What standard are silver and gold?

Silver samples: which is the best?

Only jewelers know that pure silver is a precious metal that is not only beautiful, but also impractical. The highest standard of silver means not only quality, but softness, difficulty of processing and rapid loss of gloss.

If you intensively use openwork jewelry made of pure silver, and even more so if you clean it with abrasive materials, then it will become smooth and lose its relief. This threatens the decoration with loss of expressiveness and artistic value.

What are the hallmarks of silver, and what does this mean in terms of the use of the metal in jewelry and other activities?

As a result, master jewelers from all over the world began to use in their work not pure silver, but alloys with alloyed metal. But each master has his own percentage of ligature additions. Some consider it acceptable to add no more than 5%, while others “dilute” the source material by half with additives. Each alloy has its own characteristics, and the choice of jewelers depends on the purpose of the product.

Types of sample

What are the hallmarks of this precious metal? On the finished silver product there is a numerical value indicating the ratio of metal and alloy. Jewelry, dishes and decorative items are made from samples of the following basic values:

  1. 720 a metal that is susceptible to oxidation and changes over time. Mainly used for making small parts of clothing: buttons, clasps and zippers.
  2. 800 and 825 are metals suitable for the production of tableware and interior elements. A high percentage of silver content (80 - 83%) is suitable for the active use of objects made from such metal in everyday life. Periodically, an oxidizing film forms on products, which must be removed.
  3. 875 and 916 are high-quality metals that are actively used for the production of gift sets, wine glasses, glasses, ashtrays and glasses. To add sophistication to silver items of this standard, jewelers often complement their finishing with gilding.
  4. 925 a classic and proven combination of ligature additives and pure metal. Is this a good test or not? Products of this sample retain their beautiful appearance and are resistant to air and water.
  5. 960 in appearance and physical properties it is equivalent to pure silver. However, such metal is short-lived, so it is almost never used for making dishes or jewelry.
  6. 999 pure silver, highest standard. Most often stored in bullion, it is sometimes used to produce fine jewelry or decorative items.

Often silver (for example, 825) is added to 525 gold to increase the durability of the product and reduce its price.

How to measure a sample?

There are two systems used to measure precious metal samples: metric and carat . In Russia, metric measurement of the quality of metals has been adopted since 1927. However, when buying jewelry abroad, you need to first familiarize yourself with the ratio of measurement scales for one and another method:

  • 20 carats = 830 standard;
  • 21 carats = 875th standard;
  • 22 carats = 925th standard;
  • 23 carats = 960th standard;
  • 24 carats = 999th purity.

Which sample is better?

The best samples are characterized by resistance to external influences and retain their unique shade. But jewelry and utensils made of silver, the share of which is 96 - 99%, have too high ductility and are unsuitable for daily use.

So what is better - which sample? It depends on the purpose of the product. When choosing interior items, dishes or jewelry, you need to pay attention to products of 875 and 925 samples. It is this metal that gives jewelers the opportunity to realize the most unusual ideas. However, if the alloy contains more copper, then its popularity decreases due to the yellowish tint of the products, but the strength will be increased.

The alloy of silver with cadmium is also highly valued, because such a metal acquires a noble white tint and increased mechanical resistance.

Varieties of silver

What to give preference to : light or dark metal?

Buyers are accustomed to seeing white silver on store shelves and do not think that there are several varieties of the precious metal. Silver differs in color and composition:

  1. Blackened - the production of such metal is preceded by a complex technological process. Blackened objects are popular among connoisseurs of exclusivity and lovers of amulets (such metal is believed to have mystical properties).
  2. Sterling is 925 silver with a beautiful shine and exquisite white color. This type of metal received its name thanks to the English coins that were minted from it.
  3. Matte - the popularity of silver jewelry is growing, but buyers want something new and unusual. That's why jewelers invented matte silver - by treating the surface of the product with special corrosive substances or a sandblasting machine. Jewelry is first made and then processed at the final stage, giving the pieces a unique look.
  4. Filigree - filigree manufacturing technology involves soldering many thin silver wires together. The high cost of filigree products is due to the high demands on the skill of the jeweler and the complexity of their manufacture.

Filigree silver jewelry

Most items and jewelry presented on Russian shelves are made of sterling silver.

Technical metal and imitation

Technical silver is distinguished by its lack of fineness and precious metal content of less than 80%. This metal has its advantages - it is durable and lightweight, has good electrical conductivity and conducts light well. Therefore, technical silver has found its application in electronics and apparatus parts , as well as in industrial production.

have long been known , which formed the basis for the manufacture of silver ionizers for water and the popularity of silver tableware and jewelry. Due to the high cost of the metal, there is always a risk of it being counterfeited by fraudsters. Imitation of silver also occurs in the decoration of monuments and the manufacture of decorative items. Precious metal substitutes are also used in production equipment. Usually, instead of silver, they use:

  1. Nickel silver - this metal for the production of cutlery is necessarily coated with a small layer of pure silver. But when this layer wears off, a metallic taste will be felt when using nickel silver cookware.
  2. Cupronickel , an alloy that has received this name, combines 84 sterling silver, copper, manganese and nickel. Dishes are made from it, but they cannot be called useful .
  3. Silver leaf - imitates white gold leaf. Intended for finishing furniture, walls and decorative items.

The minimum value of jewelry standard accepted in Russia is 800. Everything else must be designated as costume jewelry.

Rules for choosing silver products

Please note that when buying dishes or jewelry at local markets in foreign countries, you can get cupronickel or technical silver instead of the promised silver. It is almost impossible to distinguish them externally, but even short-term use will reveal all the shortcomings of counterfeit silver.

It is safest to buy jewelry and tableware in trusted jewelry stores or directly from the manufacturer through an online store .

Not sure which sample to choose? Choose based on the purpose of the product. For example, household silver with 87.5% pure metal in its composition is suitable for tableware, and for jewelry it is better to pay attention to silver with 925 purity.

Is it possible to determine the quality of silver yourself?

How to choose and buy the highest quality silver so as not to be deceived?

You can definitely find out the quality of the product by contacting a jeweler who will carry out an assessment. If the product is of poor quality, you can return it to the store within 14 days after purchase. You can also use express tests that are quite suitable for doing at home:

  1. Testing with a magnet - a high-quality silver product will not be attracted to a magnet, however, some alloy metals do not react to magnetic influence.
  2. Silver heats up well in the hand and cools quickly in a cold environment, for example, in the cold.
  3. Pure metal will darken from sulfur ointment or iodine. To test the quality of the alloy, it is enough to leave a tiny spot on the product and check whether a trace remains. But if the silver is real, then it will not be easy to wipe it off.
  4. You can check the authenticity of jewelry or dishes using chalk real silver will darken upon contact with the rock.

