automatic and automatic machines of all types.

It is a product of a certain length, made of metal, having a small cross-section in relation to the length. To make the right choice of welding wire brand, you need to know the basic criteria for its selection. The strength and quality of the connection obtained by different types of welding depends on this.


The characteristics by which welding wire is classified are as follows:

  • purpose;
  • type of surface;
  • structure;
  • chem. composition.

Depending on their purpose, products can be general or special purpose. Special-purpose wire is intended to perform specific work - underwater welding, welding of reinforcement, tank welding, etc. This wire has a chemical composition that simplifies the above work and helps obtain a welded joint of the highest quality.

General purpose wire is intended for welding, used in surfacing work and in the manufacture of various types of electrodes (the letter E is present in the marking).

Depending on the type of surface, the wire is produced non-copper-plated and copper-plated (the letter O is present in the marking). Copper-plated wire is used for welding structures and products made of carbon or low-alloy steel. Its purpose is to create anti-corrosion protection for the seam, as well as to promote stability of the arc. This is especially true when carrying out gas welding.

According to the structure, the wire can be solid, flux-cored and activated. The composition of the steel from which the wire is made is of great importance when choosing it for welding a specific grade of metal and depends on the symbol - marking.

Wire designation

Chem. The composition of the steel grades from which the wire is made is specified in GOST 2246-70 and according to it there are 6 grades made from steel grades with low carbon content, 30 grades from alloy steel and 41 grades from high-alloy steel.

The wire is considered low-carbon if its total content of alloying elements is less than 2.5%, alloyed if the total content of these elements is in the range from 2.5 to 10%, and high-alloyed - more than 10%.

The wire has a symbol that indicates the quantitative content of various elements in its composition.

The marking consists of numbers and letters, where the numbers are the number of elements that make up the wire in %, and the letters are the name of the chemical element. Welding wire may contain the following elements:

  • A (N) – nitrogen;
  • B (Nb) – niobium;
  • B (W) - tungsten;
  • D (Cu) – copper;
  • M (Mo) - molybdenum;
  • H (Ni) – nickel;
  • C (Si) - silicon;
  • T (Ti) - titanium;
  • Yu (Al) - aluminum;
  • F (V) - vanadium;
  • X (Cr) – chromium;
  • Z (Zr) – zirconium.

A number must be placed before the marking.
After it, St. is written with a hyphen. The number indicates the Ø of the wire in mm, and St. indicates that it is intended for welding. After St there are numbers indicating the amount of carbon (in hundredths of a percent). At the end of the marking there may be letters:

  • A – the content of phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) in steel is reduced;
  • AA - the wire is made of metal, which has a minimum amount of P and S, i.e. the metal is purified as much as possible from these impurities.

Sulfur and phosphorus negatively affect weldability, therefore, when welding critical structures, be sure to choose wire grades with a reduced amount of them.

An example of a symbol for the most used grade of wire when carrying out welding work and its explanation:



  • 3 – diameter in mm;
  • Sv – welding wire;
  • 08 – contains 0.08% carbon;
  • G2 – contains 2% manganese;
  • C – contains up to 1% silicon.

Sv08G2S is also used for manual arc welding, when performing surfacing work and when performing work using semi-automatic and automatic machines. It is used to weld critical pressure vessels, structures made of various steels, pipelines, boilers, etc. Solid diameter wire is available in Ø from 0.3 to 12 mm.

Cored wire

Such a wire is a hollow metal tube filled with metal powder and flux, the purpose of which in the wire is to protect:

  • seam from harmful gases released during welding;
  • seam from the harmful effects of oxygen;
  • welder's respiratory system.

Adding activating additives to the welding wire makes it easier to ignite the welding arc, reduces metal spatter and promotes the formation of an ideal seam. The seam during welding with flux-cored wire does not require additional protection. That is why it is often called flux or self-defense. The arc burns in a flux sheath, which helps protect the seam from harmful environmental influences.