    925 sterling silver ring


You should not bend, melt or cut a silver item to check its authenticity - you will simply ruin the item, regardless of whether it is genuine or not.


The absence of a hallmark on a silver product means either that it is not silver, or that the silver content in the alloy is below 800. In Russia, such items are not hallmarked, but in other countries, for example, in China, it may be present.

Silver samples: which is the best? Link to main publication

Source: https://Fininru.com/dragmetally/luchshaya-proba-u-serebra

Table and characteristics of gold and silver samples

Gold and silver in their pure form are almost never used in jewelry. These metals have high ductility and softness, as well as low wear resistance, which makes them unsuitable for jewelry and products.

Alloys that are used instead of these metals contain a certain percentage of gold and silver. Depending on how much precious metal is contained in the alloy, it has a certain standard.

Let's look at samples of gold and silver, the tables of which will be presented below.

Now in our country they use the metric system. It shows the content of pure metal in the alloy in parts per thousand. In the West, the karate system is more popular. Pure gold has a purity of 24 carats. An alloy containing half gold is 12 carats, and the most common 585th hallmark is 14 carats.

Sample on a gold product

In the Russian Empire there was a different sampling system - the spool system. It is somewhat similar to carat, but in pure gold there were not 24, but 96 spools, the remaining sample values ​​are also proportional to the percentage of pure metal.

Gold samples

Pure gold does not occur in nature; it is an alloy of gold and silver with various additives. After its purification, additional metals are still introduced into the metal to improve its characteristics.

Gold is alloyed with silver, nickel, copper, palladium, platinum, and zinc. In the Russian Federation, such hallmarks are legally permitted for use in jewelry - 375, 500, 583, 585, 750 and 958.

But, in addition, in the world, as in Russia, other samples may be used for other purposes.

Gold samplesCarat systemSpool system
990 and above 24 K 96
958 23 K 92
916; 917 22 K 88
875 21 K 84
833 20 K 81
800 19.2 K 76.8
792 19 K 76
750 18 K 72
625 15 K 60
585; 583 14 K 56
500 12 K 48
417 10 K 40
375 9 K 36
333 8 K 32

1) 350 gold. This alloy contains 35% pure gold; the alloy may have a yellowish or reddish tint.

Due to the small gold content, it loses almost all of its useful properties - such as, for example, inertness, therefore it oxidizes very easily and becomes unattractive. Most often used for making cigarette cases, figurines, furniture, interior decoration, etc.

Jewelers can use such an alloy to obtain metal of a higher standard. There are also 325 and 333, however, they are rare and have no meaning in jewelry.

2) 375 gold. This alloy was highly popular in the USSR; wedding rings were mainly made from it, since it is stronger than the most popular - 575 standard, and more comfortable to wear. This metal is not called gold, but a gold-containing alloy.

3) 583 Sample. Almost the same as the 585 sample, which is not used now, but during the Soviet era it was very common. Its replacement with 585 was due to the popularity of this type of alloy. The paradox is that it happened that the 583 sample contained even more gold than the 585 sample.

4) 585 gold. The most popular and popular alloy. Widely used to make jewelry in a wide variety of colors - pink, yellow, green, white, red and others. It goes well with both precious and semi-precious stones. It is easy to process and has sufficient stability. Can be used for daily use.

5) 750 gold is another common standard. The so-called gold standard. The alloy is durable, although it is used in products that are not too large. Slightly inferior to 585 test in terms of strength. It lends itself very well to processing, for which it is valued among jewelers. It may be white or have a greenish, pinkish or reddish tint.

6) 875 gold. Not common among us, but most often found in the countries of the Middle East. It is almost impossible to find such a hallmark on a product, because where it was made, it will be tested using a karat assay system. In Mexico, coins are minted from this alloy.

7) 999 standard gold. This kind of gold is called red gold. It has no impurities and has the highest cost. It is rarely used to make jewelry because the metal is very soft.


This metal is mainly used in banking. It is used to make bars and coins for investment. Sometimes it can be used to make awards and medals.

Sample on a silver ring

Silver samples

Silver in jewelry has a higher standard than gold 925, and the minimum standard of silver is 800. Silver also exists with lower standards, but it is not used anywhere.

Silver samplesCarat systemSpool system
999 24 K 96
970 23.28 K 93
960 23 K 92
950 22.8 K 91
940 22.56 K 90
925 22 K 88
916 22 K 88
900 21.6 K 86
875 21 K 84
830 20 K 80
800 19 K 77
770 18.5 K 74
750 18 K 72
625 15 K 60
600 14.4 K 58
500 12 K 48
375 9 K 36

1) 800 sterling silver. This alloy contains 80% silver. The rest is copper, although there are other impurities. Due to the high copper content, the alloy has a yellowish tint. It has casting properties, which makes it possible to make durable devices from it. Over time, it does not wear off or change shape.

2) 830 silver. Such silver must contain at least 83% pure metal. In appearance, it is no different from 800 silver, has a yellowish tint and is considered low-grade. Often used for making decorative jewelry.

3) 857 silver. It contains at least 87.5% silver. It can also be found in jewelry, but is most often used for making silverware, figurines and dishes. Has a less pronounced shade.

4) 925 sterling silver. The bulk of silver jewelry on the market is made from it. It is also called sterling silver. Its color does not differ from the color of pure metal and is practically in no way inferior in appearance to white gold and platinum.

Less susceptible to oxidation than all other samples. Considered the silver standard. It is also used for minting collectible coins in industry.

5) 960 silver. Silver in this alloy is at least 96%. Its physical properties are no different from pure silver. Easily processed, soft, plastic. Used for making highly artistic products, not suitable for wearing.

6) 999 silver. As with gold, 999 is the highest standard. The 1000 sample does not exist; it can be used as something virtual or conditional. This is due to the fact that at the moment there is no technology that would make it possible to obtain silver of such purity.

It is not used in jewelry making. Used primarily in jars to make bullion and coins. Also, cutlery, jewelry and radio elements are coated with 999 silver. It is also used in medicine, for example, it is used to cover baby teeth to prevent further development of caries.

It is almost impossible to determine the metal sample by eye. All jewelry manufactured in the country must have an approved sample and be tested. If a product is brought from abroad, it must bear the stamp of the Russian Assay Office. When choosing gold jewelry, it is best to buy 575 or 750, as they are resistant to impact. Silver products are of 925 standard.

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Source: https://HochuZoloto.com/proby/proby-zolota-i-serebra-tablica.html

What types of silver are there - a jewelry guide from Ukrzoloto experts

Silver is the second most significant metal after gold and has a silvery-white color. It is quite viscous, flexible and easy to polish. In its pure form it can be cut with a knife, but it is harder than gold. Silver jewelry is loved for its democracy and diversity in design.

In its pure form, argentum is a capricious and too soft metal. Copper is added to it for wear resistance. This allows you to create practical and durable jewelry.

“Ukrzoloto” will tell you which standard of silver is best for jewelry, how to distinguish the metal from white gold and why silver turns black .

Silver jewelry is always in fashion: with diamonds, without inserts or evening necklaces

Types of silver samples in the metric and carat systems

Fineness – the amount of precious metal in the alloy and the name of the special mark on the product. Ligature – metal impurities in a silver mixture.

Silver alloys are not as varied as gold alloys. They are similar in color and properties. Standard jewelry alloys are 960, 925, 916, 875, 800 and 750. These are compounds with copper, sometimes partially with platinum or germanium, zinc.

999 (24K) – pure silver , which is used to cover cutlery or jewelry, and make ingots. 0.1% consists of minor impurities, so it is difficult to achieve absolute purity of the metal.

960 (23K) – 96% silver content.
  A soft and flexible alloy for creating highly artistic creations and filigree. Jewelry made from 960 standard is not suitable for everyday wear.

Silverware, coins and candlesticks

925 (22K) – standard standard in Ukraine.
The alloy is also known as Sterling Silver. The remaining 7.5% is copper and sometimes nickel. • 875 (21K) – used for making cutlery or figurines.

A more durable alloy, but the color is slightly yellow and less shiny than products made from 925 standard .
And due to the higher copper content, it turns black faster. • 830 (20K) – used for the manufacture of decorative jewelry and parts.
800 (19K), 750 – low-grade alloy has a yellowish tint; over time, devices made from it do not lose their shape.

Also called Coin Silver, since silver is used for minting coins.

Alloys below 720 are considered low-grade and have a bright reddish tint due to the high copper content.
  Thimbles or sewing needles are made from such hard metals.

Ring with 925 sterling silver enamel - a stylish combination of classics and modern trends

Why does silver turn black: how the precious metal deteriorates

The lower the silver standard , the more copper in the alloy. And the faster the ring or chain turns black due to contact with air. And iodine and chlorine react with them even at room temperature.

Therefore, jewelry made of lunar metal is stored in closed caskets and boxes without access to light. If you place an activated carbon tablet next to your ring or earrings, it will absorb excess moisture.

To ensure your accessories retain their shine and color longer, do not store silver in the bathroom or near cosmetics, perfumes or medications.

But sometimes jewelers turn the lack of metal into an advantage. Silver jewelry is oxidized by adding sulfur, or blackened by oxidizing with air. The result is stylish “antique” products.

New alloys with master alloys that resist blackening are well under development. It is difficult to oxidize such products even on purpose. Proper storage of silver items and even the climate of the city or country are of great importance If you put a bank bullion in a box and a safe in Kyiv, there will be no changes to it for years, but if you put it on a windowsill in Odessa, it will turn black due to the sun and a mixture of sulfur in the air, salt and iodine.


Jewelers turn the lack of metal into the highlight of silver jewelry, creating blackened jewelry

Why is silver plated with rhodium?

Rhodium is a precious metal with highly reflective properties.
  It is used to coat silver jewelry using the galvanic bath method to make the items shine and retain their color longer. A thin layer of rhodium protects products from scratches and chemical influences from cosmetics, medications or household chemicals. The procedure is repeated every few years, since the coating tends to wear off if the jewelry is worn every day.

Rhodium-plated jewelry has a glossy shine and better wear resistance

How to distinguish white gold from silver

Rhodium-plated silver and white gold cannot be visually distinguished from each other. But there are some tips on how the properties of two popular metals manifest themselves differently.

  1. Silver without rhodium plating has a matte surface, gold has a slightly yellowish texture. But if both jewelry is plated with rhodium, you can only notice a noticeable difference in certain lighting.
  2. Argentum tarnishes more quickly when exposed to air and sweat than gold alloy.
  3. Gold and silver jewelry have different imprints on the surface.
  4. For the same volume of products, silver weighs less than gold.
  5. The price of white gold is many times higher than that of silver jewelry .

You should not check at home how silver differs from white gold .
  Experimenting with vinegar, iodine, acids or chlorine can harm jewelry made from both precious metals. And sometimes even a specialist is unable to restore the appearance of jewelry after a home analysis. Both white gold and silver can become discolored or warped.

With proper care and storage, silver retains its impeccable shine for years. Read more about this in the jewelry magazine “Ukrzoloto” . Save the article about silver samples in your bookmarks to choose only high-quality jewelry for yourself and as a gift.

Source: https://ukrzoloto.ua/blog/kakie-byvayut-proby-serebra/

History, systems and types of samples of silver and gold

The hallmark of gold and silver is a special mark that helps determine the amount of precious metal in the alloy. It is noteworthy that initially in Rus' only silver was hallmarked, but at the beginning of the 18th century gold was also hallmarked. There are several hallmark systems; previously, a special mark was placed on silver or gold. It contained information not only about the amount of precious metal in the ligature, but also about the craftsman who made the jewelry.

Ring test

A little history

Gold and silver have always been in demand; these metals were expensive and were used not only for making jewelry, but also for minting coins. Initially, the mark was invented as a way of protection against fraudsters who masterfully counterfeited coins.

For this reason, the first samples appeared on silver, and not on gold, since this metal was used for minting coins. Later, gold was also branded; this happened around 1700. At the same time, the marking did not contain any additional information; it only indicated that the metal complied with the standard. But what can be considered a standard was not specified. But still, the appearance of the hallmark helped reduce the number of counterfeit coins.

Later the standard was replaced. Special marks began to be applied to jewelry, which could tell about the amount of precious metal in the product, the maker and the weight of the jewelry. This helped determine the quality of jewelry, their specific weight and increase the prestige of some jewelers.

This system did not last long and was later replaced again. Now the state controlled the quality of jewelry, coins and other products made of gold and silver. The stamp had an image of a girl in a kokoshnik, and a carat sample was also applied to the surface of the jewelry.

Structure of the hallmark

The carat system was replaced by the metric system, this happened in 1927, it was then that the Soviet authorities decided to change the image of the girl in the kokoshnik. Instead of a girl’s profile, an image of a male collective farmer appeared, and then a hammer and sickle began to be applied to the products. Naturally, after the collapse of the USSR, a decision was made to change the stigma.