The basic requirements for flux-cored welding wire are as follows:

  • should facilitate the initiation of the welding arc;
  • the arc must burn stably during the welding process without breaking;
  • should melt evenly;
  • should not allow metal to splash;
  • promote easy separation of slag after welding;
  • should form a seam, which in terms of strength characteristics should not be inferior to the strength of the metal being welded.

Welding wire for semi-automatic and automatic machines is produced with Ø from 0.6 to 6 mm and is wound on cassettes, reels or frames. This can significantly increase the productivity of the welder, reduce the cost of welding work and improve the quality of the formed seam. In addition, the function of the welding wire includes protection against corrosion in the seam during operation.

The diameter of the flux-cored wire is selected taking into account the following factors:

  • grade of metal being welded (the chemical composition should be as close as possible to the grade of steel that will be welded);
  • thickness;
  • welding current strength;
  • position of the metal during the welding process (bottom, ceiling, vertical, horizontal, inclined);
  • cutting edges before welding.

Flux-cored wire has another advantage - welding work can be carried out outdoors in strong winds, which allows welding work to be carried out at the location where it is carried out.

The technology of welding with self-shielding wire is no different from the technology of welding performed using solid wire.

Activated wire

For welding in a gas environment, a special wire is used, which is called activated. It contains salts of alkaline earth and alkali metals, which are easily ionized.

The wire sheath is made of Sv08G2S steel, which is thicker than flux-cored wire, and inside there is the specified filler powder in an amount not exceeding 7% of the weight of the sheath. This allows you to stabilize the arc and form a high-quality seam during welding.

Other types of welding wires

For welding most non-ferrous metals and their alloys, welding wires of various diameters made of aluminum, copper and brass are used.

For aluminum wire and wire made of aluminum alloys there is a domestic GOST 7871-75, which specifies its dimensions (from 0.8 to 12.5 mm) and chemical. compound. GOST 16130-72 applies to wire made of copper and copper-based alloys. Copper wire is available in Ø from 0.8 to 8 mm.

The diameters of welding wire produced in accordance with GOST in our country differ from foreign analogues.

And since automatic and semi-automatic welding machines are mostly foreign-made, there is a need to know analogues of wire produced abroad.

For example, an analogue of the most used brand Sv08G2S is copper-plated wire ER-70S-6, manufactured by the well-known manufacturer FARINA from China. Supplied with row wound spools. Foreign wire is marked according to AWS standards.

Welding wire can be supplied:

  • in coils (Ø 830 ÷ 850 mm, height 700 ÷ 1000 mm, weight up to 1.3 t);
  • skeins (Ø 220 ÷ 730 mm, thickness 60 ÷ 180 mm, weight 15 ÷ 120 kg);
  • on cassettes and reels weighing 5, 15 and 18 kg.

Coils, skeins, cassettes and reels can be supplied unpackaged and packed in polyethylene or special boxes. If the wire is supplied unpackaged, then before use it must be dried at a temperature of at least 200 0C for half an hour


Types of wire for welding

There are more than a hundred ways to join metals by welding. They differ in types of protection, degree of mechanization, condition of metals and other parameters. In many cases, welding wire is used to fill the seam space.

This is a convenient filler material that is produced in rods or reels. The efficiency of welding depends on its quality. To choose the right welding wire, you need to know its key characteristics.


Welding wire is made by cold drawing steel blanks with a low carbon content, a moderate amount of alloying additives and from high-alloy raw materials.

GOST 2246 70 standardizes the characteristics of welding wire made of all types of steel. The standard stipulates the division of products into two groups. The first is wire for surfacing, the second is for making electrodes. Belonging to the second group is marked with the letter E.

A product with a low carbon content and a moderate amount of alloying additives is available with or without copper plating. Copper-plated welding products are marked with the letter O.

The specific concentration of copper in the coating is specified in the technical specifications (TS) approved for each type of wire product. The standard specifies the thickness (diameter) of all products with maximum permissible deviations.

The marking includes a set of letter designations and numbers that you need to navigate to correctly select wire products.

The designation St informs that this type of welding product is intended for welding. The next number displays the mass fraction of carbon expressed as a percentage. The following are letters indicating the presence of additives.