Today, on the surface of the jewelry you can again see the profile of a girl in a kokoshnik and the corresponding metrics. The numbers will tell you about the amount of precious metal in the ligature, and the girl’s profile acts as a guarantor of quality.

According to the legislation of our country, markings should be applied to all products that contain at least 30% precious metal. Everything else is impurities that can change the properties of gold and silver, making the alloy more suitable for the jewelry industry.

The mark is placed not only on silver and gold, it can be found on products made from the following metals:

All other metals are not classified as precious; for this reason, markings are not placed on their surface.

Mark on precious metals

Sample is a guarantee of quality and at the same time an indicator of the quantity of exactly how much precious metal is contained in the alloy. As a rule, jewelry and other products are not made from pure metal; impurities are added to it - other substances that change the characteristics of silver or gold.

If we talk about pure Au, then this element, despite all its positive qualities, is distinguished by its high weight, softness and tendency to scratches. For this reason, jewelry is made from ligature, diluting gold with other metals; The alloy may contain the following elements: silver, copper, nickel, platinum, etc.

The alloy takes on the characteristics not only of Au, but also of other elements. As a result, the alloy has the following properties: durable, easy to forge and melt, and oxidizes upon contact with water and air. The less gold contained in the alloy, the faster it oxidizes when in contact with water and air.

The mark indicates not only the quality of the product, but also its value. Today in the store you can find jewelry with the following markings:

In products 375, the marking indicates that the alloy contains no more than 38% Au. Such products are not highly durable, they quickly darken upon contact with water and air, and do not tolerate interaction with reagents. Jewelry with a similar mark can have a classic yellow color, as well as a red tint if the alloy contains copper.

585 is the most popular gold standard in Russia. It is noteworthy that it appeared in the USSR. But previously there was a 583 marking, which was changed to 585 when it was considered that jewelry with the same mark would be poorly valued abroad.

The alloy marked 585 contains about 59% Au; such jewelry is characterized by good resistance to environmental factors and good strength. Jewelry can have a pleasant yellow or even white tint if platinum is present in the ligature.

750 marking indicates that the ligature contains from 72 to 78% gold. This test is only used on premium jewelry; they are not accessible and can have a green, yellow, white, or even red tint. The products are resistant to environmental factors, reagents and high temperatures. They oxidize slowly and retain color and shine for a long time.

958 standard is rarely used for making jewelry. The fact is that the cost of products with such markings is very high. Jewelry is produced to order; they differ not only in price, but also in their rather heavy weight. The properties of gold do not allow the creation of openwork weaves from the alloy; for this reason, jewelry with such a mark is not distinguished by its elegance. The alloy contains at least 96% Au.

There is also a 999 standard, which is used for pure gold, which contains practically no impurities. You won’t be able to find alloy products with such markings in a boutique or store. In the old days, wedding rings were made from pure gold. In most cases, the metal marked 999 is made into ingots.

What types of precious metals are there?

Pure silver is also rarely used in the jewelry industry; the following samples are considered the most popular:

The 875 mark is placed on those products that are not of high quality. The ligature contains no more than 88% silver. Products with such a hallmark are used in medicine, and the mark is also placed on cutlery and jewelry that are not very expensive.

Jewelry made from 916 silver has good characteristics, but in order to increase the wear resistance of the products, they are often coated with enamel. The latter can also be gilding. High-end cutlery is also made from silver with this marking.

925 silver is an alloy of it and copper. The alloy contains about 7.5% copper, and the rest is silver. The ligature has good characteristics and is ideal for the production of jewelry. Metal cutlery with such a mark is rarely made.

Silver marked with three nines is considered pure and contains no impurities. This metal is practically not used in the jewelry industry; ingots are made from it.

Platinum is highly durable and is used not only for making expensive and luxurious jewelry.

The following markings are placed on platinum:

Platinum marked 585 is white gold. The composition of the alloy, in addition to two noble metals, includes impurities. Ligature is used in the jewelry industry.

Jewelry marked 850 contains various impurities; platinum is diluted with tungsten, copper and iridium. In percentage terms, the amount of platinum does not exceed 85.

Jewelry that is marked 900 is not distinguished by its bright shine and chic appearance. Among platinum lovers, products of this standard are considered budget. Finding them in the store will not be difficult.

As for 950, it is loved by jewelers because it is ideal for creating luxury jewelry. Such jewelry is encrusted with diamonds or other stones; they are not affordable.

Bankers are only interested in platinum marked 999; bars are made from this metal. Money is invested in them.

Sample systems existing in the world

Our country has adopted the metric system and has been using it since 1927. The spool system is considered obsolete today. It operated in Russia until 1927, for this reason you can only encounter such a stigma if you have old jewelry in your box. To recalculate the sample and convert it to metric, you need to divide the number that appears on the product by 96, and then multiply the result by 100. But in other countries, different markings are placed on precious metals.

What mark can be found on jewelry from another country?

  • If a piece of jewelry shows a large letter K, it means that its value is determined in the karat system. The system is widely used in Canada and the USA. The mark with the letter K is only placed on gold; the metric system is used to measure the value of silver items. If the jewelry is stamped 24K, it means the gold is 999 fine. A product marked 14K corresponds to a piece of jewelry marked 585.
  • The lot system operated in Germany; such markings were placed on silver until 1888. To understand a little about the cost of jewelry, you can convert the lot standard to metric by dividing the number on the jewelry by 16, and then multiplying the result by 100. The standard is considered outdated.

When studying jewelry, you may come across various markings; in Holland, for example, all products that contain at least a minimal content of noble metal are branded. And jewelry from Turkey may not have a mark at all.

Source: https://DedPodaril.com/zoloto/klejma/proba-zolota-i-serebra.html

What are the hallmarks of gold in Russia?

The seventy-ninth element of the chemical table has attracted the attention of mankind since ancient times. Making life easier and increasing the status of its owner, gold has always been and remains the metal that everyone dreams of getting, as a guarantee of a happy and comfortable existence.

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Today, its use has gone far beyond jewelry and has found wide application in cosmetology, dentistry and other activities.

Taking into account the types of gold samples, the areas of use of the “solar” cell, the frequency of their use and the appearance of the manufactured goods also differ.

Why is metal diluted?

If gold were sold in its pure form, the demand for it would not be so high.

Why? Because in itself it does not have a bright appearance, but on the contrary, it is a rather soft material of muted color, which is very difficult and extremely inconvenient to use and process in jewelry.

In addition, without diluting the metal with other less noble elements, there is no need to talk about wear resistance, because this indicator of the quality of the product instantly drops by several points.

The appearance of pure gold is different from how we are used to seeing it.

In order to more easily and quickly understand what percentage of pure gold is present in the alloy, a special sampling system was invented and implemented. Using it, you can find out what types of gold there are, how they differ and what are the main advantages of each.

The color of gold affects the sample

Many people mistakenly believe that if a gold product has a non-standard shade, it means that the quality has been reduced and the purity here is the lowest possible. This line of thinking became widespread back in the USSR, when the 750th sample was only yellow, the 585th was red, and the 375th acquired a pink tint.

In fact, the color palette can have wide boundaries and be very different from what we imagine. This is dictated solely by what impurities were used to dilute the gold and does not at all affect the sample level. In some products, the presence of pure gold is sometimes indicated only by a slight tint, however, the quality does not suffer at all from this.

Among the impurities that are added to gold are copper, silver and several other elements in very small quantities. The beloved noble white shade of gold indicates the presence of palladium or nickel in the alloy.

The color of the alloy depends on the amount of impurities

What systems exist for indicating the purity of an alloy?

Until 1927, all samples of gold and silver in Russia were designated using a spool system. Its essence was that pure metal was marked with the number 96, and other alloys with impurities (ligature) had numbers below this value. The principle of its use was extremely simple - the higher the proportion of pure gold, the higher the standard.

Today, the Russian standard is determined through the metric system, according to which the pure amount of precious metal (grams) is determined by its presence in one kilogram of the alloy available.

It turns out that the 575th sample indicates the presence of 575 grams of aurum per 425 grams of impurity.

The karate system has gained popularity in Europe, the USA and Great Britain. You can find out the amount of gold in the alloy from the total carat indicator.

One carat is equal to 1/24 of gold.

Thus, 18 carats will contain 18 parts of the “solar” element and 8 parts of the ligature.

What is the consistency of samples between systems?

Often people encounter difficulty in recalculating or converting gold samples of interest from one designation system to another. A table was created specifically for this operation, which contains all the necessary information.

Russian sample metric Spool system European carats, K Pure metal, %
375 36 9 37,5
417 40 10 41,7
585 (583) 56 14 58,5 (58,3)
750 72 18 75
> 990 96 24 > 99

If there are non-standard samples, you can use a formula that will help you recalculate and find out what indicator in the Russian sample system the carat sample will correspond to.

For example, 19.2 carats, which are not so common, are translated as follows:

  • divide the number 19.2 by 24 (based on the digital value of the carat);
  • multiply the result obtained in the first step by 1000 (since the metric method reveals the proportion of gold in a kilogram);
  • get the answer.Total: (19.2/24) * 1000=800.

The higher the sample, the fewer impurities and the higher the price

Prominent representatives

Different countries have their own leaders in the gold market, which most people prefer due to color, quality or price.

Sample No. 585

This sample has achieved the widest recognition in Russia. It is curious that earlier, during the existence of the Union, jewelers produced the 583rd sample, which contained 0.02% less precious metal than its successor. The change in the standard occurred due to the fact that products manufactured abroad had higher quality and cost indicators. Not wanting to lag behind its neighbors, the state decided to slightly adjust the composition.

Today, the 585th sample includes, in addition to 59 percent gold, parts of copper, silver and palladium. Thanks to this set, the products are very durable and hard, do not change color or darken when exposed to air. Working with such metal is convenient and easy, which is why most of the products presented in stores belong to this sample.

Sample No. 565

It is the most used in the manufacture of rings. Thanks to the addition of various ligatures, it allows you to create masterpieces of different colors and shades, ranging from cold blue to soft pink. Inlay with a variety of precious and semi-precious stones makes each piece of jewelry unforgettable.

Sample No. 750

Another representative that is quite widespread in Russia. The high gold content (75%) and various “additives” provide an excellent color mix, in which you can find emerald and deep red, for confident and strong individuals. This alloy is durable and optimal to wear, but the price is quite high and is not suitable for every buyer.

Sample No. 958

This species can very rarely be found on counters and in jewelry workshops. This is due to difficulties with processing, because the percentage of gold reaches almost 96 units, which indicates the softness of the product.

When purchasing products of this quality, you should not rely on expressive characteristics, since, as mentioned earlier, gold itself has a very dull color and a high price. Taken together, all the evidence suggests that such a purchase is impractical, but in the case of an investment, it takes on the complete opposite meaning.

When purchasing gold items, you need to pay attention to the hallmark and hallmark

How to recognize a fake?

Frightening statistics warn that almost 40% of the gold market are elaborate fakes. There are two types of this product:

  • gold plated jewelry;
  • an alloy with insufficient precious metal content.

To avoid falling into the hands of scammers, you should use a few simple rules that will help you purchase the desired genuine product:

  1. Pay attention to the mark and the sample number itself. According to the state approval, the mark is applied to gold items in the shape of a spatula. In the center of the stamp there is a picture of a girl in a kokoshnik, and next to her there is a digital designation of quality.
  2. If the decoration is Soviet-style, then instead of a girl in the middle of the shoulder blade there will be a star with a hammer and sickle.
  3. In addition to the front side, carefully inspect the “wrong side”, which should also be smooth and free of chips, protrusions, inclusions and other defects.

Gold is an excellent guarantor of reliability and a guarantee of a prosperous life from ancient times to the present day.

That is why businessmen prefer to store their wealth in gold bars and bonds, rather than in paper funds, which depreciate in value at one moment, and the currency funds of each state and the level of inflation depend solely on the gold reserve.

Based on the information provided in this article, each buyer will be able to easily calculate the presence of gold in each existing piece of jewelry, evaluate its authenticity and, without the risk of getting caught with a fake, purchase the desired items. Pay attention to quality marks and choose only real gold.


Source: https://fintolk.ru/likbez/kakie-byvayut-proby-zolota-v-rossii.html

What types of gold are there: 999, 750, 585, 375 and others

Gold is a metal that is perfectly susceptible to all kinds of mechanical damage and corrosion. To preserve the original appearance of the precious metal, other impurities are constantly added to it, in the vast majority of cases metals that are more resistant to damage.

Ligatures are metals used to give gold greater strength. Most often, silver or copper is used as a ligature. Pure gold (without any impurities) is highly susceptible to deformation, very much like simple plasticine.

Existing gold samples in the world

Gold hallmarks are special marks imposed by regulatory government agencies around the world to guarantee the presence of gold in jewelry or other types of products.

In strict accordance with the current legislative framework, regulatory government agencies strictly monitor not only jewelry stores, but also all other institutions that are to some extent related to the sale of precious metal. Therefore, before asking a pawnshop for the price of one gram of gold, you should make sure whether the institution has all the necessary licenses and certificates.