Nitrogen is contained only in wire products with a high degree of alloying of steel raw materials. In such cases, indicate the letter A. The presence of niobium is indicated by the letter B, tungsten - B, manganese - G, copper - D, molybdenum - M, nickel - N, silicon - C.

The presence of titanium is indicated by the letter T, vanadium - F, chromium - X, zirconium - C, aluminum - Y. You should pay attention to the information presented also because the letter does not always correspond to the name of the chemical element.

Each letter symbol is followed by a number indicating the average mass fraction of the element in the steel alloy. If the number is not indicated, it means that the additive is contained in a trace concentration.

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The letter A present at the end indicates a high degree of purification of the material from sulfur and phosphorus. If there are two letters A at the end, then the concentration of sulfur and phosphorus is negligible.

Manufacturers and suppliers are required to guarantee proper storage and subsequent transportation of wire products. This requirement is also specified in the standard.


The sheath of flux-cored welding wire can be flat, have one or more bends, or two layers. The composition of the powder mixture is varied.

Most often, such a filler material is used when welding steel alloys with a low carbon content and a low degree of alloying. It can also weld non-ferrous metals, cast iron, and other alloys.

There are two main types of flux cored welding wire. The first type is called self-protective. The name speaks for itself. No additional protection is needed when working with such an additive. The use of the second type requires protecting the site of the seam being formed with fluxes or a gaseous environment.


The powder mixture is divided into 5 groups according to its composition.

The first group includes a mixture of titanium dioxide of mineral origin (rutile) and aluminosilicates in the form of feldspar, granite, and mica. For deoxidation, a complex compound of iron and manganese is introduced into the composition, and a protective cloud of gases is formed by cellulose or starch.

Calling the welding wire “rutile-organic” reflects its composition. It is a self-protective type that provides a low-porosity joint and is widely used in construction.

The second is the rutile group. The filler contains similar powders in a different proportion and without the addition of organic matter. Therefore, the welding process with rutile wire is carried out in a carbon dioxide environment.

The third group represents a carbonate-fluorite mixture. It contains carbonates, titanium oxide, aluminosilicates, and oxides of alkaline earth metals. A mixture of iron compounds with manganese or silicon is deoxidized.

Sometimes titanium and aluminum are added to them. This type of welding wire can be used both without protection and with protection through a gaseous environment.

The fourth group is a mixture of rutile and fluorites, supplemented with oxides of alkaline earth metals and aluminosilicates. The deoxidizing additive is a compound of iron with manganese, silicon (ferromanganese, ferrosilicon). The use of this wire requires gas protection.

The fifth group includes fluorite powder with a small amount of oxides and deoxidizers. As the latter, not only ferromanganese was added, but also aluminum and magnesium. Welding with fluorite wire does not require protection.

All fillers contain iron powder.

Mechanical properties

In addition to classification by composition, flux-cored wire is divided according to mechanical qualities. An important characteristic is impact strength. The designation encodes the minimum temperature value at which the welding seam can withstand a standard load of 35 J/cm2.

The numbers range from 0 to 6. In some cases, letters are indicated. Thus, the value of the minimum temperature of +20 °C at which the seam can withstand the specified load corresponds to the letter K.

The higher the number, the lower the permissible temperature. The number 6 corresponds to a temperature of -60 °C. In the marking of a powder additive, an additional letter indicates the recommended location in space. Standard characteristics and marking features of flux-cored wire for arc welding are reflected in GOST 26271-84.


Inside the activated welding wire there is a small amount of powders, which are pressed in the center and look like wicks. This type of filler material is used to work in pure carbon dioxide or its mixture with other gaseous substances.

The activation function is performed by carbonates of alkali metals and barium; oxides of titanium, silicon, magnesium; calcium fluoride. As a result, the welding arc burns stably, and a high-quality seam is formed without metal spattering.

Examples of using

The choice of welding wire in each specific case is determined primarily by the chemical composition of the alloy from which the workpiece or part is made.

Steel products are welded using steel filler material with the indicators of GOST 2246 70. Aluminum products are welded with wire made only from aluminum or its alloy with magnesium and silicon. For argon welding of aluminum products, wire and a special flux are used.