Today, there are four existing sample systems, but the most popular are: metric, carat, spool and lot samples.

Spool sampling system

Until 1927 in Russia, and after that in the USSR, a spool system was used to designate the sample of precious metal. The key difference between such a standard and the karat system was the designation of pure precious metal through the number 96. All other gold products containing an admixture of other metals were designated by other, lower numbers.

Try Spool system British gold carats pure gold (%)
333 32 8K 33.33
375 36 9K 37.50
417 40 10K 41.67
500 48 12K 50.00
585 56 14K 58.33
625 60 15K 62.50
750 72 18K 75.00
792 76 19K 79.17
800 76.8 19.2K 80.00
833 81 20K 83.33
875 84 21K 87.50
917 88 22K 91.67
958 92 23K 95.80
990 (and above) 96 24K 99(and higher)

Carat sample system

Based on the British carat system, one carat (K) is equal to twenty-fourths of the alloy. A similar sampling system is common in Switzerland, the United States of America, Canada and Western European countries.

In Ireland, two standard systems are used equally: carat and metric. The noble metal of twenty-four carats (24K) is considered the purest. It is completely free of any other impurities.

Next comes 14-karat gold, which contains fourteen parts of the precious metal and ten parts of other metals.

Lot system of gold samples

A similar system existed in Germany until 1888 (before the use of the metric system). This type of gold hallmark is based on marks circulating in the Middle Ages among the Celtic, Scandinavian and Germanic populations of Britain. One stamp contained sixteen lots.

To convert a lot sample into a multiple, the lot system values ​​must be divided by two and then multiplied by three. In case of conversion to the metric system, the value of the lot sample must be divided by sixteen, and then multiplied by 1000.

Gold samples according to the metric system

In Russia it is now customary to use the metric system of samples. This system is characterized by ease of use. In other words, the metric system shows how many grams of noble metal are in one kilogram of the total alloy. For example, if one kilogram of alloy contains 415 grams of ligature and 585 grams of pure precious metal, then according to the metric system, this jewelry will have a 585 standard.

Russian jewelers in the vast majority of cases use the following samples:

  • 958;
  • 900;
  • 916;
  • 585;
  • 750;
  • 500;
  • 375.

Previously, the 583 standard of the precious metal was widely distributed, which, according to the metric system, corresponded to 14K. Then a proposal was adopted to slightly change the gold standard (due to the difference in the price of gold) from 583 to 585 samples, so that Russian gold jewelry would not be at all inferior in value (per gram) to Western samples.

Which sample should I buy?

Everyone in their life has visited a jewelry store at least once and bought gold jewelry. If it was not a purchase for yourself, then it was a gift to loved ones, relatives and friends. In order not to panic and get confused in jewelry stores, you need to imagine in advance: the cost of the desired product, its sample, shade and appearance.

Having clear ideas in this regard, the seller will not be able to be taken by surprise with the question “ten carat gold, what is the hallmark?”, if the store uses not the metric, but the carat standard system. You can always remember that ten carats equals 375 fineness.

You should never chase after more expensive gold jewelry, or dream of owning the noble metal with the highest purity (999).

It is not for nothing that for more than a decade, people have given their preference to 585 standard, which has proven itself in matters of strength and long-term use.

Products with 999 fineness, although they have the highest level of gold content, are characterized by a high degree of deformation and can become soft. Such products are short-lived and are not suitable for constant use.

Legislative regulation: conclusion

In the Russian Federation, the content of precious metal in jewelry or another type of alloy is controlled by state regulatory services, guided by the decree of the Russian Government of June 18, 1999 - “On the procedure for testing and marking products made of precious metals.”

If gold was mined on the territory of the Russian Federation or intended for import, then it must have a Russian hallmark and a state hallmark. Specialists from the Federal Assay Center monitor the compliance of the gold composition indicated in the sample, as well as its actual presence.

Responsible for quality control of precious metals in the Russian Federation is the Assay Office, which is an integral part of the Ministry of Finance. The brand has its own distinctive designations. The Russian stamp depicts a woman wearing a kokoshnik.

In addition to the state stamp, jewelry made from precious metals can be marked with a name tag. This is a factory mark that confirms the presence of the name of the manufacturer. The name plate also indicates information such as the year the alloy was created and the first letter of the state inspection code.

Coin catalog

All existing coins can be found in our database using a convenient search.

Source: https://xn----8sbebdgd0blkrk1oe.xn--p1ai/dragmet/proby-zolota-kakie-oni-byvayut.html

What standard is gold - what do the numbers on the product’s mark mean, how to choose the best

Tell VKontakte in Odnoklassniki

Beauty will save the world! This phrase fits perfectly when discussing jewelry made from precious metals and stones. Using these expensive components, a real jeweler is able to create an alloy in any proportions.

But after making jewelry from such an alloy, it is difficult to evaluate it and compare it with other similar jewelry.

For these purposes, in the 17th century, jewelers began to use special criteria for jewelry, such as gold samples, which made it possible to identify products by the content of precious metal, the presence of additions of other elements, and color.

What are gold hallmarks?

The ratio of base metals in the alloy determines its quality indicator. These metals include gold (aurum), silver (argentum), copper (cuprum). The legislation of the Russian Federation establishes the mandatory marking of any alloys based on precious metals.

An imprint is made on the jewelry indicating the quality of the alloy. This impression is called a hallmark or stamp. Historically, marks in different countries of the world corresponded to the weight standards used.

The metric system indicates parts of 99.99% pure gold in 1000 parts of the alloy.

Assay marks of Russia and foreign countries

From the mid-17th century in Rus', the use of a double-headed eagle began to be used for branding gold and silver items. pure gold during this period was 83–85%, which corresponded to the purity of imported gold coins, thalers or efimkas, from which jewelry was made. The hallmarking of gold objects in Rus' was legalized by a royal decree under Peter the Great in 1700. In Russia, the 56th sample is most widespread, which corresponds to the modern 585.

During this period, city coats of arms and the number of spools in a ligature pound were used for branding. Since 1899, a woman’s face in a kokoshnik has been used for branding, which in 1927 was replaced by the profile of a worker with a hammer, and since 1957, a hammer and sickle against the background of a five-pointed star. In Asian countries, hieroglyphs were used for branding. In Europe - coats of arms of countries and cities indicating the fineness in carats. The type of mark designation should not differ greatly for different manufacturers.

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What types of gold are there?

In life, we come across jewelry made from this “despicable” metal (earrings, chains, rings) of different colors. Additional inclusions of other metals in the precious alloy are called ligatures.

Objects, depending on the alloy content in the alloy, acquire green, red, orange, yellow, platinum and white color. The main contents of the alloy are silver, copper, platinum (palladium), zinc. In white base alloys, nickel is used instead of platinum.

It is important for the buyer to know what standard gold is before going to a jewelry store.

999 sample

The highest quality score is 999. This alloy contains 0.01% impurities. It is practically pure gold. This alloy is not used for making jewelry because it is subject to deformation and has a dull yellow color. This alloy is used to create bank bars of various weights for sale to investors who want to save money or make money on the rise in the value of precious metals.

At all times, precious metal has always been in price. During periods of financial crises, the demand for it and other precious metals rises sharply. Their quotes on all world exchanges are the main economic indicators. Bank bullion is sold by all banks in the world and included in the deposit portfolios of large and small investors, and jewelry has always given women the opportunity to look rich and beautiful.

925 sample

Objects not only made of gold, but also of silver are subject to branding. If the product is marked 925, this means that this is high quality silver jewelry. The amount of pure silver in it is 92.5%. Germanium and cadmium are used as ligatures along with silver to maintain the original shine and prevent the jewelry from darkening over time. These additives were used by ancient masters and give a magnificent appearance to silver masterpieces.

875 sample

The 875 mark on the jewelry indicates a maximum percentage of silver of 87.5%. Items made from this metal are popular. They always tried to fake it. Possible replacement options for silver include alloys of lead, aluminum, and zinc.

To give a silver shine, fakes are coated with pure silver. When purchasing jewelry made from precious metals, pay attention to the presence of the hallmark number on all parts of the pendant, chain or ring.

Jewelry should be sold in a store only if it has a seal with the manufacturer's passport attached.

750 sample

To make it easier to understand what gold hallmark means, you should mentally break the product into 1000 parts or shares. The numbers 750 mean that this product contains 750 parts of pure precious metal.

This is the highest standard of gold in jewelry used in industry. 75% gold combined with copper gives objects made from this alloy a characteristic reddish tint.

18K alloy is widely used to create jewelry in Asian countries, it is used to create gold plating for men's and women's accessories.

585 sample

The most common gold standard on an industrial scale is 585. The pure gold content in this alloy is 58.5%. The ligature in it is divided in the ratio of silver to copper, as 1 to 4.3. This is an experimentally established ratio of the volume of gold and additives.

Jewelry with the 585 mark has a beautiful color and shine. In our country, pendants, chains, rings, earrings, brooches and bracelets are made from this alloy. To reduce the likelihood of counterfeiting, items made from this alloy are stamped 5S5 using the electric spark or laser method.

It is more difficult to fake than a simple print.

583 sample

In the first years of Soviet Power after 1927, the mark 583 was used (see photo below). This is the gold standard of the Soviet Union. Most of the rings and earrings we inherited from our parents are of this quality.

In the post-war period, 14-karat gold was widely used in Europe. If 14 is divided by 24 and multiplied by 1000, the result is 583. A large number of wedding rings, jewelry with diamonds, rubies, sapphires and semi-precious stones are made from this alloy.

In 2000, the 585 stamp became the Russian standard.

500 sample

If the content of yellow metal and alloy is equal, the sample becomes equal to 500. For industrial purposes, this standard is not used, but in production by private craftsmen this high-quality alloy composition is used. Jewelry made from it with an original design or with a special theme receives the opportunity to be fully appreciated. Abroad, brooches, cufflinks, and cigarette cases are made from 500-quality alloy.

385 sample

Gold jewelry with a quality index of 385 contains more than half of its volume of additional materials. With an increased copper content, jewelry acquires a reddish tint. Silver in the alloy gives products a whitish or even light white color.

For the purpose of making jewelry, alloys with good malleability and low melting points are used. This temperature for aurum is 1080 degrees Celsius, for silver - 1550, for platinum - 1780.

To reduce the melting point, zinc is used in the alloy.

375 sample

The cheapest quality alloy for making gold jewelry is 375. The large amount of copper and silver in it leads to rapid oxidation and the appearance of dark spots. If there are small parts, it is difficult to restore the original appearance.

This alloy is inexpensive and makes it possible to produce mass-produced cheap jewelry. As long as jewelry production has existed, there have been organizations involved in standardization, accounting and control over the circulation of precious metals.

In the Russian Federation, this is done by the Assay Chamber of Russia.

Gold samples in the USSR

In the USSR, for the manufacture of jewelry and ritual products and semi-finished products from precious metals, GOST 30649-99 was used, which established the following types of gold samples:

Try Gold, % Silver, % Platinum, %
1 375 37,5 10 – 25 4
2 500 50,0 10
3 585 58,5 19 – 29 10
4 750 75,0 10 – 24 14
5 958 95,8 2
6 999,9 99,99

What are the hallmarks of gold with letters?

The old masters did not issue certificates to their masterpieces. To distinguish jewelry items, a convex marking was made with a company monogram or designation of who and where the jewelry was made.

Some jewelers add additional hallmarks to the gold to make their products stand out from the crowd. This sign is called a “name sign”. It is placed next to the brand and consists of 4 letters. The first letter indicates the year of manufacture.

The second letter will indicate the place where the products were tested in accordance with the catalogue. The last 2 letters contain the name of the manufacturer.

Which standard of gold is better

Comparing the price and appearance of jewelry, 585 standard has become widespread in European countries. Jewelry made from it retains its original appearance for a long time. The cost of such goods is lower than products made from 22 and 24 carat aurum of Arab sheikhs.

Taking into account the use of zinc, the melting point is low. The mark on gold items is made in areas that are invisible during use - inside rings, on the clasps of chains and earrings.

Nowadays, jewelry made by Italian craftsmen is considered the most exquisite and elite.

The most expensive gold sample

The highest quality in jewelry in the metric system is pure gold with a purity of 99.99%. Chemically pure, 24-karat gold is widely used in Arab countries.

In the jewelry markets of Dubai you can see jewelry of huge sizes and bright yellow color. There is a historical explanation for this. The history of industry in these countries is more modest than in Europe. 50 years ago, in their place there was a desert, with Bedouins wandering through it.

Jewelry was made by hand, and its size was supposed to confirm the wealth of its owners.

Gold in products (grade and color)

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Source: https://sovets.net/12527-proby-zolota.html

Silver samples: which metal is used for jewelry and which for tableware

Silver is a metal that is little susceptible to oxidation and corrosion. That is why it is a popular material for making jewelry, dishes and other products. But the material has high ductility and low hardness. Therefore, in most cases it is used in the form of alloys. Silver samples are important information about the metal content of an alloy.