Stainless alloys are joined using welding wire made of stainless alloys with the addition of silicon and carbon. Sometimes the composition contains chromium and nickel.

For welding copper products, the welding wire is made from highly pure copper obtained by electrolysis. A mixture of borax, boric acid, and sodium chloride is used as fluxes.

Bronze wire is in particular demand. It is used in many industries; electrodes are made from it for all types of welding.

Welding of parts made of nickel alloys is carried out with alloyed wire. It contains manganese, magnesium, silicon, and titanium as additives.

When welding titanium products, choose a powder type with a composition that is as close as possible to the composition of the part. The calculation of the required wire is carried out taking into account the fact that for 1 meter of seam a minimum of 1.2 meters of additive is required.

Selecting the correct reference filler material requires a lot of knowledge. You should carefully understand the essence of the upcoming process, take into account all the characteristics of the raw materials, and pay attention to the shelf life of the wire . If necessary, it is appropriate to seek advice from experienced welders.


Wire production: list of equipment, description of manufacturing technology

Wire is a metal thread or cord. As a rule, the wire is round, but there are also products with hexagonal, square, trapezoidal or oval cross-section. The wire can be made of steel, copper, aluminum, zinc, nickel, titanium and their alloys, as well as a host of other metals. They also began to produce bimetallic and polymetallic wires.

More often, the wire is produced by drawing or drawing through successively smaller holes. As a result, it is possible to obtain wire of different diameters up to tens of millimeters.

The wire has a wide range of applications. So it can be used in the manufacture of electrical wires, springs, hardware, drills, electrodes, thermocouples, various electronic devices and for other purposes.

Equipment for wire production + video

Wet drawing mills, as a rule, operate using sliding technology and can be combined with dry drawing mills of any multiplicity. They are equipped with independent synchronized electric motors in various modifications.

Also widely used are straight-through dry drawing mills, which are characterized by the most modern design. Such mills are mainly used for the production of small-diameter wire from high-, low-carbon and stainless steel.

The main distinguishing features of the mill are its compactness, the absence of belts and pulleys between drives and drums, quiet operation, and the absence of vibrations. Structural design is the main feature of such mills.

Thanks to the strength and stability of the frame, the mill can be completely transported, hence the minimum time spent on installation and laying cables.

Direct-flow dry drawing mills are characterized by a horizontal arrangement of drums. Such mills are usually used for the production of wire from low- and high-carbon steels, as well as from stainless steels.

The advantages of such equipment are high reliability, ergonomics and ease of operation of the structure, which does not require a special foundation during installation.

The unit also features a highly efficient drum cooling system and offers optional equipment.

A variety of wire rod unwinders are also useful for wire production.

How to make wire rod from copper:

Also in the production field, cigar-type twisting machines, double-twisting machines and rope-type machines are widely used.

Wire production technology + video on how to make it

Wire production involves a number of classical operations that can be repeated up to three times. The number of repetitions depends on the size of wire diameter needed.

The first stage of the process is the heat treatment of the metal. Then the metal surface is prepared for drawing. At the final stage, drawing itself to a given size is carried out.

How to do it:

In order to provide the wire with special properties, additional operations are introduced during its production. For example, different coatings are applied or heat treatment is carried out. The main equipment for wire production is a furnace with low-oxidation heating. Scale is removed using solutions of hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. Borax, lime, phosphate salts and copper are used as a lubricating layer during drawing.

Another equally important equipment for wire production is mills with intensive cooling of drums and dies. They are used directly for drawing. The use of this process ensures high ductility and strength properties of the metal.

Through the use of modern lubricants, high corrosion resistance, high adhesion to various materials and optimization of the amount of lubricant are ensured.

In order to increase the quality of the produced wire, drawing equipment should be systematically updated, equipping it with additional devices, for example, for relieving internal stress and for other purposes.

In order to obtain different coating thicknesses, it is recommended to apply the zinc coating by immersing the wire in an appropriate solution. By using special cleaning materials and emulsions, zinc coatings can be given maximum shine, smoothness and corrosion protection over a long period of time.

Galvanizing line:

The quality of the finished product largely depends on compliance with all requirements and wire manufacturing standards. The stability of the technological process has a direct impact on the quality of the finished product.

It should be noted that one of the trends in modern wire production is the transition from the classical technology of chemical etching in a standard solution of hydrochloric acid to clean the surface of the wire rod from scale to a more promising and maximally safe for the environment, acid-free technology of mechanical cleaning.

For this purpose, modern equipment for mechanical descaling is used. With its help, you can achieve a high degree of purification, comparable to that obtained with standard acid etching. At the same time, the technology is characterized by very large practical applications.

Moreover, the new technology avoids significant problems associated with the disposal of waste solutions.

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steel welding wire

page » steel welding wire

This section discusses steel welding wire.

For blacksmiths, forges, industries and individuals (homemade workers, self-taught people and enthusiasts).

See below for useful information to help you choose.

Choose brands from the list below the article.

Copper-plated welding wire SV08G2S-O ChZSM. Photo Welding Technologies

Steel wire occupies an impressive niche in the list of materials used in industry and in everyday life . Welding, as one of the types, has the properties of effective use in welding technologies.

Scope, purpose

Steel material in the form of wire has found application in automatic and semi-automatic welding . For solid wire, welding is performed in a shielding gas atmosphere (!materials for argon arc welding are in great demand).

In cases where the use of a gas cylinder is difficult, the consumable material is made in the form of steel cored wire. Tubular wire is filled inside with a special powder (flux).

The flux contains components that protect the weld from the external environment.

Copper-plated steel welding wire (1 kg; diameter 0.8 mm) Elitech. Photo

Steel welding wire serves as a blank for the production of piece electrodes . It is used as an additive for surfacing surfaces in order to give them the necessary mechanical (wear resistance, corrosion resistance and others) properties.

Symbols and markings

Solid wire for welding or surfacing is marked in accordance with GOST 2246-70. The designation includes the standard size, method of application, chemical composition, information about manufacturing technology, indicates the possibility of manufacturing electrodes, as well as whether they belong to a wire with a copper-plated surface.

Marking of flux-cored steel wire is based on GOST 26271-84 . The designation of welding and surfacing wire differs.

The designation of welding flux-cored wire does not specify the detailed chemical composition; only the content of carbon, phosphorus and sulfur is specified. The standard size, whether the wire is flux-cored, mechanical characteristics (yield strength, impact strength), and permissible spatial positions during welding operations are indicated. The designation determines the type of seam protection - self-protective or gas-protective.

Copper-coated wire SV-08G2S-O (18 kg; 1.6 mm) CEDAR. Photo

Flux-cored wire for surfacing, in addition to indicating the category of flux-cored wire and the technology of use, the chemical composition of the powder material must be given. Together with the standard size of the wire, the conditions of use are regulated: with gas or other protection, with submerged arc surfacing or in any of the options. In some cases, it is useful to know the accuracy class for deviations of the nominal diameter size. It is also indicated in the designation.


Steel welding wire is divided into the following groups :

  • low carbon;
  • alloyed;
  • highly alloyed.

Low-carbon and alloy wires are produced with a copper-plated surface. Copper plating increases corrosion resistance. The stability of the welding arc is increased by reducing friction when feeding through the tip hole and improving the current-carrying characteristics characteristic of copper.

Copper-coated wire SV-08G2S BARS. Photo

The development of wire drawing technology makes it possible to obtain it with a perfectly clean surface. This is where the name of steel welding wire came from - polished . In terms of its characteristics, it is close to copper-plated and creates a more stable arc than steel with a regular surface. Some high-alloy wires (mostly molybdenum-containing wires) are poorly coated with copper. Such products are made with a polished surface.


Wire drawing: technology and equipment - drawing mills and machines

Drawing, by which wire products are produced, is a simple technological operation. Meanwhile, in order to obtain a high-quality product as a result of such a procedure, it must be carried out in the correct sequence and the appropriate equipment must be used for this.

Wire drawing production line

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