Alloys and assay

There are several testing systems. In Russia, the metric notation system has been adopted. It is accepted in countries such as Germany and France, the CIS countries and those countries that have signed the Convention on the Control and Hallmarking of Precious Metals.

It is worth noting that this system is the most accurate, since it gives a clear percentage of the precious metal and alloying additives in the product. By definition, fineness is the amount of pure silver in an item per 1000 grams. For example: a product with hallmark number 800 contains 800 grams of silver and 200 grams of other metals. Hallmark is also called a hallmark on a silver item.

The main additional metals in silver products are copper, nickel, aluminum and zinc. There are alloys with other components. Copper gives a characteristic yellow tint to the product, and a large number of other impurities can cause the product to be susceptible to corrosion and oxidation.

At the same time, impurities make it possible to better achieve the required physical characteristics for a particular product. Alloys with different percentages of silver and other metals are used in different areas of production.

Properties depending on impurities

The table of silver samples shows the properties and main characteristics of the alloys that are used most often.

Try Compound, % Advantages Flaws Scope of application
Silver Dopants
999 99,9 0,01 High ductility Easy to bend or break, oxidizes and darkens Bullions and collectible coins
960 96,0 4,0 Does not oxidize in air Quickly loses attractiveness Jewelry
925 92,5 7,5 Retains its shape well and allows for filigree work, beautiful white shade Softness Jewelry
916 91,6 8,4 Does not oxidize in air Loses its appearance quickly Jewelry, cutlery covered with enamel
875 87,5 12,5 Increased strength Inability to perform fine jewelry work Household silver, cutlery, economy class jewelry
830 83,0 17,0 High strength and casting qualities Easily oxidizes and darkens, has a yellow tint Dishes
800 80,0 20,0 High strength and casting qualities Rapid oxidation and yellowish tint Cutlery, household items
777 77,7 12,3 High hardness, strength and ductility; rich color and pleasant shine Not in any sample standard Jewelry industry

Precious metals include silver with hallmarks:

  • Ag 999;
  • Ag 960;
  • Ag 925;
  • Ag 916;
  • Ag 875;
  • Ag 830;
  • Ag 800.

Alloys with a purity lower than 800 are in most cases not marked and are not considered jewelry metal. Nevertheless, such products are found on the Russian market.

Extended Feature

Based on the brief data presented in the table, it is easy to conclude that a product of the highest quality and most expensive does not at all mean that it contains the greatest amount of pure metal.

To understand which silver sample is the best , you need to understand the characteristics of the samples and determine the purpose of using the material: jewelry, cutlery, dishes or other product.

Sample 999. Silver of the highest standard. It contains only 0.01% impurities, from which it is almost impossible to clean the metal. Pure silver is highly susceptible to deformation, so jewelry and other products are not made from it.

The scope of application of such material is very narrow. It is mainly used for the manufacture of solders and some parts of various types of devices. Also found in the form of ingots or souvenir collectibles.

Sample 960. High quality silver with a high content of pure metal. Rarely used in the jewelry industry due to its soft structure. This product is easy to scratch, so manufacturers cover it with enamel. The main advantage of the material is the ability to create highly artistic works from it. In addition to jewelry, silver of this standard is used in the production of decorative elements.

Sample 925 . The most common hallmark among jewelry. The relatively small amount of copper (7.5%) makes silver strong enough while remaining malleable to create a wide variety of shapes. Copper does not change the natural white color and shine of silver. Thus, the products are beautiful and durable, and therefore of proper quality.

Sample 916 . Previously, the alloy with 91.6% silver was widely used in the jewelry industry. Nowadays they use 925 sterling silver instead, which is of a higher quality. Silver of this standard was also used to make dishes and cutlery. The material is quite wear-resistant and durable, but quickly loses its visual appeal, which is why it becomes necessary to coat it with enamel.

Sample 875 . The silver product of this sample contains a fairly large amount of impurities (12.5%). Since copper in such quantities does not give a yellow tint, the alloy is excellent for the production of dishes and cutlery. Jewelry made from such material looks cheap; it is not possible to perform delicate artistic work, since the material is hard to work with.

Sample 830. Jewelry quickly loses its visual appeal and oxidizes. Characteristic yellow tint. This type of silver is used primarily for the production of tableware.

Sample 800 . The alloy has high strength, but the high copper content affects the color of silver - it acquires a pronounced yellow tint and quickly oxidizes. Used for the production of dishes and cutlery.

Sample 777 . A unique alloy that is credited with inventions in the field of jewelry production. It is not included in any hallmark standard, but the jewelry market is actively offering products made from 777 sterling silver. The peculiarity of the alloy is in its components:

  • silver 77.75;
  • platinum - 0.05−0.5;
  • gold - 0.05−0.5;
  • palladium - 0.1−1.0;
  • the rest is copper.

This material allows you to create jewelry of almost any complexity and combine various materials. Under certain conditions, the alloy is quite plastic and easily deformable. The impurities in the composition are selected in such a way that copper does not affect the noble white color of silver. Thus, the jewelry has high performance.

Sample 750 . Low quality silver, which is not always marked because it is not a precious metal. It quickly oxidizes and turns black, has a characteristic yellow tint. Used in radio electronics for the manufacture of circuit boards or other parts.

Many countries have their own types of samples that are not included in the world system. For example, in Europe, an alloy containing 935 is quite common. It should also be noted that silver itself is part of gold jewelry alloys. For example, it is present in gold 525 and 325. Some sources also mention completely exotic percentages of silver: 923, 975, 910, 225, 492. However, in ordinary life it is almost impossible to find such alloys.

Types of silver

metal in alloys does not exhaust the information about what kind of silver there is. There are a number of historically established names that describe characteristic types of alloys used by people since ancient times.

The following types are distinguished:

  • coin;
  • sterling;
  • filigree;
  • matte;
  • leaf;
  • blackened.

Coinage, as the name suggests, is used for minting coins.

Sterling. The name comes from the word “sterling”, since in the history of Great Britain, before the advent of the euro, pounds sterling were minted from 925 standard metal.

Filigree. A high-strength alloy that is used by jewelry craftsmen to produce masterpieces. Sometimes products have elements thinner than a human hair.

Matte. This material is characterized by high strength and a noble appearance without natural shine. It is removed using a special technology, which is based on the operating principle of a sandblasting machine, and processing in solutions.

Leaf. It is a thin silver sheet. Since it is perfectly compatible with other materials, it is actively used in interior design (in most cases, churches), covering stucco molding and furniture, performing not only an aesthetic function, but also a protective one.

Blackened. Processed with lead, copper and sulfur to create black designs on silver items.

Source: https://zolotogid.ru/metally/proby-serebra/

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